Several spatial **parallel** manipulators with a rotational moving platform, called rotational **parallel** manipulators (RPMs), were proposed (Di Gregorio, 2001), (Karouia & Herve, 2000) and (Vischer & Clavel, 2000). (Clavel, 1988) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology designed a 3-DOF **parallel** **manipulator** that does not suffer from the first two of the listed disadvantages of the Stewart **manipulator**. Closed-form solutions for both the inverse and forward kinematics were developed for the DELTA robot (Gosselin & Angeles, 1989). The DELTA robot has only translational degrees of freedom. Additionally, the position and orientation of the moving platform are uncoupled in the DELTA design. However, the DELTA robot construction does employ spherical joints. (Tsai, 1996) presented the design of a spatial 3-UPU (Universal Prismatic Universal) **manipulator** and pointed out the conditions that lead to pure translational motion and its kinematics was studied further by (Di- Gregorio & Parenti-Castelli, 1998). (Tsai, 1996) and (Tsai et al., 1996) designed a 3-DOF TPM (Translational **Parallel** **Manipulator**) that employs only revolute joints and planar parallelograms. (Tsai & Joshi, 2002) analyzed the kinematics of four TPMs for use in hybrid kinematic machines. (Carricato & Parenti-Castelli, 2001) developed a family of 3-DOF TPMs. (Fang & Tsai, 2002) presented a systematic methodology for structure synthesis 3-DOF TPMs using the theory of reciprocal screws (Kim & Tsai, 2002).

Show more
29 Read more

The modelling and **control** of X-quadcopter using a PID Controller has been presented in this paper. The **Simulation** is performed in Matlab Simulink and the model takes into account the assumptions that the quadcopter body and the propellers are rigid and the structure is supposedly symmetrical. Based on the attitude **control** commands in the form of desired roll, pitch and yaw angles, the quadcopter **control** is brought about by PID Controller. The **Simulation** results illustrate the velocity and position of the quadcopter along three different axes. This paper provides modelling of the UAV and also the projection of its performance based on the designed model. Earlier work on the same topic provided the modelling parameters alone and this paper takes the reference of it and extend it in measuring projections of its dynamic behavior.

Show more
Abstract Aircraft flight **simulation** is a billion dollar industry worldwide that requires vast engineering resources. A method for **modeling** flight **control** systems using **parallel** cascade system identification is proposed as an addition to the flight simulator engineer’s toolbox. This method is highly efficient in terms of the data collection required for the **modeling** process since it is a black box method. This means that only the input and the output to the flight **control** system are required and details of the inner workings of the system can be largely ignored resulting in significantly fewer real data signals that need to be recorded. The paper views on two objectives. One the specific **parallel** cascade models can be identified that reproduce the behavior of a particular part of an aircraft flight **control** system. i.e. the pilot input **control** meet the objective test requirements of a commercial aircraft flight simulator. The second is to produce such a model which also meets the basic requirements for implementation in a working flight simulator.

Show more
The foundations of the modern linear stability theory were laid by Rayleigh [1880], who used his new framework to prove remarkable results about the stability of jet proﬁles. Rayleigh’s theory persists today, virtually unchanged, and this theory, with some modern accoutrements, forms the subject of the present chapter. Linear stability theory will be used frequently in subsequent chapters, to de- scribe the behavior of the shear layer spanning a rectangular cavity. The de- velopments here will be from this perspective, considering the appropriate ﬂow assumptions and boundary conditions. Most of the results are well known, but scattered throughout the literature, so here we collect them in one place, along with a few recent results, such as the adjoint equations and biorthogonality rela- tion developed in sections 2.6 and 2.7. We describe a locally **parallel** theory, for inviscid ﬂows. We develop the compressible Rayleigh equation, along with the corresponding adjoint equations, and discuss a biorthogonality condition which is useful for expanding arbitrary ﬂow disturbances in terms of eigenfunctions of the Rayleigh problem.

Show more
144 Read more

When the downhole system occurs, and the pressure difference between the upper and lower part of the choke valve changes, the choke valve operates; when the revolving speed of the pump tends to be smooth and steady, the choke valve will operate in a full open form. Figures 4-7 are variation curves of various pa- rameters of the oil well under double PI **control**. The choke valve operates at 120s and 250s. We observe that the pressure of the pump suction inlet closely follows with the preset value and becomes more ac- curate. We also observe that the revolving speed of the motor basically reaches a reasonable value. We can see that the double PI **control** can be more accurate and rapid to make the pressure closely follow with the set point, thus achieving the purpose of accurate pre- diction model in the case of the same condition of the entire oil production system of the submersible pump.

