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Carers: Legislation, Policy and Practice

Carers: Legislation, Policy and Practice

The Social Services & Well-being (Wales) Act 2014 provides a wide-ranging single Act bringing together the duties and functions of local authorities with the aim of improving the ‘well-being’ of all people who need care and support, and carers who need support. The NI Department of Health is currently taking forward a three stage Reform of Adult Care and Support. The project is currently at stage two with the Department working to develop proposals for change to adult care and support for consultation in April 2017. Issues facing carers are the impact on their own health; detriment to their own life outside of their caring role; difficulties in balancing caring with paid work often leading to financial difficulties or outright poverty; for young carers, the impact on development of social skills, family relationships, and education/career prospects.
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A review of Australian animal welfare legislation, regulation, codes of practice, and policy, and their influence on stakeholders caring for wildlife and the animals for whom they care

A review of Australian animal welfare legislation, regulation, codes of practice, and policy, and their influence on stakeholders caring for wildlife and the animals for whom they care

This article has reviewed and critiqued the systems that currently regulate the care of Australian native animals that are rescued, rehabilitated, and released. It has found that the current systems are far from perfect, rely on many assumptions, are riddled with inconsistencies, and condone practices that may compromise the environment and the welfare of wildlife carers. The systems have evolved this way because of the influence of the state-by-state approach to policy development that prevails in Australia. Also, because the subject matter is complicated, it may have been left to policy-makers who may have been ill-equipped to craft appropriately reflective regulation. This is unsurprising, given that animal law as a discipline has been emerging only since 2010 in Australia and, in Australian tertiary education, currently exists as the inclusion of only one or two elective units in legal degrees. Many aspects of relevant policy rely on assumptions that are not based on scientific evidence. Vague assumptions that naturalness in releasing animals to the wild is reliably associated with better well-being are unfounded [121]. This review and critique confirms that such assumptions are often wrong. It indicates the need for an evidence-driven approach to wildlife rehabilitation. Such an approach is problematic when legislation and regulatory systems are fragmented, contradictive, unenforceable or unenforced, and thwart the possibility of data collection.
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To what extent does current policy and practice pay adequate attention to the needs of the sons and daughters of foster carers, particularly in the context of planned or unplanned placement endings?

To what extent does current policy and practice pay adequate attention to the needs of the sons and daughters of foster carers, particularly in the context of planned or unplanned placement endings?

The literature search identified 29 sources that explore issues of separation and loss in relation to placement moves for children and young people in foster care (see Appendix 7). Four sources were identified as specifically mentioning the impact of separation and loss for sons and daughters (see Appendix 8) and one additional source mentioned the impact for foster carers. Preston (1993, p.42-43) identifies that a period of preparation is ’crucial to a more successful move’ and points out that a family who is very attached to a child can find it difficult to let go. Conversely where a placement that has not worked ends, sons and daughters are often left with a strong sense of guilt and failure. Tulley (2000, p.20) finds that there is limited (if any) one to one support for sons and daughters of foster carers when placements end and specifically comments upon the psychological issues of separation and loss on the sons and daughters. Triseliotis (cited in Tulley, 2000, p.7) notes that 10% of foster carers say their children experience strong feelings of sadness and loss when the foster child has left.
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The role of a national fostering helpline in the recruitment and retention of foster carers: implications for policy and fostering practice

The role of a national fostering helpline in the recruitment and retention of foster carers: implications for policy and fostering practice

The number of helplines across the UK is currently reported to be approximately 1,000 and increasing annually (HA, 2011: 5). The majority of these (92%) are organised by registered charities. Although helplines have responded to the introduction of new telecommunications channels by offering service users email, instant messaging, SMS and social media options, the quantity and complexity of telephone calls to helplines has increased. The Helpline Partnership (HP, 2014) - formerly the Helpline Association - reported a call volume increase of over 40% in the last year. Specifically, there was a reported increase in the number of callers with complex and multiple problems which was corroborated by Fosterline (2014) who reported an average call length of 33 – 36 minutes in 2014 compared to 17 – 20 minutes in 2013 and increasingly complex inquiries. This would appear to suggest that telephone helplines are seen as an effective method of providing support for services users generally and foster carers specifically to the extent that they are described as “an essential part of the social fabric of the UK” (HP, 2014). It is a concern to note therefore that whilst 86% of helplines reported that calls to their helpline had increased in the past year, only 9% of helplines have seen their income increase over that time. Worryingly, 36% of helplines reported that their income had actually declined, and within this group, all the affected helplines had reported call increases (HP, 2014).
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Secondary school admissions in England 2001 to 2008: Changing legislation, policy and practice

