This diary contains approximately 875,000 words by which we are able to understand the life of a typical Chinese intellectual, to check the exact dates of some writings of his, and to correct errors against related sources. The first part of Chang Chien’s diary which covered approximately the period from 1873 to 1892 was published in Taipei in 1967; and the second part of Chang Chien’s diary which covered approximately the period from 1892 to 1926 was later published in Taipei in 1969. These two parts of Chang Chien’s diary were reprinted to- gether in 1986 in Taipei covering the period from 1873 to 1926. The Nine Records of ChangChien  (he- reafter cited as Chiu-lu) is an indispensable source material for Chang Chien’s thoughts and activities. This col- lection of his writings is divided topically into Cheng Wen Lu (On Politics), Shih Yeh Lu (On Industry), Chiao Yu Lu (On Education), Tzu Chih Lu (On Self-government), Tz’u Shang Lu (On Philanthropy), Wen Lu (Essays), Shih Lu (Poems), Chuan Lu (Special Section), and Wai Lu (On the Civil Service Examination). Within each topical section the sources are arranged in chronological order. The Complete Work of ChangChien   includes some new data not found in The Nine Records of ChangChien, which is an invaluable source material to Chang Chien’s thoughts and activities.
The contributions of the NIE to the PWC have produced a lot of policy prescriptions in the modern economic policies. Good governance, role of state and institutions play an important role in the documents and reports of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and international organizations. Aid policies of the World Bank seek to deal with the economic problems of developing countries by applying the principles of the NIE including institutional reforms and good governance. Especially, the Development Report of the World Bank in 1997 highly influenced by the PWC and the principles of the NIE stresses an important “role of state in the changing world” (1997). According to the report, partnership between governments and citizens, cooperation among all groups of society, “good governance” and capacity of states to foster economicdevelopment and maintain formal institutions are extremely important for development (1997). The report influenced by the PWC seeks to promote the idea of “developmental state” contributed by the NIE and promoted within the PWC (Tornquist, 1999: 89). The contributions of the NIE to the PWC are also promoted in the foreign policy prescriptions of the most supranational organizations, like the European Union. For example, EU Neighborhood Strategy Papers promote the idea of “good governance” to achieve sustainable development in its neighborhood countries (2004: 3).
Abstract— The relationship between investment and development of close relations in economicthought, foreign investment have been associated by the development of international trade, and helped to spread and increasing rates emergence transnational corporations National Furthermore mergers and acquisitions across borders, including the purchase of foreign investors Government Organizations that have been privatized, Has used the most of the world foreign capital to modernize and develop its production facilities and other components of the national economy, and foreign investment played an important role in economicdevelopment projects for the host countries if they have done these countries to choose their projects and their foreign partners, Investing can close the gap of resources and capabilities that are not available in the receiving countries, The research problem in that Economics sectors be affected by a lot of factors that affect one way or another by and by certain of these factors is not economic, so there are major factors leading to development and growth to the desired goal final namely economic well-being and these important factors is foreign direct investment (FDI) The orientation of the plan drawn about the problems and economic critical points, it leads to the activation of the entire economy, The research aims to targets several of them process the data to make it distributed naturally using functions transfers Johnson three SL, SU, SB, as well as estimate the econometrics models represent the relationship between foreign direct investment as an independent variable economic indicators for Pakistan country. Keywords — Economics, International Economics, Econometrics.