Show more
The open-loop transfer function in equation (32) can be implemented into Matlab by using the m-file code. The transfer function from the Laplace transforms or from the state space representation can be used. This transfer function assumes that both derivative and integral **control** will be needed along with proportional **control**. This open-loop transfer function can be modeled in Matlab. The function polyadd is not originally in the Matlab toolbox. It has to be copied to a new m-file to use it. This transfer function is assumed that both derivative and integral **control** will be needed along with proportional **control**. The actual **control** of this system could be stated by subjecting step input and its response which has been shown in figure 6.

Show more
12 Read more

Óscar F. Avilés S Was born in Bogotá, Colombia, in 1967. He received the Engi- neer degree in Electronics and Specialist of Electronic Instrumentation of Antonio Nariño University – UAN - in 1995 and 2002, respectively. Master in Automatic Production Systems - Technological University of Pereira - 2006 Colombia and PhD in Mechanical Engineering in Campinas State University – UNICAMP – Brazil. Cur- rently is Professor in the Department of Mechatronics Engineering in Militar Nueva Granada University - UMNG. He has experience in the areas of Electronic Engineer- ing, with emphasis on electronic instrumentation and **control** systems, acting mainly on the following topics: robotics, **control** and biomechatronics.

Show more
13 Read more

the mobile part of the robot is reduced to the three legs and the mobile platform. Consequently, higher velocities and ac- celerations of the mobile platform can be achieved. Another benefit is that the legs are made of only thin rods, thus, reducing the risk of leg interference. Further, the geomet- rical/physical parameters of the **manipulator** are also opti- mized for a given constant orientation workspace. The in- verse dynamic model is obtained using the Lagrangian dy- namic formulation method (Abdellatif and Heimann, 2009). The proposed robust task-space trajectory tracking controller is based on a centralized proportional-integral-derivative (PID) **control** along with a nonlinear disturbance observer. The **control** schemes for **parallel** **manipulator** may be prin- cipally separated into two types, joint-space **control** estab- lished in joint-space coordinates (Davliakos and Papadopou- los, 2008; Honegger et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2000; Nguyen et al., 1992; Yang et al., 2010), and task-space **control** designed based on the task-space coordinates (Kim et al., 2005; Ting et al., 2004; Wu and Gu, 2005). The joint-space **control** ap- proach can be readily employed as an assemblage of several independent single-input single-output (SISO) **control** sys- tems using the data on each actuator feedback only. A classi- cal PID **control** in joint-space along with gravity compensa- tion has been employed in industry, but it does not always as- sure a great performance for **parallel** manipulators. However, the proposed robust task-space **control** approach improves the overall **control** performance by rejecting the uncertainty and nonlinear effects in motion equations. The rejections of system or model uncertainty, unknown external disturbance and nonlinear effects in the system motions have been com- pleted in the proposed **control** scheme with the help of an equivalent **control** law; a feed-forward **control** scheme and a nonlinear disturbance observer along with the nonlinear PID **control** scheme. In the proposed task-space **control** method, the desired motion of the end effector in task-space is used directly as the reference input of the **control** scheme. That is, the motion of the end effector can be obtained from the sys- tem sensors and compared with the reference input to form a feedback error in task-space. Therefore, an exact kinemat- ics model is not required in the task-space **control**, and thus this method is sensitive to joint-space errors or end effector pose errors due to joint clearances and other mechanical in- accuracies. The validity of the proposed **control** scheme is demonstrated with the help of virtual prototype experiments. The performance of the proposed **control** scheme including closed-loop stability, precision, sensitivity and robustness is analysed in theory and **simulation**.

