Top PDF Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community
areas of the United States

Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

et al., 2008 ) and national urban forest monitoring ( Cumming et al., 2008 ). Data collection was based on random sampling of 0.04 ha (1/10 ac) plots (in cities) or 0.067 ha (four 1/24 ac sub-plots) plots (in urban areas of states) and analyzed using the i-Tree Eco (formerly Urban Forest Effects (UFORE)) model ( Nowak et al., 2008 ). The state plots were based on FIA plot design and data were collected as part of pilot projects testing FIA data collection in urban areas ( Cumming et al., 2008 ). The number of plots collected varied by location ( Table 1 ) with data collection including tree species, stem diameter at 1.37 m above the ground (DBH), tree and crown height, crown width, crown light exposure, and canopy condition. For each tree sampled, carbon storage and annual sequestration were estimated using biomass and growth equations. To aid in national estimates of carbon storage and seques- tration, the carbon data are standardized per unit of tree cover.
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Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA

Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA

USA urban trees is $14,300 million, with an annual sequestration value of $460 million. 3.4. Additional urban forest effects In addition to direct carbon storage and sequestra- tion, urban trees can also affect carbon emissions in urban areas. Planting trees in energy-conserving loca- tions around buildings (e.g. Heisler, 1986) can reduce building energy use and consequently chemical emis- sions from power plants. In a simulation of planting 10 million trees annually in energy conserving locations over a 10-year period with 100% survival rates, carbon storage by these trees at year 50 was estimated to be 77 million tonnes of carbon, with carbon avoidance from power plants at 286 million tC (Nowak, 1993a). In this case, the potential carbon avoidance was four times greater than the direct carbon sequestration rate. The total carbon stored and avoided by the 100 million trees (363 million tC) is < 1% of the estimated amount of carbon emitted in the USA over the same 50-year per- iod. Increasing fuel efficiency of passenger automobiles by 0.5 km/l over 50 years would also produce the same carbon effects as the 100 million trees (Nowak, 1993a).
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Tree species for urban parks and roadside based on carbon storage, sequestration and maintenance in Iskandar Malaysia

Tree species for urban parks and roadside based on carbon storage, sequestration and maintenance in Iskandar Malaysia

The list of urban trees species is important to guide and inform the local authorities particularly landscape architect and urban planners to decide the most suitable trees species to be planted at the urban parks and by the roadsides in the future. This list is initiated by considering both carbon storage and sequestration, and maintenance of trees which can help reduce GHG emission and mitigate climate change without compromising the need for least tree maintenance to reduce burden to the local authority in Iskandar Malaysia. The study of carbon storage and sequestration alone is still new in Malaysia and knowledge on maintenance of each of trees species is still presently lacking. Hence, this research is significant to solve the problems and at the same time, helps cities or regions particularly Iskandar Malaysia to develop toward low carbon society and achieve the vision to be “a strong sustainable metropolis of international standing”.
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Estimation of Carbon Storage in Urban Trees Using Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning Data

Estimation of Carbon Storage in Urban Trees Using Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning Data

Urban ecosystems are an important component in the global carbon cycle. In the context of urban sprawl, quantifying the carbon storage for urban areas is very important in terms of getting reliable estimation of carbon sequestration rate and magnitude. But it is a difficult and complex task that requires advanced analysis techniques and data sources to achieve fine- scale estimation. The methods developed here provide an accurate and detailed estimate of how urban trees in a Canada’s city plays the role as a carbon sink. The presented approach of estimating carbon stocks in urban trees takes the advantages of the available Canada-wide allometry relationship between biomass and the tree DBH and height, and also the power of the ALS system in providing the estimation of dendrometric parameters. The methodology proposed in the present study does not require destructive sampling or large-scale field works. It is applicable to other urban areas and is beneficial to better understand urban carbon budgets and urban heat island effects. It also provides valuable information on the impact of climate change to city planners.
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Methodology proposal for estimation of carbon storage in urban green areas