Secondary school admissions in England 2001 to 2008: Changing legislation, policy and practice

The first Code of Practice came into force on 1 April 1999 (DfEE, 1999) and applied to arrangements leading to admissions from September 2000. In terms of the criteria to be used, the Code noted that admission authorities had ‘a fairly wide discretion to determine their own oversubscription criteria provided these criteria are objective, fair, compatible with admissions and equal opportunities legislation’ (1999, para. 5.2). It also gave some frequently used criteria considered to be acceptable including ‘sibling links, distance from the school, ease of access by public transport, medical or social grounds, catchment areas and transfer from named feeder schools, as well as parents’ ranking of preference’ (para. 5.3).
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Carers and personalisation

Carers and personalisation

Personalised support arrangements are central to English adult social care policy and practice. The underpinning aim of enhancing choice and control over individual support arrangements can be traced back several decades, through campaigns by working age disabled people to receive cash direct payments rather than services; In Control’s promotion of self-directed support for learning disabled adults; the piloting of individual budgets; and the mainstreaming of personal budgets across adult social care. A major emphasis of current social care practice is on optimising the choice and control that disabled and older people can exercise over their support.
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Enabling legislation for physician assistants in Puerto Rico : a sociocultural policy analysis

Enabling legislation for physician assistants in Puerto Rico : a sociocultural policy analysis

Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming. 15 These early PA practice acts were usually limited to recognizing the right of the physician to delegate tasks to qualified personnel, and in most cases did not extend to licensing of physician assistants nor did they offer title protection. From those early years, state PA practice laws have evolved to licensing acts, placing authority for PA regulation with the state medical board or other entity, requiring physician supervision, and establishing application, license renewal and disciplinary requirements. By 1992, all states except Mississippi had enacted enabling legislation for PAs. A PA licensing law was passed in Mississippi in 2000. 16 In 2007, Indiana became the last state to authorize delegated prescriptive authority for physician assistants.
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Carers and Personalisation

Carers and Personalisation

Personalised support arrangements are central to English adult social care policy and practice. The underpinning aim of enhancing choice and control over individual support arrangements can be traced back several decades, through campaigns by working age disabled people to receive cash direct payments rather than services; In Control promotion of self-directed support for learning disabled adults; the piloting of individual budgets; and the mainstreaming of personal budgets across adult social care. A major emphasis of current social care practice is on optimising the choice and control that disabled and older people can exercise over their support.
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Charter schools : policy and practice

Charter schools : policy and practice

Kolderie also asserted that permanent change within the system was not possible; which may not be true in the case of Edgar Moses. Edgar Moses is an example of “change from within,” but it is unknown whether or not it was a response to “change from without,” in the form of the charter school legislation. Perhaps the charter school law did “light a fire” under certain administrators so that they finally accepted the need for change; or perhaps certain administrators were waiting for a change in the overall structure of the system so they could justify taking more radical changes in their districts. Either way, both New Village and Edgar Moses made conscious decisions to abandon certain “grammars” of schooling (like a single authoritarian figure and a segmented curriculum). Both schools and
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When is the appropriate time to pursue nurse practitioner practice legislation? : a case study

When is the appropriate time to pursue nurse practitioner practice legislation? : a case study

A recently published conceptual model for optimizing full SOP for NPs in primary care emphasized that NP SOP regulations are one of the key factors in determining NP care and patient outcomes (Poghosyan et al., 2016). The full model illustrated the interrelationship between NP SOP regulations, institutional policies, NP practice environment, and NP workforce outcomes as determinants of NP care and patient outcomes (Poghosyan et al., 2016). Restrictive SOP regulations which require NPs to work in close geographic proximity to physicians limit NPs’ ability to practice fully in geographic areas and organizations with the greatest need, and further limit policy makers’, insurers’, and administrators’ abilities to propose policies to fully utilize NPs in efforts to eliminate disparities (Poghosyan et al., 2016). Authors of the model recommended that NP SOP regulations mirror NPs’ advanced education and training and eliminate unnecessary restrictions that hinder NPs from delivering the high quality care with which they are trained and capable of providing (Poghosyan et al., 2016).
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Service users and carers: preparing to be involved in work based practice assessment

Service users and carers: preparing to be involved in work based practice assessment

