et al., 2008 ) and national urban forest monitoring ( Cumming et al., 2008 ). Data collection was based on random sampling of 0.04 ha (1/10 ac) plots (in cities) or 0.067 ha (four 1/24 ac sub-plots) plots (in urbanareas of states) and analyzed using the i-Tree Eco (formerly Urban Forest Effects (UFORE)) model ( Nowak et al., 2008 ). The state plots were based on FIA plot design and data were collected as part of pilot projects testing FIA data collection in urbanareas ( Cumming et al., 2008 ). The number of plots collected varied by location ( Table 1 ) with data collection including tree species, stem diameter at 1.37 m above the ground (DBH), tree and crown height, crown width, crown light exposure, and canopy condition. For each tree sampled, carbonstorage and annual sequestration were estimated using biomass and growth equations. To aid in national estimates of carbonstorage and seques- tration, the carbon data are standardized per unit of tree cover.
USA urbantrees is $14,300 million, with an annual sequestration value of $460 million.
3.4. Additional urban forest eﬀects
In addition to direct carbonstorage and sequestra- tion, urbantrees can also aﬀect carbon emissions in urbanareas. Planting trees in energy-conserving loca- tions around buildings (e.g. Heisler, 1986) can reduce building energy use and consequently chemical emis- sions from power plants. In a simulation of planting 10 million trees annually in energy conserving locations over a 10-year period with 100% survival rates, carbonstorage by these trees at year 50 was estimated to be 77 million tonnes of carbon, with carbon avoidance from power plants at 286 million tC (Nowak, 1993a). In this case, the potential carbon avoidance was four times greater than the direct carbonsequestration rate. The total carbon stored and avoided by the 100 million trees (363 million tC) is < 1% of the estimated amount of carbon emitted in the USA over the same 50-year per- iod. Increasing fuel eﬃciency of passenger automobiles by 0.5 km/l over 50 years would also produce the same carbon eﬀects as the 100 million trees (Nowak, 1993a).
The list of urbantrees species is important to guide and inform the local authorities particularly landscape architect and urban planners to decide the most suitable trees species to be planted at the urban parks and by the roadsides in the future. This list is initiated by considering both carbonstorage and sequestration, and maintenance of trees which can help reduce GHG emission and mitigate climate change without compromising the need for least tree maintenance to reduce burden to the local authority in Iskandar Malaysia. The study of carbonstorage and sequestration alone is still new in Malaysia and knowledge on maintenance of each of trees species is still presently lacking. Hence, this research is significant to solve the problems and at the same time, helps cities or regions particularly Iskandar Malaysia to develop toward low carbon society and achieve the vision to be “a strong sustainable metropolis of international standing”.
Urban ecosystems are an important component in the global carbon cycle. In the context of urban sprawl, quantifying the carbonstorage for urbanareas is very important in terms of getting reliable estimation of carbonsequestration rate and magnitude. But it is a difficult and complex task that requires advanced analysis techniques and data sources to achieve fine- scale estimation. The methods developed here provide an accurate and detailed estimate of how urbantrees in a Canada’s city plays the role as a carbon sink. The presented approach of estimating carbon stocks in urbantrees takes the advantages of the available Canada-wide allometry relationship between biomass and the tree DBH and height, and also the power of the ALS system in providing the estimation of dendrometric parameters. The methodology proposed in the present study does not require destructive sampling or large-scale field works. It is applicable to other urbanareas and is beneficial to better understand urbancarbon budgets and urban heat island effects. It also provides valuable information on the impact of climate change to city planners.
Recent research about the role of urban ecosystem services has produced a wide range of theoretical findings, methodological approaches and practical guidelines over the last few years. On the European level, different research projects are currently addressing the issue of ecosystem services in urbanareas. Both the BiodivERsA research and dissemination project URBES (Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services 1 ) as well as the FP7 project TURAS (Transitioning towards Urban Resilience and Sustainability 2 ) focus on the ecosystem services which urban green areas are providing. On a global scale, a global assessment of urbanization, biodiversity and urban ecosystem services which summarizes the most important challenges and opportunities of this topic around the globe, has been recently published (Elmqvist et al. 2013). As part of this assessment, carbonsequestration in urban ecosystems, particularly by trees, is considered as one of the central regulating services (Gómez-Baggenthun et al. 2013, Gómez-Baggenthun & Barton 2013, TEEB 2011) providing human well-being in urbanareas. Within this context, urban green areas are the fundamental basis for urban ecosystem service provision (Kabisch & Haase 2013).
