Top PDF Carbon mitigation potential of different forest ecosystems under climate change and various managements in Italy

Carbon mitigation potential of different forest ecosystems under climate change and various managements in Italy

Carbon mitigation potential of different forest ecosystems under climate change and various managements in Italy

3 Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest Systems, DIBAF, University of Tuscia, Viterbo 01100 Italy 4 Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Forestry Research Centre (CREA-SEL), Arezzo 52100 Italy Abstract. This study reviews carbon stocks and carbon dynamics in different types of forest land in Italy: ordinary managed forests, forest plantations, old growth forests, and trees outside forests. Forest management, combined with global environmental changes, increases the capacity of carbon uptake of ordinary managed forests. Forest plantations, particularly the ones subject to short-rotation forestry systems, potentially have high soil carbon accumulation, especially in agricultural lands. Old growth forests, recently discovered as a carbon sink, cover a significant surface area in Italy. Moreover, the trees outside forests may represent a sensible carbon stock, especially in the context of urban environments. Our study points out the management actions that can be implemented in Italy to increase the carbon stocks of different forest ecosystems, such as increasing the mean annual increment in managed forests, enhancement of the national network of old growth forests, and expansion of forest plantations in suitable areas. These aspects have important implications after the recent recognition of the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector in the EU target within the 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework.
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Quantifying the effectiveness of climate change mitigation through forest plantations and carbon sequestration with an integrated land-use model

Quantifying the effectiveness of climate change mitigation through forest plantations and carbon sequestration with an integrated land-use model

the establishment of the plantations. Moreover, not much agricultural land will likely be abandoned in coming dec- ades due to the current and projected agricultural pres- sure. The limited potential in coming decades is in line with findings of Marland & Schlamadinger [25], who showed that the sequestration potential in forests estab- lished since 1990 is mainly relevant in the long term. As such, we do not confirm the suggestion of Kirschbaum [26] that plantations may help to buy some time in initi- ating emission reductions already in the next few decades. The limited role of plantations in the coming decades might be caused by our assumptions that C plantations can only be established after 2000. Various other studies report afforestation activities in different locations around the world, even before 2000. Brown [27] and FAO [28], for example, reported that globally 124 Mha and 187 Mha forest plantations have been established up to 1995 and 2000, respectively. More than 90% of these plantations have been established in 30 countries only, mainly in such Asian countries as China (45 Mha), India (32 Mha), and Japan (11 Mha). Furthermore, various studies report existing afforestation activities, but seldom account for deforestation in the same region (the so-called leakage effect). This has also been shown by others (e.g. [29]) by estimating an annual afforestation rate in the tropics of 2.6 Mha yr -1 throughout the 1980s, but at the same time a
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Carbon Sock of Gambella National Park: Implication for Climate Change Mitigation

Carbon Sock of Gambella National Park: Implication for Climate Change Mitigation

There are multipurpose trees species identified in the National Park such as Vittelaria paradoxa (Wado-Anguwak) and Cordia africana common in the Gilo sub basin. They have high potential for production of oil and as the result these species have to be conserved and developed to be researched for further utilization and conservation purposes in sustainable manner. They have been cleared for various investment and only few scattered woodland and savannah grasslands are dominant (PACT Ethiopia, 2012). It is conclude that in the study area the tree species have higher diameter and number than they have potential of store more carbon. The present carbon stock study in Gambella National Park covered an estimate of the biomass and carbon density in forest ecosystem components (vegetation, litter, dead wood and soil) and the variation of carbon stock between forest stratums in each carbon pool were done. This is helpful for providing relevant information and understanding the patterns of carbon stock between forest stratums of a representative tropical deciduous Guineo-Congolian species. According to Houghton [2001], the forest of the National Park has a large potential for temporary and long term carbon storage. In the forest ecosystems, greater carbon is stored in a large, long-lived species and in species with dense wood. The species such as Grewia mollis , Diospyros abyssinmca, Celtis toka, Crateva adansonii, Vittelaria paradoxa, Combretum adenogonium, Terminalia macroptera were contributed for the large amounts of biomass and carbon stocks while the least tree species were Sarcocephalus latifolius , Ficus sycomoros, Cordia gharaf, Diospyros mespiliformis, Olyra latifolia had less contribution. This unequal contribution of species to carbon stock of the forest site is could probably be due to the density, age and size difference among species.
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On the contribution of forest bioenergy to climate change mitigation