Methodology proposal for estimation of carbon storage in urban green areas

Recent research about the role of urban ecosystem services has produced a wide range of theoretical findings, methodological approaches and practical guidelines over the last few years. On the European level, different research projects are currently addressing the issue of ecosystem services in urban areas. Both the BiodivERsA research and dissemination project URBES (Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services 1 ) as well as the FP7 project TURAS (Transitioning towards Urban Resilience and Sustainability 2 ) focus on the ecosystem services which urban green areas are providing. On a global scale, a global assessment of urbanization, biodiversity and urban ecosystem services which summarizes the most important challenges and opportunities of this topic around the globe, has been recently published (Elmqvist et al. 2013). As part of this assessment, carbon sequestration in urban ecosystems, particularly by trees, is considered as one of the central regulating services (Gómez-Baggenthun et al. 2013, Gómez-Baggenthun & Barton 2013, TEEB 2011) providing human well-being in urban areas. Within this context, urban green areas are the fundamental basis for urban ecosystem service provision (Kabisch & Haase 2013).
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Assessment of carbon storage potential of trees and soil in the urban parks  A step towards climate change mitigation

Assessment of carbon storage potential of trees and soil in the urban parks A step towards climate change mitigation

Metropolitan Region managed by MMRDA. It had an estimated population of 506,098 at the 2011 Census. Ulhasnagar, a colony of migrants in the aftermath of partition, is situated 58 km from Mumbai. Area of the city is 13.8 sq. meter (approximately 3336 acres/ 1351 ha). It has around 57 parks in the city (designated as gardens by Municipal Corporation). Climate in the study area is tropical in nature. The average annual temperature is 27 0 C and the precipitation averageis 2958 mm. Three parks of Ulhasnagar were selected to study carbon storage potential of trees and soil. Prabhat Udyan covers an area of 1.90 acres (approx. 0.77 ha), located at 19° 20' 58" N latitude and 73° 16' 32" E longitude. Gol maidan covers area of 2.5 acres (1ha), the location of the garden is 19° 13' 10" N latitude and 73° 9' 95" E longitude. Gol maidan has zones segregated for recreational purpose viz. Brahmkumari’s Peace Park, Peace Harmony Centre, Dadi Prakashmani Mahila Udyan and Rotary Club Garden. The adjoining area of the garden is surrounded by many shops, buildings representing overcrowded zone. Sapna garden covers an area of 1.25 acres (0.50 ha), located at 19° 23' 01" N latitude and 73° 16' 03" E longitude. All trees ≥6 inch diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured and identified up to the species level. To estimate biomass of different trees, non- destructive method was used. The biomass of trees was estimated on the basis of DBH. The above ground biomass of tree is calculated using the formula (Kulkarni et al., 2010). The belowground biomass (BGB) has been calculated by multiplying the aboveground biomass (AGB) by 0.26 factors as the root: shoot ratio (Ravindranath, 2008). Total biomass is the sum of the above and below ground biomass (Sheikh et al, 2011) and for any plant species 50% of its biomass is considered as carbon (Pearson et al, 2005). The weight of carbon in the tree is multiplied by a factor 3.6663 to determine the weight of carbon dioxide sequestered in the tree (Potdar and Patil, 2016). The common trees found in more than one DBH class were assessed for annual CO 2 sequestration
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Carbon Storage and Sequestration by Trees in and Around University Campus of Aurangabad City, Maharashtra.

Carbon Storage and Sequestration by Trees in and Around University Campus of Aurangabad City, Maharashtra.

0.019 tonnes (with 4 cm DBH and 2 metre height) and 4.041 tonnes (with 50 cm dbh and 25 metre height) per tree respectively. Trees of urban area are transplanted from the nurseries and managed for the aesthetic value, when cutting eliminates accumulated carbon. Openly grown trees typically are smaller but often have biggest crowns with more branches than woodland grown trees. Assessment of carbon accumulations and stock alterations in tree biomass which are relevant to deal with UNFCC and report of Kyoto Protocol (Gill et al., 2007).
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Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

While most studies focus on city or regional impacts, one national study concluded that the implementation of large scale heat island mitigation measures (i.e., cool roofs, cool pavement, urban trees) could reduce national cooling demand by 20 percent, with an estimated savings of over $4 billion per year in cooling- electricity savings alone ( Akbari et al., 2001 ). Given the lack of national studies on urban tree effects on building energy use, the goal of this paper is to estimate the existing energy savings to resi- dential buildings across the United States due to urban/community trees and the associated reduction in pollution emission. This anal- ysis does not include cool surfaces, an important attribute of heat island mitigation, but rather focuses only on tree effects based on average distributions of trees around buildings and information on local tree cover and energy costs. Information from this national assessment can be combined with estimates of other national assessments of ecosystem services from urban trees related to car- bon sequestration ( Nowak et al., 2013b ) and air pollution removal ( Nowak et al., 2014 ) to better understand the value of urban forests at the state to national scale.
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Assessing urban tree carbon storage and sequestration in Bolzano, Italy

