Heat clearing herbs, which tend to have cold charac- ters, have been found to produce some combination of antimicrobial , anti-toxic , anti-inflammatory [29, 30], antipyretic , antioxidant [27, 31], platelet aggregation inhibition, sedative, immunomodulatory , and hepatoprotective activities . The HCHs own anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counter- acting toxicity . Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Dan Shen) is an example of BASRHs, and the compound Tan- shinone IIA isolated from it could be a promising agent to improve blood viscosity and microcirculation and to prevent cardiovascular diseases . Salvianolic acid B is clinically effective because of its ability to change the gene expression profile of endothelial cells thereby classification methods owned better generalization ability and accuracy when predicting the actions of heat-clearing and blood-activating stasis-resolving based on TCM-HP theory. Besides, the methods of deep learning would help us to improve our understanding about the relationship between herbal property and action, as well as to enrich and develop the theory of TCM-HP scientifically.
Ideological struggles are present in two forms in this example. One is the struggle over the legitimacy of TCM’s use of non-biomedical language to develop knowledge. The discursive spaces are supportive of biomedical epistemology such that TCM physicians are under pressure to use biomedical language to make themselves understandable. The other struggle is over conflicts regarding what is considered an adequate mode of learning. TCM physicians are trained based on experiential learning in which knowledge is articulated, circulated, and verified through test and retest procedures across generations. This learning mode is systematic in its own right, but it has received criticism for being old-fashioned and lacking rigor from a Western scientific perspective. Participants noted that TCM’s appreciation of old ideas does not satisfy the biomedical emphasis on continuous progress and advances in innovations:
Context: The knowledge and terms of TraditionalChineseMedicine are abstract and difficult for students and the public to understand in the present day. Aim: This article describes the development of TraditionalChineseMedicine computer courseware on DVD and the study done for determining whether instructions designed digitally are as effective as the instructions explained in the traditional lectures for students to acquire awareness of the abstract concepts and terms of TraditionalChineseMedicine. Settings and Design: Two units on TraditionalChineseMedicine were taught to 198 Taiwanese students: 153 students studied using the traditional classroom lecture method and 45 students studied using computer courseware on DVD. Results: Quantitative data on pre-test and post-test and qualitative data on open-ended responses regarding the experience of using the courseware were collected and analyzed. The post-test scores of both the lecture group and DVD courseware group were significantly higher than the pre-test scores. However, the results showed that the score gains between the pre-test and post-test scores of the two groups did not differ. Qualitative responses demonstrated that the students responded positively to using courseware. Since we are not denying the effectiveness of the face-to-face lectures, this result indicated that well- designed courseware is as effective as classroom lectures. Digital materials on the DVD courseware could assist learners for autonomous learning.
The main idea of BrSmoteSvm is described as follows. In each fold of the 10-fold cross validation, BR, a problem transformation method is used. The basic idea of BR is to decompose the multi-label learning problem into q inde- pendent binary classification problems, where q is the number of label and each binary classification problem corresponds to a possible label in the label space . Therefore, for any multi-label training example, each instance will be involved in the learning process of q bin- ary classifiers. Then SMOTE is applied to training data to decrease effect of the class-imbalanced problem. In the end, SVM is used as the binary classifier. After the 10-fold cross validation, we get the predicted label set. Experimental design and evaluation
This review focuses on the mechanism of four classical types of TraditionalChineseMedicine in treating with KOA: acupuncture, moxibustion, herbs, and massage have different mechanism but all of them are associated with mediating in ﬂ ammatory factors to alleviate KOA. Acupuncture inhibits KOA-related signaling pathways (MAPK, Wnt, Notch, SDF-1/CXCR4, TLRs, Hippo- YAP OPG-RANK-RANKL, and TGF β pathway) and hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes, but pro- motes the release of antioxidants. Moxibustion affects NF- κ B signaling pathway and the activation and expres- sion of COX-2. Herbs modulate Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway and p38-MAPK signaling pathway as well as protect articular cartilage through preventing losses of proteoglycans and collagen II and promoting prolifera- tion of chondrocytes. Massage changes the expression of RANTES and MCP-1 and harmonizes musculature. It has been con ﬁ rmed in clinical doctors or scientists that acupuncture, moxibustion, herbs, and massage are bene- ﬁ cial to KOA, but most studies pay attention to indivi- dual side that TCM affects. The potential mechanism is more complicated because of interaction among diverse factors within knee joint. Therefore, the crosstalk between various factors should not be neglected in future studies. Overall, different interventions of TCM have their own aspects in treating with KOA, but they all
Depression is called yi-yu-zheng in Chinese. Transliterally, yi-yu means “clogged” or “stagnant” status of qi. In TCM, yu describes a collection of syndromes that are characterized by the obstruction of qi circulation . Many disorders including depression are attributable to qi stagnation, of which the treatment involves the pre- scription of herbs that promote qi decongestion. Generally referred to as “vital energy” in the Western world, qi can be viewed as the functional manifestation of organs in the body  . Qi can also be regarded as a sub- stance partially derived from dietary nutrients, which nourishes every organ in the body . Qi can be mani- fested in visible forms such as blood, mucous and serous fluids. In addition, qi can favor the conversion of food into fuel molecules, which then undergo oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. In this regard, ATP can be viewed as the biochemical unit of qi in the cell. While qi cannot be measured directly, problems related to qi can manifest as physiological disorders .