Metropolitan Region managed by MMRDA. It had an estimated population of 506,098 at the 2011 Census. Ulhasnagar, a colony of migrants in the aftermath of partition, is situated 58 km from Mumbai. Area of the city is 13.8 sq. meter (approximately 3336 acres/ 1351 ha). It has around 57 parks in the city (designated as gardens by Municipal Corporation). Climate in the study area is tropical in nature. The average annual temperature is 27 0 C and the precipitation averageis 2958 mm. Three parks of Ulhasnagar were selected to study carbonstorage potential of trees and soil. Prabhat Udyan covers an area of 1.90 acres (approx. 0.77 ha), located at 19° 20' 58" N latitude and 73° 16' 32" E longitude. Gol maidan covers area of 2.5 acres (1ha), the location of the garden is 19° 13' 10" N latitude and 73° 9' 95" E longitude. Gol maidan has zones segregated for recreational purpose viz. Brahmkumari’s Peace Park, Peace Harmony Centre, Dadi Prakashmani Mahila Udyan and Rotary Club Garden. The adjoining area of the garden is surrounded by many shops, buildings representing overcrowded zone. Sapna garden covers an area of 1.25 acres (0.50 ha), located at 19° 23' 01" N latitude and 73° 16' 03" E longitude. All trees ≥6 inch diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured and identified up to the species level. To estimate biomass of different trees, non- destructive method was used. The biomass of trees was estimated on the basis of DBH. The above ground biomass of tree is calculated using the formula (Kulkarni et al., 2010). The belowground biomass (BGB) has been calculated by multiplying the aboveground biomass (AGB) by 0.26 factors as the root: shoot ratio (Ravindranath, 2008). Total biomass is the sum of the above and below ground biomass (Sheikh et al, 2011) and for any plant species 50% of its biomass is considered as carbon (Pearson et al, 2005). The weight of carbon in the tree is multiplied by a factor 3.6663 to determine the weight of carbon dioxide sequestered in the tree (Potdar and Patil, 2016). The common trees found in more than one DBH class were assessed for annual CO 2 sequestration
0.019 tonnes (with 4 cm DBH and 2 metre height) and 4.041 tonnes (with 50 cm dbh and 25 metre height) per tree respectively. Trees of urban area are transplanted from the nurseries and managed for the aesthetic value, when cutting eliminates accumulated carbon. Openly grown trees typically are smaller but often have biggest crowns with more branches than woodland grown trees. Assessment of carbon accumulations and stock alterations in tree biomass which are relevant to deal with UNFCC and report of Kyoto Protocol (Gill et al., 2007).
While most studies focus on city or regional impacts, one national study concluded that the implementation of large scale heat island mitigation measures (i.e., cool roofs, cool pavement, urbantrees) could reduce national cooling demand by 20 percent, with an estimated savings of over $4 billion per year in cooling- electricity savings alone ( Akbari et al., 2001 ). Given the lack of national studies on urban tree effects on building energy use, the goal of this paper is to estimate the existing energy savings to resi- dential buildings across the UnitedStates due to urban/communitytrees and the associated reduction in pollution emission. This anal- ysis does not include cool surfaces, an important attribute of heat island mitigation, but rather focuses only on tree effects based on average distributions of trees around buildings and information on local tree cover and energy costs. Information from this national assessment can be combined with estimates of other national assessments of ecosystem services from urbantrees related to car- bon sequestration ( Nowak et al., 2013b ) and air pollution removal ( Nowak et al., 2014 ) to better understand the value of urban forests at the state to national scale.