Show more
14 Read more

In the current paper, following the inverse and forward kinematical **modeling**, under the assumption that the leg inertia is negligible, the dynamical model of the 3-RPS **manipulator** is obtained using Lagrange method. Considering six dependent generalized coordinates in the **modeling** process, and by applying the principle of virtual work, the distribution matrix of **control** input vector in the formulation appears as an identity matrix. Therefore, mathematical manipulation and computational burden significantly decrease. The present method can be applied to nonholonomic systems as well. With following linearization, the error dynamics of the 3-RPS through the computed torque method, an SMC law is applied to stabilize the robot around its reference trajectories even in the presence of exogenous disturbances, and uncertainties in the model . Through software **simulation**, the superiority of the proposed **control** system is compared with a FL **control** method. As can be seen, both the SMC and FL **control** systems yield the convergence of the end-effector to the reference trajectory when there is no disturbance and no parameter uncertainty. Although disturbances do not affect the performance of the FL controller, parameter uncertainties especially uncertain geometrical specifications lead to malfunction of the FL controller. However, as a robust **control** approach, the proposed SMC system results in satisfactory tracking performance against all the above- mentioned uncertainties and exogenous inputs.

Show more
10 Read more

This paper is organized as follows, applied SOM neural network to get the best path from the point that spread randomly on the robot **manipulator**. This robot **manipulator** is also given a **control** using Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) and Fuzzy Proportional Derivative (Fuzzy-PD) [12-16]. The reason to combineboth of SOM neural network and Fuzzy-PD **control** to simulate robot **manipulator** in this research because it is still rarely used. The advantage of SOM's neural network for trajectory planning robot arm **manipulator** is the learning process without guidance, unlike the neural network back propagation that should always be guided to learn trajectory planning [17-21]. This robot **manipulator** **simulation** is usingMatlab Robotics Toolbox, where the **simulation** is not built from beginning [5, 6]. The **simulation** was made by using C# programming languages and the results are displayed with images in 2 dimensional fields. The purpose of this joint implementation research between SOM neural network and Fuzzy-PDcontrol can be the basic research in the realization process later.

Show more
10 Read more

Here we again used the automatic partitioning algorithm to split the model of Fig. 4 into 11 sub- models. The resulting model has 11 Airs blocks with out any connections. We then added manually the **Control** PI (the 12-th block) and its connection. This is done because the algorithm for automatic partitioning does not take into account blocks like the vector sum. This block is neither pure vectorial, nor does event routing or acts as an interface. The kind of computation it performs (a reduction) needs special treatment in the algorithm that is not yet included.

34 Read more

Figure 6.1 shows the measured data points together with linear best-fit lines (using the Matlab function ‘polyfit’), as well as the simulated data for the three platform coordinates. A negative voltage means a voltage on the pull comb-drive and a positive voltage means a voltage on the push comb-drive. In the x and y-direction the **simulation** and measurements match well. For the ϕ-rotation it matches less well. This is due to the fact that the real thickness of the flexures and comb-drive teeth is not known very accurately, so the real stiffness might be different, as well as the comb-drive strength. Especially because the stiffness depends on the thickness to the third power. Hence, a 5% deviance in thickness already becomes a 16% deviance in stiffness and this will also change the voltage-deflection relation.

Show more
67 Read more

The new design is based using a modular approach that have large reachable dextrous workspace along with desired rigidity and positional accuracy for diverse applications. For this purpose, a simple hybrid **parallel** serial **manipulator** is proposed after design and feasibility study. In this system, a serial arm is coupled with **parallel** platform to provide the base motion. The development of the hybrid **manipulator** system covers mechanical system design, system dynamic modelling and **simulation**, design optimization, trajectory generation and **control** system design. The different aspects under hybrid **manipulator** motion **control** scheme are shown in figure.5. These aspects of manipulation and **control** includes

Show more
62 Read more

In this paper the modelling and dynamic response of a constrained single link flexible rotating **manipulator** subject to quick stops was investigated. One end of the flexible **manipulator** was constrained to a predefined trajectory for possible trajectory **control** and obstacle avoidance. The effect of link flexibility, axial shortening and clearance has been considered in the analysis of the rotating flexible **manipulator**. It was observed that the time evolution of the system was mainly affected by the quick stops and angular velocity. At the time of the quick stop (which represents the main impacts of the system) the flexible link makes successive shocks, which increase the amplitude of vibration. Further experimental tests will be performed in order to validate and generalize the simulations reported in this study.