Sufferers of eating disorders commonly seek out complementary therapies, including Chinesemedicine, to aid their recovery (Birmingham & Sidhu, 2007a; Steffen et al., 2006; Tsai, 2005). Our predictive model may prove useful to a TCM practitioner dealing with an eating disorder patient. In particular, it would allow the practitioner to use TCM methods to assess the effect of their treatment of patients with an eating disorder based on a predictive model. This may be useful in situations where a practitioner doesn‟t have a comprehensive understanding of eating disorders from a biomedical perspective and wants to assess the effectiveness of their treatment from a TCM perspective but with a focus on the important patterns of disharmony that predict eating disorders. Further research into the „core‟ TCM feature of an eating disorder may help refine this model and its effectiveness as an assessment tool. It is hoped that this model may provide practitioners with a method to assess their treatment of eating disorder patients.
The treatment of acute pancreatitis with integrated traditionalChinese and western medicine plays a complementary role in clinical practice, which changes from early diagnosed and immediately surgery, conservative internal medicine and Individualized treatment, to the present combination of traditionalChinese and Western medicine in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. The clinical treat- ment point of view is also gradually changed under the guidance of scientific re- search. In this paper, we search for the relevant qualified documents through the databases of China knowledge Network, WANFANG and so on, and compare the therapeutic effects of integrated traditionalChinese and western medicine with those of simple western medicine in the treatment by means of meta analy- sis. Statistical data show that the treatment of acute pancreatitis by integrated traditionalChinese and western medicine is superior to that of western medicine alone, which is consistent with the current clinical research, and provides the corresponding evidence-based basis for clinical work and builds a bridge be- tween traditionalChinese and western medicine. However, the deficiency of this paper lies in the lack of support from English literature, which is related to the fact that traditionalChinesemedicine is a traditionalmedicine in China and the
committee dedicated to TCM and started to draft mono- graphs on TCM herbs . The US Pharmacopoeia has also included some Chinese herbs in their monographs. Efficacy and effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine In the 1990s, randomised, controlled clinical trials began to successfully investigate claims for a series of TCM drugs. Atherton and colleagues conducted a series of such trials in the UK, investigating the efficacy of a TCM formula in the treatment of atopic eczema [41,57]. In Japan, double-blind placebo-controlled trials showed two kampo drugs to be both safe and efficacious in the treatment of constipation and perennial nasal allergy . In Australia, two TCM products were shown to be efficacious in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and hepatitis C [58,59]. These clinical trials, among others, set important milestones for the overseas use of Chinese herbal medicine. In 2003, Kanglaite, a botanical drug derived from Coix lacryma-jobi L. seeds became the first drug derived from a TCM herbal remedy to go into clinical trials in the USA . Subsequently, many TCM- derived products developed in China (such as Dantonic W for chronic stable angina pectoris and Fuzhenghuayu W for liver fibrosis) or the USA (PHY906 W as an adjuvant cancer remedy) have been approved for clinical trials by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 2010 it was esti- mated that approximately 25% of botanical investigational new drug (IND) applications submitted to the FDA were derived from TCM herbs . On the other hand, according to Cochrane and other independent reviews, many clinical trials on TCM were inconclusive, at least partially because of the low quality of many trials conducted in China . Similarly, the quality of systematic reviews and data meta-analysis has also been criticised . This situation is about to change. Since the mid-2000s, China has accelerated its steps in joining the international community of evidence-based medicine and clinical trials conducted in China have begun to be published in leading clinical journals [49,64,65]. Nevertheless, many challenges remain . Some challenges are specific to TCM including the practice of personalised medicine and the difficulties in designing quality controls for TCM practices and drugs, about which international collaborations such as GP-TCM have led to the development of practical guidelines [66,67]. Adverse effects of Chinese herbal medicine