On the contribution of forest bioenergy to climate change mitigation

Conceptual landscapes are, however, simplifications of real landscapes, which generally have an unequal distribution of age classes and stands of different sizes. Real landscape studies could present a variety of forest managements to support bioenergy systems with different climate impacts that depend on factors such as forest age class distribution, interrelations among forest products (Hudiburg et al., 2011; Lundmark et al., 2014; Melin et al., 2010), and also market effects (Abt et al., 2012; Nepal et al., 2012; Sedjo & Tian, 2012). Researchers who focus on market mechanisms argue that a higher demand for forest-based fuel could affect the interrelations among forest product outputs in the short term, but could also motivate forest- owners to expand forest areas (or decide not to convert their forests into other land use, e.g., pasture production) or to change towards more intensive forest managements in order to increase forest production in the long run (Miner et al., 2014). Another type of studies present results from real landscapes at the regional/national level, comparing potential forest supply with future demand for bioenergy and evaluating the trade-offs among carbon sinks and sources in analyzing the mitigation potential of the national forest (Kallio et al., 2016; Lobianco et al., 2016).
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Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems as a Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

Carbon Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems as a Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

Under Kyoto, forestry activities that sequester carbon can be used to create CO 2 offset credits that could obviate the need for lifestyle-changing reductions in fossil fuel use. Credits are earned by storing carbon in forest ecosystems and wood products, although CO 2 emissions are also mitigated by delaying deforestation, which accounts for one-quarter of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. Non-permanent carbon offsets from forest activities are difficult to compare with each other and with mitigation strategies because they differ in how long they prevent CO 2 from entering the atmosphere. In this paper, we investigate issues of carbon sequestration in detail, but in particular we expand in comprehensive fashion on earlier work comparing carbon mitigation activities according to how long they can lower atmospheric CO 2 levels. The duration problem is modeled theoretically. Meta-regression analysis with 1047 observations from 68 studies is then used to determine whether the duration problem leads to inconclusive results between carbon- uptake costs and carbon sequestration. In addition, from the regression analysis, it is possible to estimate potential costs of carbon uptake via forestry activities for various scenarios. It turns out that forestry activities are competitive with emissions reduction in tropical regions and, perhaps, in boreal regions, but certainly not in Europe.
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The potential of carbon sequestration to mitigate against climate change in forests and agro ecosystems of Zimbabwe

The potential of carbon sequestration to mitigate against climate change in forests and agro ecosystems of Zimbabwe

Forest plantations are either exotic or indigenous forest stands artificially established covering a minimum area of 0.5 ha, with a tree crown cover of at least 10% and total height of mature trees above five metres (FAO, 2001). Conifer and broadleaf tree plantation species have different strategies for belowground allocation of assimilated C (Guo & Gifford, 2002). The storage of C in forest soils is also affected by site quality and land use practice (Lal, 1997). Furthermore, native and exotic trees are able to sequester and stabilise C from the atmosphere and potentially contribute to counteracting the greenhouse effect. Preferably, fast growing trees are recommended as excellent options for mitigating CO2 emissions through soil and biomass C sequestration (Montagnini & Porras, 1998). Planting the fast growing exotic tree species substitutes requirements for various indigenous wood requirements and can facilitate the regeneration of native species. In addition, trees protect soil by means of the litter layer and leaf canopy, thereby decreasing runoff and erosion and increasing water infiltration rates. There is also a reduction of soil temperatures and improved water holding capacity under the tree canopy (Sanchez et al., 1997). Root activities and organic matter inputs improve soil structure (Gardner et al., 1999).
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The Carbon Sinks and Mitigation Potential of Deodar (Cedrus deodara) Forest Ecosystem at Different Altitude in Kumrat Valley, Pakistan

The Carbon Sinks and Mitigation Potential of Deodar (Cedrus deodara) Forest Ecosystem at Different Altitude in Kumrat Valley, Pakistan