Assessing urban tree carbon storage and sequestration in Bolzano, Italy

Gardens Department (Personal communication, 2012), trees in parks are primarily pruned for health reasons. If there are no particular problems, the trees are not pruned and the only two trees that are subject to periodic and systematic pruning during the analysis period were Sophora japonica L., which are pruned every 2 years, and Platanus hybrida Brot., which are pruned every 7– 10 years. However, the amount of biomass that is removed by tree pruning operations in Bolzano has never been measured. So, to account for maintenance-related C emis- sions for biomass removal, we calculated the green waste biomass removal (y) obtained from pruning Sophora japo-
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CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY URBAN TREES ON ROADSIDES OF VADODARA CITY

CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY URBAN TREES ON ROADSIDES OF VADODARA CITY

urban areas the roadside trees are in the close proximity to the source of vehicular emissions. They serve as an important component in reducing such emissions. In this city the urban tree cover provides benefits such as carbon storage and sequestration along with the reduction in the air pollutant. Keeping in mind the above relevant facts the need for evaluating and assessing the roadside tree cover in an urban ecosystem becomes imperative. This green cover in the form of urban forest has a significant potential in carbon sequestration (Nowak et.al. 1994). Nowak, 2002 has brought out that Carbon sequestration is not only related to the increased tree cover but also very much related to the increased proportion of large and healthy trees in population. In the present study this point is very clearly brought out as certain roads of Vadodara city with similar number of species exhibited variation in the values of the carbon sequestered (Table 1). The amount of carbon sequestered by these road side trees has amounted to 73.59 tons (Table 1) of carbon dioxide per year. The source of carbon sequestered by these trees can be attributed to the different categories of vehicles passing by these trees.
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What is carbon? Conceptualising carbon and capabilities in the context of community sequestration projects in the global South

What is carbon? Conceptualising carbon and capabilities in the context of community sequestration projects in the global South

Carbon has been described as a ‘ surreal commodity. ’ While carbon trading, stor- age, sequestration, and emissions have become a part of the contemporary cli- mate lexicon, how carbon is understood, valued, and interpreted by actors responsible for implementing carbon sequestration projects is still unclear. In this review paper, we are concerned with how carbon has come to take on a range of meanings. In particular, we appraise what is known about the situated meanings that people involved in delivering, and participating in, carbon seques- tration projects in the global South assign to this complex element. There has been some re fl ection on the new meanings conferred on carbon via the neolib- eral processes of marketisation and on how these processes interact with histori- cal and contemporary narratives of environmental change. But less is known about how these meanings are (re)produced and (re)interpreted locally. We review how carbon has been de fi ned both as a chemical element and as a trada- ble, marketable commodity. We discuss the implications these global meanings might have for situated understandings, particularly linked to climate change narratives, among communities in the global South. We consider how the con- cept of carbon capabilities, alongside theoretical notions of networks, assem- blages, and local knowledges of the environment and nature, might be useful in beginning to understand how communities engage with abstract notions of carbon. We discuss the implications of speci fi c values attributed to carbon, and therefore to different ecologies, for wider conceptualizations of how nature is valued, and climate is understood. We review in particular how this may impact on community interactions with carbon sequestration projects. Knowing more about how people understand, value, and know carbon allows policies to be better informed and practices more effectively targeted at engaging local popula- tions meaningfully in carbon-related projects. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Climate Change published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Carbon sequestration in the agroecosystem

Carbon sequestration in the agroecosystem

Analyse of carbon cycle in agroecosystem shows signifi cant diff erence of crop potential for carbon sequestration to the soil. Potatoes in ecological planting system sequestrated minimal amount of car- bon. The maximal amount of carbon was sequestrated by corn maize in maize production region. Species variability is obvious also in carbon balance of single crop rotations (24 observed varieties). For a short time (months) the crops sequestration of carbon is relatively high (to 4.4 t . ha −1 . year −1 ). In

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Heavy Metals Accumulation in Trees Grown  in Urban and Rural Areas