Gardens Department (Personal communication, 2012), trees in parks are primarily pruned for health reasons. If there are no particular problems, the trees are not pruned and the only two trees that are subject to periodic and systematic pruning during the analysis period were Sophora japonica L., which are pruned every 2 years, and Platanus hybrida Brot., which are pruned every 7– 10 years. However, the amount of biomass that is removed by tree pruning operations in Bolzano has never been measured. So, to account for maintenance-related C emis- sions for biomass removal, we calculated the green waste biomass removal (y) obtained from pruning Sophora japo-
urbanareas the roadside trees are in the close proximity to the source of vehicular emissions. They serve as an important component in reducing such emissions. In this city the urban tree cover provides benefits such as carbonstorage and sequestration along with the reduction in the air pollutant. Keeping in mind the above relevant facts the need for evaluating and assessing the roadside tree cover in an urban ecosystem becomes imperative. This green cover in the form of urban forest has a significant potential in carbonsequestration (Nowak et.al. 1994). Nowak, 2002 has brought out that Carbonsequestration is not only related to the increased tree cover but also very much related to the increased proportion of large and healthy trees in population. In the present study this point is very clearly brought out as certain roads of Vadodara city with similar number of species exhibited variation in the values of the carbon sequestered (Table 1). The amount of carbon sequestered by these road side trees has amounted to 73.59 tons (Table 1) of carbon dioxide per year. The source of carbon sequestered by these trees can be attributed to the different categories of vehicles passing by these trees.
Analyse of carbon cycle in agroecosystem shows signiﬁ cant diﬀ erence of crop potential for carbonsequestration to the soil. Potatoes in ecological planting system sequestrated minimal amount of car- bon. The maximal amount of carbon was sequestrated by corn maize in maize production region. Species variability is obvious also in carbon balance of single crop rotations (24 observed varieties). For a short time (months) the crops sequestration of carbon is relatively high (to 4.4 t . ha −1 . year −1 ). In
leaves is presented in Table 3. A significant amount of lead was found in Con- ocarpus leaves and Eucalyptus leaves. Whereas the content of Pb in Olea leaves to be lower in rural area than in urban area. For urban and rural area, the max- imum Pb were obtained for Conocarpus and Eucalyptus leaves (0.197 and 0.194 mg/kg DW) in Nasiriyah city respectively. Between within grown location, ur- ban area showed the higher (Pb) then rural area. Table 3 showed significant difference ( p < 0.05) in the Pb content of Eucalyptus , Olea , Zizphus and Con- ocarpus between urban and rural Conocarpus and Eucalyptus leave for Nasi- riyah city gave the highest lead content when compared with farms north of Nasiriyah areas. Low content of Pb (0.015 mg/kg DW) were obtained from Olea leaves in rural area. After Olea leaves, leaves of Zizphus (0.032 mg/kg DW) had low content of Pb in extract. One possible reason for the increased Pb content with the urbanareas might be due to the increase in organic matter and topography of the land. Pb content for the Eucalyptus , Olea , Zizphus and Conocarpus leaves t in this study were lower than that of (Dayang & Che, 2013; Livia et al., 2015; Taghred et al., 2017) for different plants. The Pb concen- tration in this research showed that leaves were lower than that of Kamaruzza- man et al . (2009).
neralogical composition of several clay samples collected from real storage sites located in the south of Tunisia was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to a probe EDS, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and fluorescence spectra. The obtained experimental results reveal that illite, calcite and quartz are the dominant clay min- erals. Dolomite and albite are also present. Besides, SEM analysis shows laminated structure for these samples which suggests low crystallinity. This sample contains a higher content of Fe, Cl, Ca and O. The clay cover may also be useful in storage process by immobilizing the migration of CO 2
The arguments of Soares & Tomé  are relevant when considering tree stands of varying tree ages. How- ever it is important to note that the greatest variations in BEF and R occur at younger ages, due to the faster growth rates and the differences in allocation of biomass to different plant tissues as the plant matures. On the other hand, in intermediate and older stands that whose growth rates have stabilized and assume some archetypal form, BEF and R often remain constant with advancing age (as seen in the aforementioned studies). In this case the supposed advantage of allometric equations does not manifest as in the case of our study, which showed no statistical difference between the two methods for esti- mating the carbon stock in A. angustifolia individuals.