The increased emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) since the industrial revolu- tion significantly influenced the global environment. The growing concern of environmental changes because of climate change, the problem of carbon bal- ance, the major GHG, is important and the removal of carbon and their storage in different terrestrial ecosystems for cutting down the increased level of carbon dioxide are required (Ardo & Olsson, 2004). Forests are the major component of the carbon cycle and the global distribution of carbon in forests plays an important role in the carbon cycle (Zhang et al., 2013). Forests are extremely important in balancing of the carbon cycle by absorbing 2.9 ± 0.8 PgC each year (Le Quere et al., 2009; Calfapietra et al., 2015). Forests cover over 4 billion ha area of Earth Planet and the recent estimate of store carbon in world forest is 861 ± 66 PgC (Pan et al., 2011; Wani et al., 2014, 2015). However, other estimated carbon indicates that store carbon is in the range of 450 - 650 Pg in biomass and 1500 - 2400 Pg in soil and dead organic matter (Batjes, 1996; Prentice et al., 2001; IPCC, 2013).
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Soil aridity under climate change and implications for agriculture in Italy

Soil aridity under climate change and implications for agriculture in Italy

gradient, being much more evident in the northern regions than in the southern ones. An Italian example of gradual drying up, is found in Sardinia and Friuli Venezia Giulia. In the second 30-year period (1981-2010), Sardinia, whose initial conditions (between 1951-1980) were not so critical (AI = 0.62; P = 870 mm), recorded a shift in AI equal to -22.3% which places the region below the threshold discriminating arid areas (AI = 0,48). In Sardinia rainfall has decreased by 42% (P = 506 mm). In Friuli Venezia Giulia, AI fell -28.6% (from 1.82 to 1.30), while the rainfall decrease was -26.0% (from 1456 mm to 1080 mm). Although the latter case shows a more pronounced decrease in AI from rainfall decreases equal to those of Sardinia (about 370 mm/year), the climate conditions in the region are still favorable, especially if compared to other regions. A full geographical comparison for the two periods is shown in Figure 2. Both maps show that most of the national territory falls within a range of AI values higher than 0.65 and, consequently, its climate can be defined as “humid” or “hyper-humid” according to the empirical classification associated with the values of the aridity index. The critical drying up phenomenon, resulting from worsening climate conditions during 1981-2010, is show to have affected the southern regions and islands.
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Soil Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change and Land-Use Simulations and Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Steppe and Forest Ecosystems in Northern Mongolia

Soil Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change and Land-Use Simulations and Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Steppe and Forest Ecosystems in Northern Mongolia

The results of several comparisons suggest that soil moisture is a more important driving factor for biological processes in this semi-arid environment than temperature change or nutrient availability. First, ecosystem and soil respiration were lesser in OTCs across all comparisons, which were drier than control plots. The watering treatment negated the drying effect of OTCs on ecosystem and soil respiration in watered OTCs compared with non-watered OTCs, and caused an increase in ecosystem and soil respiration in control plots compared with non-watered control plots, although watering slightly decreased soil temperature (Brown & Archer, 1999). This result is consistent with previous studies where water addition resulted in increased ecosystem respiration (Niu et al. 2008), and soil respiration (Liu et al. 2009). Second, the upper slope had less ecosystem and soil respiration compared to the lower slope, although the upper slope is warmer and has greater total plant available nitrogen (21 g per 10 cm 2 ion exchange surface per day on the upper slope vs. 13 g per 10 cm 2 ion exchange surface per day on the lower slope; Liancourt et al. in press). Third, the seasonal average of ecosystem and soil respiration decreased over three summers (by 25-42%) as rainfall amount decreased and timing of rainfall shifted in 2010 and 2011. Likewise, a reduction in soil and
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Climate Change Mitigation Potential in South Africa: A National to Sectoral Analysis

Climate Change Mitigation Potential in South Africa: A National to Sectoral Analysis