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Trees Grown in Urban and Rural Areas

leaves is presented in Table 3. A significant amount of lead was found in Con- ocarpus leaves and Eucalyptus leaves. Whereas the content of Pb in Olea leaves to be lower in rural area than in urban area. For urban and rural area, the max- imum Pb were obtained for Conocarpus and Eucalyptus leaves (0.197 and 0.194 mg/kg DW) in Nasiriyah city respectively. Between within grown location, ur- ban area showed the higher (Pb) then rural area. Table 3 showed significant difference ( p < 0.05) in the Pb content of Eucalyptus , Olea , Zizphus and Con- ocarpus between urban and rural Conocarpus and Eucalyptus leave for Nasi- riyah city gave the highest lead content when compared with farms north of Nasiriyah areas. Low content of Pb (0.015 mg/kg DW) were obtained from Olea leaves in rural area. After Olea leaves, leaves of Zizphus (0.032 mg/kg DW) had low content of Pb in extract. One possible reason for the increased Pb content with the urban areas might be due to the increase in organic matter and topography of the land. Pb content for the Eucalyptus , Olea , Zizphus and Conocarpus leaves t in this study were lower than that of (Dayang & Che, 2013; Livia et al., 2015; Taghred et al., 2017) for different plants. The Pb concen- tration in this research showed that leaves were lower than that of Kamaruzza- man et al . (2009).
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Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Caprock Formations Used for Storage and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Caprock Formations Used for Storage and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

neralogical composition of several clay samples collected from real storage sites located in the south of Tunisia was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to a probe EDS, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and fluorescence spectra. The obtained experimental results reveal that illite, calcite and quartz are the dominant clay min- erals. Dolomite and albite are also present. Besides, SEM analysis shows laminated structure for these samples which suggests low crystallinity. This sample contains a higher content of Fe, Cl, Ca and O. The clay cover may also be useful in storage process by immobilizing the migration of CO 2
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On the use of data mining for estimating carbon storage in the trees

On the use of data mining for estimating carbon storage in the trees

The arguments of Soares & Tomé [10] are relevant when considering tree stands of varying tree ages. How- ever it is important to note that the greatest variations in BEF and R occur at younger ages, due to the faster growth rates and the differences in allocation of biomass to different plant tissues as the plant matures. On the other hand, in intermediate and older stands that whose growth rates have stabilized and assume some archetypal form, BEF and R often remain constant with advancing age (as seen in the aforementioned studies). In this case the supposed advantage of allometric equations does not manifest as in the case of our study, which showed no statistical difference between the two methods for esti- mating the carbon stock in A. angustifolia individuals.
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Farmers’ preferred trees carbon sequestration capacity in Lake Victoria’s rural landscapes.

Farmers’ preferred trees carbon sequestration capacity in Lake Victoria’s rural landscapes.

land-use and soil depth. Soil carbon stock varied with land-use and soil depth beneath under Artocarpus heterophyllus (Fene), Ficus nantalensis (Mutuba) and Albizia spp. (Nongo) . Soils below Artocarpus heterophyllus (Fene) had relatively high carbon stocks when occurring on fallow soils compared to other land- uses where this species was found. With Artocarpus heterophyllus (Fene), the topsoil under fallow conditions had also higher carbon stock than the sub-soil. Soil under Ficus nantalensis (Mutuba) had higher carbon stock under coffee followed by maize, fallow and the banana for the 0-15 cm soil depth. For soil depth of 15-30 cm, maize had higher carbon stock compared to all other land-use beneath Ficus nantalensis (Mutuba). Under Albizia spp. (Nongo) tree species, soil carbon stock varied significantly with land-use and soil depth (P<0.05). Beneath Albizia spp. (Nongo), soil carbon stock was highest under banana followed by fallow for the topsoil (p=0.002), and higher under banana compared to fallow and casasava which had similar soil carbon stock for subsoil (p=0.076). Significant variation on soil carbon stock under different land-use types was observed beneath Spanthodea campanulata (Kinalisa), Senna spp., and Markhamia lutea (Musambya) (p<0.05). Beneath Spanthodea campanulata (Kinalisa), soil carbon stock was higher on fallow and maize gardens in the 0-15 cm topsoil compared to other land-uses (p<0.05). Soils carbon stock under Senna spp. varied significantly for the topsoil, and was higher on coffee plantation compared to the soil under fallow (p < 0.001). No significant difference in soil carbon stock was observed in the sub-soils under Senna spp. (p> 0.05). However, soil carbon stock beneath Markhamia lutea (Musambya) tree, in the topsoil, was higher under maize than under fallow (p<0.05). Under Ficus sycomorous (Mukunu) carbon stock was relatively higher on coffee plantation, followed by fallow compared to other land-use for the topsoil (0-15 cm) (p<0.05).
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carbon sequestration