Show more
So, from the equation (II) to (VI) the position with respect to base, rotation matrix, torque, singularity and joint angles can be determined. Following these solutions the trajectory can be planned very easily and such a **manipulator** will perform our desired activity more smoothly and accurately in comparison with human being. Just following the algorithm in a microcontroller, this robot can perform its job quicker than a man. Yet this research has lots of scopes for working still now. The **control** system can be designed and many features can be added to the **manipulator** for more perfect operations. Hence, this research was regarding the mathematical model and performance of the **manipulator** which the vehicle carries; this paper will help the researchers at this field as well as those who are trying to make a mean of utilizing manipulators in the field of waste management for reducing the possibility of health diseases to human beings and to reduce the anxiety of regular collection of waste in municipal areas.

Show more
al. [8] introduced a 3 DoF **parallel** **manipulator** for medical applications. The dynamic equations for each leg are written separately and finally coupled together using suitable constraints. Each leg is approximated as a serial **manipulator**. The constraints are reintroduced into the model by the use of Lagrangian multipliers.Pedrammehr et al.[9] developed a 6 DoF **parallel** **manipulator** called Hexarot. Hexarot robot comprises of six arms which is collectively connected to the triangular platform. The mechanism is modelledkinematically in terms of Euler angles. The mechanism is modelled dynamically using the Newton-Euler approach and verified using ADAMS. The author presented a **simulation** study for defined joint motions and correspondingly compared the results obtained from the dynamic model and ADAMS. Chablatet al. [10] explained the inverse kinematics and dynamics of an orthoglide **parallel** robot

Show more
The 3 degree of freedom robot **manipulator** in this project is RRR robot arm, which has 3 revolute joints. So basically, the mathematical models are kinematic model, inverse kinematic model of robot **manipulator** and 7-DOF vehicle ride model. So in PSM 1 the mathematic derivation will be completed until forward kinematic and PSM 2 is inverse kinematic, 7-DOF ride model and pitch rejection **control**.

24 Read more

The **control** objective in many robot **manipulator** applications is to command the end-effector motion to achieve a desired response. To achieve this objective a mapping is required to relate the joint/link **control** inputs to the desired **Cartesian** position and orientation. If there are uncertainties or singularities in the mapping, then degraded performance or unpredictable responses by the **manipulator** are possible. To address these issues, in this chapter, an adaptive task-space tracking controller is developed for robot manipulators with uncertainty in the kinematic and dynamic models. The controller is developed based on the unit quaternion representation so that singular- ities associated with three parameter representations are avoided. In addition, the developed controller does not require the measurement of the task-space velocity. The stability of the controller is proven through a Lyapunov based stability analysis. **Simulation** results using a two degree of freedom planar **manipulator** model are pre- sented to validate the controllers performance, then experimental results for a planar application of the Barrett whole arm **manipulator** (WAM) are provided to illustrate the performance of the developed controller.

Show more
89 Read more

In general, it can be accepted that robot manipulators having the end effector connected to the ground via several chains having actuation in **parallel** will have greater rigidity and superior positioning capability. Thus makes the **parallel** manipulators attractive for certain applications and the last two decades have witnessed considerable research interest in this direction. Industrial robots play a central role in factory automation. However, there has been little effort as to the application of application of robots in machining work such as grinding, cutting, milling, drilling etc. This kind of work requires robot manipulators to have high stiffness, rigidity and accuracy which cannot be provided by conventional serial robot manipulators. Hence for the application like these it is desirable to have **parallel** manipulators.

Show more
The description of one ﬁ nished work using the remote **control** system follows as a proof of concept of the whole remote **control** system. This work is focused on ﬁ nding position, orientation and dimensions of the objects that are placed in the working space of the **manipulator**. The stereoscopic images from two cameras, described above, connected to the upper parts of the protective cage (see Fig. 1), are used for ﬁ nding these parameters. Moreover, the stereoscopic analysis provides spatial dependencies between objects and also provides required information about the working space, which is useful for planning the motion of the **manipulator**. This analysis is focused on transformation of the depth map, obtained from the stereoscopic view, to the space of **parallel** coordinates. There is dualism between the new representation based on **parallel** coordinates and the **Cartesian** system, in which the stereoscopic images were taken. The searched lines of the objects are transformed to the points in the **parallel** coordinates, thanks to the dualism. These points are independent of rotation and can be found easily. The various methods such as thresholding or ﬁ nding the maximum of the cut of **parallel** point were successfully tested for ﬁ nding these points. See more details in our previous work (Kolomazník, 2013).

Show more