7. Finally, the Kyoto Protocol agreement comes into force only when it is ratified by 55 nations including Annex B nations. The Cap and Trade arrangement has been made for achieving the ultimate objective of greenhouse gas mitigation at the least cost. Trading will take place on the account of differences in marginal costs and can ensure that abatement takes place where the marginal costs of abatement are minimum. But there can be trading also if though the marginal cost is the same, but still one firm simply does not want to invest in abatement technologies and hence wants to buy carbon credits. Similarly, even if the marginal cost is different, the firm with higher marginal abatement cost still might not want to trade as it is more interested in reducing the emissions by itself. These actions could be on account of high uncertainty over future carbon prices in the market. Various modeling approaches have been used for analyzing the implications global climate policy architecture and the carbon price trajectories. The country level studies are also diverse in terms of their aggregation details, behavioural and data assumptions, and endogenisation of economic effects, resulting in different abatemet costs for developing economies (Shukla, 1995).
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Agricultural climate change mitigation : Carbon calculators as a guide for decision making

Agricultural climate change mitigation : Carbon calculators as a guide for decision making

In part, this has been addressed through the development of a range of carbon calculators for use in carbon accounting (or carbon footprinting). This in itself, is not a new concept (it has often been associated with life cycle assessment investigations), and involves estimating GHG emissions over a pre-defined time period, often a products life cycle or, more commonly in agriculture, a production season or calendar year. At their simplest, these carbon calculators can be used to raise awareness of the important issues and sources of GHGs within a farm business (Kim & Neff, 2009; Lewis et al., 2013; Whittaker, McManus, & Smith, 2013); however, they can also be used as a basis for reporting emissions (e.g. to a purchaser further down the supply chain), or more importantly (in the context of this paper) to evaluate mitigation options (Whittaker et al., 2013). This requires producers to go beyond merely identifying their emissions, to identify potential mitigation activities, and make informed choices between them (Franks & Hadingham, 2012). This paper examines a number of the tools aimed at (in whole or part) the European dairy sector, in order to determine the extent to which they provide the sort of information likely to be of value in this sort of practical business decision making. In so doing, it considers whether the examined tools are suitable for inclusion within farm management procedures, or whether the information provided is of too general a nature to provide a basis for land and business management decision making, albeit that such systems may still have a role to play in informing users of the key issues more generally.
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Climate change mitigation survey of Queensland councils:
carbon footprint management

Climate change mitigation survey of Queensland councils: carbon footprint management

One’ (Sunshine Coast RC).  Toowoomba Regional Council used a ‘Custom designed (by staff)  suite  of  Excel  spreadsheets  from  2007/08  onwards’  to  assess  emissions.  Cairns  Regional  Council had ‘developed an Energy  and Emissions System  which is  an intranet based  system  for  entering  all  emissions  data  and  is  able  to  be  used  by  all  staff  to  generate  energy  and  emissions  reports.  Reports  are  from  high  level  down  to  specific  facilities/assets.’    One  Aboriginal  Shire  Council  used  Queensland  Department  of  Public  Works  spreadsheets  to  assess emissions. One City Council also used an energy audit standard (AS/NZS 3598:2000).   Eight Regional  Councils and seven Shire  Councils  had  no response on  their greenhouse  gas  reporting.  One  Regional  Council  was  unsure  of  their  greenhouse  reporting  method,  while  Logan City  Council  reported  ‘no reporting standard  used,  but  beyond  NGERS  – rated  every  appliance and  included building  features.’  South  Burnett  Regional Council  used NGERS and  stated ‘Technology One Carbon accounting software recommended for future data capture.’   
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Examining the potential for climate change mitigation from zero tillage

Examining the potential for climate change mitigation from zero tillage

The adoption of zero tillage in combination with other sustainable land use management options such as diversified crop rotation involving non-cereals (Van den Putte et al. 2010) has the potential to harness even better results. Infrequent tillage has been suggested as an alternative strategy to address the problem of compaction and weed growth. Conant et al. (2007) observed that such practices can sequester as much carbon as continuous zero-till systems, based on a modelling study. Indeed, field studies on periodic tillage by Yang et al. (2008) found tilling of a long-term zero-till soil (13 years) destroyed the surface stratification of soil carbon in the 0–5 cm layer, which was offset by soil carbon gains in the 10–20 cm depth. Similar results were reported by Kettler et al. (2000) and Pierce et al. (1994). However, such studies need to be conducted for each agro-ecological region to determine the fine balance between offsetting GHG emissions and maintaining good yields. The yield perspective is also important from a global change view point. Carbon sequestration may also be affected by biomass, which in turn is correlated with higher crop yield (de Rouw et al. 2010), and hence maintaining crop yield at satisfactory levels is important both for food security and climate change mitigation.
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Adapting ecosystems to climate change