carbon sequestration

Fourth, the results of three studies that were geographically limited to a particular U.S. region were extrapolated to the national level. For example, the New York State (1991) study was limited to a total of 1.5 million acres, comprised of 500,000 acres each of public land, private land, and existing forest. Using scaling factors developed from data in Moulton and Richards (1990), 11 the potential land area (and hence quantity of carbon) in the New York State (1991) study was scaled up to the national level. Similarly, for the Stavins (1999) study of 36 counties in the Mississippi Delta States (Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi), a scaling factor (of 52.0) was used for the ratio of national farm acreage to farm acreage in the Delta states. For the Plantinga et al. (1999) study, estimated cost curves for three states—Maine, South Carolina, and Wisconsin—were horizontally summed into a single aggregate cost curve. This aggregate cost curve was then scaled up to the national level using the ratio of national cropland acreage to cropland acreage in the three states (a factor of 27.18). 12 Implicit in these extrapolations is the simplifying assumption that relevant characteristics of the respective regions are typical of the entire nation. Clearly, this is not the case, and so we later remove these three studies from one of our normalizations.
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Carbon storage and sequestration under different land uses with a focus on biomass crops

Carbon storage and sequestration under different land uses with a focus on biomass crops

166 C sequestration in crop biomass and soil LFOM pools in hybrid poplar plantations has been studied by Teklay and Chang, (2008), who used a chronosequence of 2 to 13-year-old stands. They found that amounts of LFOM declined two years following conversion to SRC, but remained steady thereafter, suggesting no trajectory for increase in LFOM over time. However, in their study conversion to SRC did not result in a change to total soil C content and it was not clear what the land use prior to SRC was. Additionally, the C and N concentrations (g kg -1 of fraction) in the SOM density fractions followed the order: LFo>LF>HF, whilst the C/N ratio followed the sequence: LF>LFo>HF. The contributions of carbon in the LF, LFo, and HF to total soil C 2 years after conversion were recorded as 0.3, 0.2 and 2.1%, respectively and the value for 5 years were recorded at 0.25, 0.15 and 2.2%. There was no change in the contribution of LFOM to total C until 11 years when the proportion of C in LFOM increased, although no difference was seen after 13 years.
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STUDIES ON THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SARCOIDOSIS IN THE UNITED STATES: THE RELATIONSHIP TO SOIL AREAS AND TO URBAN RURAL RESIDENCE

STUDIES ON THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SARCOIDOSIS IN THE UNITED STATES: THE RELATIONSHIP TO SOIL AREAS AND TO URBAN RURAL RESIDENCE

Sarcoidosis attack rates among World War II servicemen from nine South Atlantic Gulf Coast states,* exclusive of the Middle Coastal Plain soil area, according to population density of co[r]

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The urban unbanked in Mexico and the United States

The urban unbanked in Mexico and the United States

Regarding the second new direction the World Bank team took in approaching the issue of the unbanked in Latin America, learning from and working with experts in developing coun- tries, particularly the United States, has considerably enriched the Bank’s work. The USA has a long history of promoting access to financial services and on working with the commercial bank- ing sector to help the poor build assets. Inputs from current and former staff of the Office of Controller of the Currency, from Fannie Mae, from FDIC have been invaluable, as have the col- laborative efforts of teams from Ford Foundation, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Woodstock and Brookings Institutions. Moreover, recounts of experiences from private banks have been ex- tremely illuminating. Finally, the work of scholars who have studied the issues in the US has served as both model and benchmark. In the same vein, the World Bank team has drawn on knowledge and experience of policy makers from Germany and Spain. Such links represent a break from much past work in access to financial services, which tended to emphasize experi- ences mainly cited from developing countries, on the grounds that the experiences of developed countries depend on too advanced an economic level to be replicable outside of the OECD.
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