The only disagreement between textbook authors with respect to the development of OIE thought emerges in the description of its legacy and impact on modern orthodoxy. Blaug (1997, 703) denies the existence of a modern version of the Original Institutionalist tradition: “…the institutionalist movement ended for all practical purposes in the 1930s.” Furthermore, both Blaug (1997, 702) and Ekelund and Hebert (2004, 433) claim that there does not presently exist a coherent or robust enough body of thought to be singled out as representative of the modern OIE tradition. Landreth and Colander (2002, 477) claim that while Original Institutionalism has been credited for spotlighting critical issues over the years, in the post World War II period, it remains inept at penetrating the inner circle of mainstream economic theoretical analysis; Ekelund and Hebert (2004, 419) agree but also state that the ideas of the OIE have incrementally crept into economic discourse, pointing to Leibenstein’s Veblenian good and its upward sloping demand as an example. Backhouse credits the survival of the OIE through the latter part of the twentieth century to the popular culture work of John K. Galbraith (2002, 314-5). Screpanti and Zamagni describe the “new ‘old’ institutionalism” in continuing relevancy through succeeding generations of scholars, such as J. Fagg Foster, John K. Galbraith, and Marc Tool who pushed the Original Institutionalist tradition through to the new millennium. The authors as well, credit the
Both disciplines have their set of problems in methodology, natural law philosophy encounters the problem due to a lack of validity, which can be corrected through the data provided from other social sciences such as psychology. Furthermore, for natural law theorist the market does not behave like they ‘hold’ it should while for economist the markets do not behave like they ‘think’ it should. Furthermore, natural law theorist hold concepts of justice are ‘eternally’ valid, while economist observe that utility maybe a short-term concept. The concepts of short-term happiness and the long-term state are distinguished in Latin as felix and beatus respectively. One of the most basic and contribution of natural law to economics is the realization of human freedom. A strong debate in the past thirty years has produced empirical facts that economic and political freedom produces gains in well-being. At the same time religious practice is desirable and has been demonstrated empirically to produce gains in both income and wealth. But the empirical augmentation maybe destructive and distorted when we view, freedom and religious practice as instrumental. Thus, it may be true that freedom, love and religion are a powerful tool to combat
complete lack of conception of what Marx called “the moral depreciation of technology.” For Marx, moral depreciation describes the moment when the exchange-value (money price) of a piece of machinery is lost, due to it no longer being the best on the market. Marx warned that this occurs irrespective of the actual use-value and age of equipment, and pointed out that this might constitute an inefficiency in capitalist production. 80 Rumiantsev, however, warned that the introduction of new technologies required enterprises to be able to amortize the cost of obsolescence for machinery. In the USSR, the rules of enterprise accounting only allowed for the “physical depreciation” of fixed assets rather than their “moral depreciation,” or purely technical obsolescence. As a result, Soviet factories and enterprises had no incentive to replace obsolete equipment and thus would often run older and newer technologies in parallel. Soviet economic sciences had no answer for how to achieve these standards as “no research on moral depreciation had been conducted in the last 10-15 years.” Worse still, Soviet economists had (in line with Stalin’s teachings), denied the importance of technical obsolescence by arguing that because the state controlled the operation of the law of value within the socialist industrial sector, the discount rate that allowed for the replacement of old technology under capitalism did not exist. Rumiantsev assailed this thinking as “both false and harmful to practice” and claimed that while it may have made sense “when industry was in its infancy,” it now held back technical development. Gosplan and the Academy of Sciences had to change their position on the matter and begin to take the problem of obsolescence seriously. Rumiantsev had reintroduced some concerns about the effective use of capital through the back door. To
Based on the study of Muhammad Nejatullah Shiddiqy (1976) 23 , Ibn Khaldun is a Muslim thinker who is also the father of the world economy has contributed much thought to the economic field, including the doctrine of values, division of labor, pricing system, law of supply and demand, production, money, capital formation, population growth, macroeconomics of taxes and public spending, trade cycle, agriculture, industry and trade, property rights and prosperity, He also discusses the various stages that people pass through in their economicdevelopment. We also find the basic understanding embodied in the labor supply curve whose slope is tilted backward. Ijtihad-ijtihad Ibn Khaldun is still eternal and part of the referral in economicdevelopment. The author agrees with the study of Muhammad Nejatullah Shiddiqy that Ibn Khaldun's contribution to the economic field is very large ranging from the theory of production, consumption, distribution and so forth.
Economic theory does business differently. Just as in theoretical physics, the economy cannot move forward without resorting to models to reproduce certain aspects of reality and takes as given certain assumptions to reach conclusions according to shared procedures. In this case it common ground if we refer to conjectures, postulates, axioms or theorems, that which allows us to assume certain principles. A statement may appear in economy -depending on the problem in question- as principle, axiom or theorem. However, although the hypotheses of this kind are suggested by the facts, strictly speaking, are creations of scientific rationality to explain certain phenomena. Differ from the assumptions of the first class that do not contain the final results pose interesting research themselves; in economy these hypotheses are mere instruments or tools built with aim of achieving interesting results. Moreover, the construction of such assumptions do not work conforms theoretical economist, just as the development of statistical hypothesis does not exhaust the theoretical work in statistics. No less important is to hire other records where you can have the results of the hypotheses, and conceptual grounds (eg "marginal rate of production," "marginal productivity", "value", "multiplier" or "accelerator") relations concepts and methods to manipulate these relationships, none of which is hypothetical. The sum total of those records, without forgetting the recursive assumptions, actual is the task of the economist.
The next five categories (Development Economics, Comparative Economic Systems, History of EconomicThought, Economic History and Heterodox Economics) are grouped under the meta-category of economics as a social science. The key feature of this meta-category is the ontology of a complex, rather than complicated system. Agents are rule followers, structure and agency co-evolve in path-dependent historical time. It is not a case of change within a given system, but the system is itself evolving (Potts: 2000, Beinhocker: 2006, Foster: 2005). Whilst each of the five categories has some distinct strands that still share the complicated ontology of neoclassical economics (history of economicthought being the most obvious), all five categories share the tendency towards a complex systems ontology that is at the heart of the social sciences.