Adapting ecosystems to climate change

Scale of management: Ecosystems and their component species do not recognise human constructs such as state or territory boundaries and should be managed accordingly. Planning at landscape scales is required. Managing pressures outside the boundaries of protected conservation areas can help to build resilience but requires a coordinated management approach with landowners (in both rural and urban areas). Additional actions may need to be undertaken which offset biodiversity loss or account for changed distributions and optimise the biodiversity outcomes. For example, in a study of threatened plant species, Maggini et al., (2013) identified the area of natural areas to conserve and to restore that would provide optimal protection for those species under climate change.
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The impact of conservation tillage on soil quality and potential for climate change mitigation

The impact of conservation tillage on soil quality and potential for climate change mitigation

Absence of soil cultivation under zero tillage is beneficial to providing a continuous supply of organic materials to soil microorganisms and is reflected in the increased microbial biomass C and biomass nitrogen in zero tilled soils (Balota et al., 2003). Increased microbial activities under zero tilled soils were also evident in terms of the enzymatic activities which were higher under zero tilled soils than tilled soils and has been observed by others (Roldán et al., 2005; Melero et al., 2009). Acosta-Martinez et al. (2008) attributed the increased enzyme activities under non disturbed pasture soil to either the presence of active microbial biomass constituting intracellular enzymes or to extracellular enzymes which remained part of soil organic matter or both of these. Due to lack of disturbance in zero tilled soils, the biochemical environment is less oxidating compared to soils that are ploughed (Melero et al., 2009). The surface accumulation of crop residues and subsurface supply of organic materials through root biomass in zero tilled soils could further enhance the enzyme effect. A stable pool of enzymes are preserved in most humified organic portions by bonding soil enzymes to humic colloids and clays (Trasar-Cepeda et al., 2008). Soil dehydrogenase enzyme is linked to the C cycle and its increased presence under zero tilled soils indicates more water soluble C fractions under this management (Roldán et al., 2005).
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Climate change governance by local councils: carbon mitigation by Greater Adelaide councils

Climate change governance by local councils: carbon mitigation by Greater Adelaide councils

This study found key motivations for ecological responsiveness by Adelaide local councils in reducing carbon emissions are legitimacy, social responsibility and competitiveness (Bansal & Roth 2000). Climate actions were mainly funded from council rates. Four Adelaide councils with carbon action funds had adopted climate change or energy strategies, while smaller councils lacked climate strategies or staff. Hoff (2010) found 45% of CCP councils altered their council organisation to include positions or departments responsible for climate change actions. Two Adelaide councils had sustainability units. Further support and funding is needed to assist local councils in developing climate change plans; auditing carbon emissions; and installing energy or water efficiency devices (e.g. cogeneration). This will enable councils to meet their legal and community liability to reduce carbon emissions. Climate governance by local councils will become more important with the Clean Energy Future Act 2011 and the requirement for councils to audit and report their NGERS emissions.
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Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well being

Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well being

Movement of mosquitoes in response to global warming is a threat to health in many countries through predicted increases in the number of known, and potentially new, diseases (Fig. 3). The most prevalent mosquito-borne disease, malaria, has long been a risk for almost half of the world’s population, with more than 200 million cases recorded in 2014 (59). Malaria is expected to reach new areas with the poleward and elevational migration of Anopheles mosquito vectors (60). Climate-related transmission of malaria can result in epidemics due to lack of immunity among local residents (59), and will challenge health systems at national and international scales, diverting public and private sector resources from other uses.
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Climate change and sustainable tourism: Carbon mitigation by environmentally certified tourism enterprises