A focus group design was used as these are particularly suited for obtaining several perspectives about the same topic. Further, they may increase qualitative insights into specific topics, attitudes or behaviours from people who might otherwise be reluctant to contribute and who, like many SU&Cs in relation to practice assessment, are not well informed. In short they are beneficial for involving stakeholders in policy decisions and we hoped they would lead to insights that might not otherwise have come to light (Denscombe 1998). Each focus group was facilitated by a professional educator with skills to value all contributions equally and to encourage all participants to share their views.
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Carers and personalisation

Carers and personalisation

Policy and practice in English adult social care emphasises the rights of disabled and older people to have choice and control over their own personalised support arrangements, usually through the allocation of Personal Budgets (PBs). Family members providing ‘regular and substantial’ care also have rights to separate assessments of their needs and support to meet these needs. These policies have developed separately from each other. This is despite the interdependencies of service users and carers, particularly when service users have communication or cognitive impairments. When people eligible for adult social care are assessed, guidance from the Department of Health (DH 2010) reminds local authorities that:
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The impact of artists' moral rights legislation on conservation practice in the UK and beyond

The impact of artists' moral rights legislation on conservation practice in the UK and beyond

Insurance law is a separate but related area and may also become relevant when dealing with modern and contemporary artworks where the object’s lifespan is likely to be much shorter than that of traditional paintings and sculptures. In the UK works of art, like other objects, are generally insured under an All Risks policy. Only accidental damage is covered, not any damage which could have been foreseen, or was inevitable. ‘Inherent vice’ is an insurance term; it refers to the fact that iron will eventually rust, for example, or that silk will fade and deteriorate when exposed to light. As with life insurance it is known that an event will occur, it is only the timescale that is unknown. Damage caused in transit will not be covered if the artwork was inadequately packed and the damage could have been foreseen. ‘Latent defect’, another insurance term, means that an error of some sort has been made; for example, it could be interpreted to mean that an artist has used materials which deteriorate faster than others he or she could have chosen. Perry (2003) suggests that contemporary art pushes back the boundaries of materials and techniques whereas insurance law is rather rigid; he believes that the transient nature of some contemporary art and the unstable materials now sometimes used will undoubtedly lead to increasingly complex insurance claims and appeals to law.
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Ambiguity in practice? Carers' roles in personalised social care in England

Ambiguity in practice? Carers' roles in personalised social care in England

England is unusual compared to many developed welfare states, in that family and other unpaid carers have secured significant social rights. The 2004 Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act placed a legal duty on local authorities to inform people with regular and substantial care responsibilities of their right to a separate assessment of their own needs, including those relating to education, training, employment and leisure. These rights exist even if the person being supported refuses, or is ineligible for, local authority support. Depending on the outcome of assessment, carers may receive services or a cash grant in their own right. Government policy (DH 2010, HM Government 2010) is that carers should increasingly receive support in the form of a personal budget (PB) or cash direct payment (DP), which they can choose to use in ways that suit their individual circumstances and priorities. However, research
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Study protocol: young carers and young adult carers in Switzerland

Study protocol: young carers and young adult carers in Switzerland

Research has highlighted the negative outcomes that caring has on children, for example, restricted social and educational opportunities. Much of this work has origi- nated in the United Kingdom (see [14, 15]) and it has had an impact on policy and legal provision in that country, with specific legislation to protect young carers and a national network of hundreds of service programmes. Apart from a few other countries including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Germany, Austria, and France, most nations and governments have not engaged in identifying and supporting young carers, even though it is likely that between two and 4 % of all children (as a minimum estimate) take on caring roles within their families. This reflects a lack of awareness about children who care and the contributions that they make to informal family care, as well as a lack of engagement by academics and by policymakers.
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Child and adolescent mental health : legislation and policy

Child and adolescent mental health : legislation and policy

The Committee issued a call for written views over the 2016 Parliamentary recess, and received written submissions from a range of health boards, children’s services, professional bodies and third sector organisations (2016b). Many submissions identified areas of good practice and improvement, such as anti-stigma work led by SeeMe; early detection and intervention in presentations of psychosis; and intensive home treatment services. However, many also expressed concern around increased volumes of referrals and workforce capacity. Several submissions suggested that CAMHS receive many referrals which are considered inappropriate. Some indicated that there may be poor awareness of alternative sources of support outwith NHS CAMHS. Other submissions maintained that strategic focus must remain upon reducing waiting times. One submission commenting on support available for young people waiting for a referral to specialist CAMHS services stated, “we must not go down the path of offering or developing supports for people waiting to be seen; the focus must be on improving response times and capacity” (NHS Borders 2016, Para 5).
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Evidence-Based Policy and Practice