Classical statistical inferences rely on data being mean reverting. However, economic variables which tend to evolve over time are not always stationary and failure to account for this will result in spurious regression results. To circumvent such problems, unit roots are carried out to ascertain that regression results are valid. However, while testing for unit root is standard in the time series literature, it is quite recent in panel data (Baltagi, 2005). In the tourism literature although not very common, the availability of samples with fairly large time dimensions has resulted in more testing for unit root in the panel data set up, for example, Lee and Chang (2008) in a study of tourism development and economic growth and Seetaram (2010, 2012) in the context of Australian outbound tourism.
Transformation of China’s SOEs can be defined as institution change without technology innovation, Hence the research agenda rises: when the structure of SOEs should be changed? What sequence should be followed about the priority of China’s SOEs transformation within reform package? What factors contribute to evolvement of SOEs? transaction cost is a relative static concept,Foundation of evolutionary economic is thought that “novelty---replication---retention”.Both of them is inappropriate to explain the transformation of China’s SOEs .As far as logistical positivism is concerned,”such accounts usually rest on a model of causality that requires the assumption of unit homogeneity” Daniel Ziblatt(2010) Historian need deal with heterogeneous facts.
According to Bizunesh Hailu, in previous government it is dead time for women. Women are highly marginalized and they lack even the right to have their own property. Before 1991, women are not considered as equal important and significant actors in economicdevelopment of a given society. Moreover, women are highly demoralized by the society and even the people accept for century as a norm and culture and become inherited. In contrast to this, the current government is highly committed to recognize women as an important actor in the development process of the country. The government gives adequate right and legal entitlement including the right to ownership, equal employment opportunity and so on. Since 1991, especially after 1997, there is a tremendous change regarding the status of women‟s. Their participation and involvement are increase in various socio- economic activities. The government gives high attention and priority for women and youth because it is believed that economicdevelopment cannot occur without the active involvement of women and youth 22 .
The implementation of the development in the area depends heavily on local revenue as well as the management of the area itself. The presence of Law No. 12 of 2008 on the Second Amendment to Law No. 32 year 2004 on local governments brought such a major change to the implementation of regional development. It expressly authorizes the region to organize and manage the interests of local communities according to its own initiative based on community aspirations or in other words the region under Law No. 12 of years 2008 has been granted autonomy. Government efforts to build should be improved by conducting coaching and directing to all communities so that it can materialize the purpose of the development itself, in addition to community participation to support the smooth process Development. To implement sustainable development, the region/city is more demanded to be able to dig as optimally as possible financial resources, such as; Levy or levies which are the sources of indigenous revenue, as referred to in Law No. 32 of 2004. Taxes that are imposed by the state will be used to finance all public interest, as well as to finance the development so as to open employment opportunities, which will eventually be able to increase public income.
extract from a large literature that has been lost – constitutes the Greek bequest, so far as economic theory is concerned’ (Schumpeter, 1997, p. 60). Muslim scholars were not confined to only these areas. In addition, they discussed market function and pricing mechanism, production and distribution problems, government economic role and public finance, poverty eradications, and economicdevelopment, etc. According to Spengler (1964, p. 304) Muslim scholars extended this branch of knowledge ‘far beyond the household, embracing market, price, monetary, supply, demand
Gokhale wsa worried about India’s arrested industries development and pointed out the conditions for promoting industrialisation .These conditions are: Skill, enterprise , capital and organisation .Japan’s industrial progress provided a good example foe India.Gokhale mentioned the following factors leading to effort to modernise the ways of life. All these factors were needed if India wanted to become an industrialised nation.Gokhlae did not favour free trade ,at least I practice. In practise ,he said, each country must take care of its economic interests by following the policy of protection.But he cautioned that while giving protection ,care should taken that the general interest of the community should not be sacrificed to the narrow interest of a few industries .Consequently ,he distinguished between the right kind of protection and the wrong kind of protection. ‘ The right kind of protection is that under which the growing industries of a country receive the necessary stimulus and encuragement and support that they require ,but under which care is taken that no influential combinations,Pre-judicial to the interest of the community ,came into existence .The wrong kind of protection ,on the other hand, is that under which powerful influences and combination and interests receive assistence to the prejudice of the general community ,the general taxpayers of the country.