Climate change and sustainable tourism: Carbon mitigation by environmentally certified tourism enterprises

studies have produced disparate results. Vernon et al.’s (2003) study of 25 tourism microbusinesses in Cornwall, UK, found that, despite a lack of formal environmental management strategies, most businesses had adopted some informal measures mainly in traditional areas of waste reduction and energy and water conservation. Similarly, despite low numbers of GBR tourism operators believing it was their responsibility to take action on climate change, the majority had initiated a variety of car- bon mitigation measures (Zeppel, 2012a). The main climate actions adopted by over 80% of operators were: recycling, risk management, responsible waste disposal, and reducing energy use. Half had also measured their carbon footprint and more than a third had taken part in climate change workshops or sought web-based information. Another study, based on interviews with 48 owners and manag- ers of reef tourism enterprises, found 91% set tar- gets for energy conservation and fuel efficiency on boats, while 66% had office energy reduction tar- gets, but only 27% offset emissions (Biggs, Ban, & Hall, 2012). Only a third of reef operators provided information to their guests on energy efficiency (34%) and offsetting travel emissions (29%). Coles and Zschiegner (2011) found that accommoda- tion providers in Southwest England had initiated an average of 8.2 mitigation actions, with close to 95% adopting recycling behavior, over 80% install- ing insulation, and 67% adopting energy-efficient appliances. However, membership of tourism net- works did not increase the uptake of carbon actions, with managers using local knowledge, workshops, and the Internet. A survey of 217 lodging provid- ers in the US found an environmental policy only led to higher adoption rates for half of green prac- tices, with minimal use of keycards for power use ( Nicholls & Kang, 2012).
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Aligning carbon targets for construction with (inter)national climate change mitigation commitments

Aligning carbon targets for construction with (inter)national climate change mitigation commitments

There are a wide range of opportunities to reduce carbon emis- sions throughout a project’s life cycle, including mitigation strate- gies to reduce embodied emissions in design and construction [20,21] ; operation [22] and end of life management [23] . A grow- ing body of guidance and standards has supported some exploita- tion of these opportunities [24] . Though many firms now under- take routine project carbon assessments, best practice in whole life carbon management is predominantly confined to a small num- ber of multinational firms with significant organisational capac- ity and expertise. Even amongst these firms there is wide vari- ation in common practices, including assessment and reporting procedures [25] . There are many barriers to the more widespread deployment of these mitigation options [26] and additional pol- icy support is likely to be essential in the medium to long term [27,28] . Yet in spite of the observed barriers and limited drivers, numerous construction firms have publicly adopted carbon reduc- tion targets. These targets vary widely in scope [29] and are typ- ically determined by esoteric means, with many simply decided by individual CEOs, through comparison with competing firms, or copied verbatim from headline national mitigation commitments [30] . Few firms have targets that are truly aligned with sectoral, national or international mitigation commitments, though demand for such alignment has been growing of late. The means by which such an alignment can best be achieved is a subject of ongoing de- bate amongst industry and academic experts. This paper sets out some of the possible options, their implications and shortcomings, and illustrates the resultant pathways through a case study of the UK.
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Aligning carbon targets for construction with (inter)national climate change mitigation commitments

Aligning carbon targets for construction with (inter)national climate change mitigation commitments

There are a wide range of opportunities to reduce carbon emis- sions throughout a project’s life cycle, including mitigation strate- gies to reduce embodied emissions in design and construction [20,21] ; operation [22] and end of life management [23] . A grow- ing body of guidance and standards has supported some exploita- tion of these opportunities [24] . Though many firms now under- take routine project carbon assessments, best practice in whole life carbon management is predominantly confined to a small num- ber of multinational firms with significant organisational capac- ity and expertise. Even amongst these firms there is wide vari- ation in common practices, including assessment and reporting procedures [25] . There are many barriers to the more widespread deployment of these mitigation options [26] and additional pol- icy support is likely to be essential in the medium to long term [27,28] . Yet in spite of the observed barriers and limited drivers, numerous construction firms have publicly adopted carbon reduc- tion targets. These targets vary widely in scope [29] and are typ- ically determined by esoteric means, with many simply decided by individual CEOs, through comparison with competing firms, or copied verbatim from headline national mitigation commitments [30] . Few firms have targets that are truly aligned with sectoral, national or international mitigation commitments, though demand for such alignment has been growing of late. The means by which such an alignment can best be achieved is a subject of ongoing de- bate amongst industry and academic experts. This paper sets out some of the possible options, their implications and shortcomings, and illustrates the resultant pathways through a case study of the UK.
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