land-use and soil depth. Soil carbon stock varied with land-use and soil depth beneath under Artocarpus heterophyllus (Fene), Ficus nantalensis (Mutuba) and Albizia spp. (Nongo) . Soils below Artocarpus heterophyllus (Fene) had relatively high carbon stocks when occurring on fallow soils compared to other land- uses where this species was found. With Artocarpus heterophyllus (Fene), the topsoil under fallow conditions had also higher carbon stock than the sub-soil. Soil under Ficus nantalensis (Mutuba) had higher carbon stock under coffee followed by maize, fallow and the banana for the 0-15 cm soil depth. For soil depth of 15-30 cm, maize had higher carbon stock compared to all other land-use beneath Ficus nantalensis (Mutuba). Under Albizia spp. (Nongo) tree species, soil carbon stock varied significantly with land-use and soil depth (P<0.05). Beneath Albizia spp. (Nongo), soil carbon stock was highest under banana followed by fallow for the topsoil (p=0.002), and higher under banana compared to fallow and casasava which had similar soil carbon stock for subsoil (p=0.076). Significant variation on soil carbon stock under different land-use types was observed beneath Spanthodea campanulata (Kinalisa), Senna spp., and Markhamia lutea (Musambya) (p<0.05). Beneath Spanthodea campanulata (Kinalisa), soil carbon stock was higher on fallow and maize gardens in the 0-15 cm topsoil compared to other land-uses (p<0.05). Soils carbon stock under Senna spp. varied significantly for the topsoil, and was higher on coffee plantation compared to the soil under fallow (p < 0.001). No significant difference in soil carbon stock was observed in the sub-soils under Senna spp. (p> 0.05). However, soil carbon stock beneath Markhamia lutea (Musambya) tree, in the topsoil, was higher under maize than under fallow (p<0.05). Under Ficus sycomorous (Mukunu) carbon stock was relatively higher on coffee plantation, followed by fallow compared to other land-use for the topsoil (0-15 cm) (p<0.05).
Fourth, the results of three studies that were geographically limited to a particular U.S. region were extrapolated to the national level. For example, the New York State (1991) study was limited to a total of 1.5 million acres, comprised of 500,000 acres each of public land, private land, and existing forest. Using scaling factors developed from data in Moulton and Richards (1990), 11 the potential land area (and hence quantity of carbon) in the New York State (1991) study was scaled up to the national level. Similarly, for the Stavins (1999) study of 36 counties in the Mississippi Delta States (Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi), a scaling factor (of 52.0) was used for the ratio of national farm acreage to farm acreage in the Delta states. For the Plantinga et al. (1999) study, estimated cost curves for three states—Maine, South Carolina, and Wisconsin—were horizontally summed into a single aggregate cost curve. This aggregate cost curve was then scaled up to the national level using the ratio of national cropland acreage to cropland acreage in the three states (a factor of 27.18). 12 Implicit in these extrapolations is the simplifying assumption that relevant characteristics of the respective regions are typical of the entire nation. Clearly, this is not the case, and so we later remove these three studies from one of our normalizations.
166 C sequestration in crop biomass and soil LFOM pools in hybrid poplar plantations has been studied by Teklay and Chang, (2008), who used a chronosequence of 2 to 13-year-old stands. They found that amounts of LFOM declined two years following conversion to SRC, but remained steady thereafter, suggesting no trajectory for increase in LFOM over time. However, in their study conversion to SRC did not result in a change to total soil C content and it was not clear what the land use prior to SRC was. Additionally, the C and N concentrations (g kg -1 of fraction) in the SOM density fractions followed the order: LFo>LF>HF, whilst the C/N ratio followed the sequence: LF>LFo>HF. The contributions of carbon in the LF, LFo, and HF to total soil C 2 years after conversion were recorded as 0.3, 0.2 and 2.1%, respectively and the value for 5 years were recorded at 0.25, 0.15 and 2.2%. There was no change in the contribution of LFOM to total C until 11 years when the proportion of C in LFOM increased, although no difference was seen after 13 years.
Regarding the second new direction the World Bank team took in approaching the issue of the unbanked in Latin America, learning from and working with experts in developing coun- tries, particularly the UnitedStates, has considerably enriched the Bank’s work. The USA has a long history of promoting access to financial services and on working with the commercial bank- ing sector to help the poor build assets. Inputs from current and former staff of the Office of Controller of the Currency, from Fannie Mae, from FDIC have been invaluable, as have the col- laborative efforts of teams from Ford Foundation, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Woodstock and Brookings Institutions. Moreover, recounts of experiences from private banks have been ex- tremely illuminating. Finally, the work of scholars who have studied the issues in the US has served as both model and benchmark. In the same vein, the World Bank team has drawn on knowledge and experience of policy makers from Germany and Spain. Such links represent a break from much past work in access to financial services, which tended to emphasize experi- ences mainly cited from developing countries, on the grounds that the experiences of developed countries depend on too advanced an economic level to be replicable outside of the OECD.