History of economicthought can be regarded as a collection of highly subjective, opinionated and personal economic ideas of great economists. It may also include opinions of the different schools of economicthought. It is the sum total of all opinions concerning economic discipline, especially with respect to public policy on different economic issues at any given time and place. Economicthought may reveal class relation, production, distributuion, value, economic growth development and a host of many other aspects concerning the economic life of a society. it is an account of the development of economic ideas and also a study of their impact on economic institutions and human activities. it is a systematic compilation of economic ideas of human beings which aim at analyzing some economic problems, or explaining the origin and mechanism of some economic institutions. History of economicthought also contains plans, programmes and speculation about institutions and their future development .it is a systematic, chronological and critical study of the economic ideas and sources of some of these ideas.
ChangChienthought that education, especially basic education was very important for the people and the nation. But without suitable teachers, it was impossible to extend basic education, and hence he advocated the estab- lishment of various kind of schools in this order: normal schools first, serving as the purpose of training suitable teachers, then elementary schools, secondary schools, and finally colleges and universities. Although in 1901-1902 he failed to convince Liu K’ung-I, then Governor General of Liang-chiang to adopt his development program, ChangChien himself did carry out this idea in his home country, Nan-t’ung. The establishment of various schools in Nan-t’ung was wholly under his initiation and direction. He established various schools there mostly with his own resources and partly with the help of his friends. The government gave him neither interfe- rence nor assistance. His rationale, penned in 1902 was:
For close to two thousand years China had a gradually developing system of education based on the Confucian classics and formalized by the civil service examination system. Confucius (551 B.C.-479 B.C.) found that the natural hierarchy of men, based on differences in intelligence, ability, and moral character, came into direct con- flict with the feudal hierarchy, based on status at birth. When Confucius’ whole system of thought is analyzed, it is obvious that he regards rule by the wise and virtuous as the very foundation of good government. Mencius (371-289 B.C.), the foremost disciple of Confucianism, cited ancient practices which being legendary and beyond proof. He argued that it is the duty of the state to set up schools at various levels for the education of people, though we should realize that up to his lifetime education had practically been a monopoly of the here- ditary feudal nobility. Han Fei (280 B.C.-233 B.C.), the synthesizer of the Legalists stress “the right man for the job” as well. Confucius, Mencius and Han Fei all had the idea of selecting the right men for the job. But how to realize this ideal? What is the objective way in selecting talents for government service? In the Han Dynasty, there was a system of “recommendation”. Under this system, the high officials should recommend talents for government service. However, this recommendation system collapsed due to serious nepotism and did not func- tion well later.
ChangChien (1853-1926) was a native of Nant'ung, Kiangsu. In spite of the Various works on ChangChien, which testify to the significance of his role in modern China, Chang Chien's Middle Way for Gradual Reform is still not well- researched. The purposes of this paper are firstly, to analyze Chang Chien's Middle Way for Gradual Reform systematically and clearly in the hope that it may become a useful reference for researchers on modern Chinese political thought, and secondly, to stimulate scholars for further research. This paper depends more on basic source materials rather than second-hand data. Among various source materials, Chang Chien's Diary, The Nine Records of ChangChien and The Complete Work of ChangChien are the most important. Chang Chien's Middle Way for Gradual Reform may be summarized as follows:1 taking notice of both economic basis and superstructure; 2 elitism; 3 pragmatism; 4 concept of limited change; 5 gradualism; 6 golden means; and 7 government by the people.
taxes and also tries to gain excessive control over all sources of power and wealth‟. As the State begins to be unable to collect more taxes it will be unable to spend on development. This will force deep depression and thus eventually it will result in the collapse of the civilization (Ibn Khaldun, 1967). Muhsin (quoted by Karatas, 2006 ) summed the opinion of Ibn Khaldun after the decline of the civilisation as: men „motivated by hunger they fight for mere existence, and like the primordial man who fought out of the same motive, they display the beast in man, and return to the life of beast.‟ The main points of Ibn Khaldun, for growth, according to Karatas (2006), which may guide the State on development, are integrated. They include: (a) „the establishment of property rights and freedom of enterprise, for a country with relatively poor property rights will stay poor forever‟. (b) „Rule of law and the reliability of the judicial system for the establishment of justice as the lack of justice eradicates‟ the human species. (c) „The security of peace and the security of trade routes‟. (d) „Lower taxation and less bureaucracy in order to increase employment, production and revenues‟. (e) „No government involvement in trade, production and commercial affairs and no fixation of prices by government‟ while prohibition of monopoly by „anyone in the market‟. (f) „Stable monetary policy and independent monetary authority that does not play with the value of the money‟. (g) „Promotion of larger population and a larger market for greater specialisation‟. (h) „A creative education system for independent thinking‟ and behaviour and (i) „a collective responsibility and internal feeling for the setting up of a just system to encourage good deeds and prevent vice'.