Evidence-Based Policy and Practice

include nursing interventions for prevention, such as the incorporation of pressure relieving devices. The policy of this pressure ulcer prevention protocol includes the implementation of the Braden scale upon admission, 2 weeks later, and after that period, upon weekly assessments. This allows nursing staff to properly identify those at risk for pressure sore development, but fails to actually prevent worsening of pressure ulcers or the development of pressure ulcers. The prevention protocol also includes weekly skin assessments to be completed by the licensed nurses to aid in the identification of alterations in skin, but again, this intervention fails to prevent the development of pressure related injuries. The facility is in need of a prevention policy that assists in the prevention of pressure ulcers to improve patient outcomes, prevent any further injuries from occurring, as well as provide more cost-saving measures. This facility presently has a patient census of 157 residents with active pressure ulcer treatments on 34 residents, ranging from stage II to stage IV.
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Academic literacies in policy and practice

Academic literacies in policy and practice

In  this  final  analysis  chapter,  I  explore  how  the  academic  literacy  practices  around   student  assignments  are  constructed  in  interviews  with  students  and  lecturers.  As  I   discussed  in  Chapter  3,  I  drew  on  Lillis’  (2001)  talk  around  the  text  approach  to   conduct  the  interviews.  The  results  of  this  chapter  emerge  from  discussing  the   assignments  with  their  writers  and  main  readers  to  understand  how  they  view  them.   I  argue  that  while  students  write  a  wide  range  of  assignments  (7.2)  for  different   purposes,  the  labels  they  and  their  lecturers  use  to  refer  to  some  of  them  (especially   essays)  are  not  necessarily  compatible  with  the  definitions  of  assignment  genres   described  in  existing  scholarly  literature.  For  instance,  Education  students  write  what   they  call  ensayos  (essays),  but  this  can  refer  to  three  different  types  of  assignments.   There  is  a  lot  of  variability  and  confusion  around  what  labels  to  use  for  different   assignments,  and  I  explore  this  further  using  data  from  the  interviews,  but  also  the   contextual  knowledge  I  gained  from  reviewing  syllabi  and  assignment  briefs,  as  well   as  the  students’  assignments  themselves.  Writing  for  class  discussion  reflects  a   common  practice  in  Mexico  in  which  students  read  on  the  topic  assigned  and  then   write  a  text  that  is  used  to  discuss  in  class  (7.3).  Furthermore,  writing  for  
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Policy into practice: provider perspectives

Policy into practice: provider perspectives

In preparing this chapter it has not been possible to conduct a repeated TLC project for Scottish and Welsh FE and thereby provide equivalent data and analysis to the English case. Yet, for present purposes, this is not a significant problem. Though it was conducted in England, the TLC project is most useful here as a reminder that the texture of policy does reverberate right through to what teachers and learners and others actually do ‘on the ground’. To put this another way, the nature and tone of the relationships between colleges and the individuals, agencies and policies that frame their work – something we have seen can differ markedly between England, Scotland and Wales - is one of the most important things shaping the learning culture. The recent denial of ESOL to large swathes of a Somalian community in an English city, with no discussion of whether that is what the college or any section of its community would see as the best way to realise a cut in resources, is just a particularly visible example of something that is ever-present.
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Biofortification in China: policy and practice

Biofortification in China: policy and practice

Traditional nutritional interventions currently employ four main strategies: dietary modification, supplementation, commercial fortification, and biofortification. Biofortification, a relatively new technique, involves selectively breeding staple plant varieties to increase specific nutrient levels in plant tissues. Biofortification has the potential to provide benefits to humans, plants, and livestock; nourish nutrient- depleted soils; and help increase crop yields per acre. Biofortification methods include selective breeding, reducing levels of anti-nutrients, and increasing levels of substances that promote nutrient absorption. If China were to implement biofortification programs, with help from government agencies and international organizations, several policy questions would need to be addressed. The paper discusses several policy questions that pertain to the relationship between biofortified and genetically modified crops, human health and safety concerns, labeling of biofortified crops for consumers, consumer rights, potential environmental impacts, intellectual property rights, seed disbursement, government investment, private-sector research, and additional agricultural and commercial regulations. Biofortification has the potential to help alleviate the suffering, death, disability, and failure to achieve full human potential that results from micronutrient undernutrition-related diseases.
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