Identifying the critical stage of TCM-syndrome change is crucial to diagnose TCM syndromes. Our DNB model was developed to detect this critical change by measur- ing fluctuations and correlations of molecules (Fig. 2a). The results of the three criteria for DNBs are shown in Fig. 2b. At the critical stage, (i) the expressions of DNBs become highly fluctuated (high coefficient of varia- tion); (ii) DNBs are highly correlated (PCCin are high), Fig. 2 A brief model of dynamic network biomarkers (DNB) theory and DNB analysis results. a Liver-gallbladder dampness-heat syndrome (LGDHS) (excess TCM syndrome) usually happens at disease onset or TCM-syndrome change. After the tipping point, the system drastically deteriorates to weakness, for instance, liver-kidney yin-deficiency syndrome (LKYDS) (deficiency TCM syndrome). The DNB method can identify the dramatic changing state by analyzing molecular fluctuations at each stage. b These four diagrams visually show the three key criteria of DNBs over four different stages during TCM-syndrome progression. CV is the average coefficient of variance of the DNBs, PCC in is the average Pearson correlation
All these traditions and systems have in common the notion of body “constitution”, whereby each individual has specific elements that can divide the human body in different types (4). While the concept ‘per se’ may seem unscientific, in actuality, it is far from being unempirical. Indeed, the constitution concept as developed in the early 90’s, by prof. Wang Qi, loosely says that the constitution is an integrated, relatively stable state of morphological, physiological and psychological characteristics on the basis of congenital genetic and acquired factors (10, 11). A constitution therefore refers to an individuality in metabolism, function and structure, formed during individual's growth, development and aging, which typically determines a person's susceptibility to some pathogenic factors and tendency to pathogenic modes (psychological conditions) (12). In a similar fashion, modern medicine confirms that body constitution could be defined as “the inherent and relatively stable characteristics of individual human beings in morphological structure and function activities” (13). This does explain how the development of the body constitution depends upon both congenital hereditary factors and multiple other (epigenetic) factors, such as our living environment, diet, sleep, and exercise, and an individual's psycho-emotional life.
pathways, but include multiple pathways and networks. There is an urgent need for more and higher-quality phy- tochemical and pharmacological studies of these nine CHFs. Many chemical constituents have been detected and reported for most of the CHFs, but reports relating to shuganjieyu and wuling capsules have been published in Chinese only, which cannot be understood worldwide. Furthermore, to date, few chemical constituents have been identified in BHD, GMDZD, or yueju. Various bioactive chemical constituents are expected to be identified by chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Studies of the pharmacological mechanisms of these constituents are also needed. Today’s high-throughput screening technology enables us to explore bioactivity and mechanisms rapidly, resulting in a high discovery rate of candidate drugs.
TCMeSH thesaurus is China's first specialized controlled vocabulary of TCM. Since 1987, the TCMeSH thesaurus has been published and revised continually by the Institute of Information on TCM, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences . This vocabulary was developed specifically to enable indexing, cataloguing, and searching for TCM interventions. The third version of the TCMeSH thesaurus contains a total of 13 905 items, including 8307 headings and 5598 entry terms. 7 Each heading has a definition, code, English translation, annotation (labelling, history, searching), and entry terms. The latest online fourth version has been available since December 2015. 8
27. T. Kumagai; M¨uller, C. I.; Desmond, J. C.; Imai, Y.; Heberb, D.; Koeffler, H. P. Scutellaria baicalensis, a herbal medicine: anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity against acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines. Leuk Res 2007, 31, 523-530, doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2006.08.019.
DL-001). All surgeries were performed under sodium pen- tobarbital anesthesia (30 mg/kg, intra venous), and all efforts were made to minimize suffering. A strict human end point was set when the animals showed 30% body mass loss and labored breathing. When the rats showed both the above-men- tioned clinical signs, they were considered to have reached the end point of the experiment and were euthanized immediately according to the protocol of the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of the Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University of TraditionalChineseMedicine.
Xingnaojing (XNJ), a well known prescription in traditionalChinesemedicine, has been used for treatment of stroke in China. And has approval from the Chinese National Drug Administration. 31 XNJ consists of four Chinese herbs: Moschus, a dry substance secrete d by a gland in the subumbilical sac of the male musk deer, Radix Curcumae, the dried roots of Curcuma aromatica Salisb and C. zedoaria (Berg) Rosc, family Zingiberaceae, Fructus Gardeniae, the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. radicans (Thunb.) Makino, family Rubiaceae, and crystals from the evaporated exudate of the trunk of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. f, family Dipterocarpceae. Clinical trials have reported that XNJ can reduce brain injury and enhance functional recovery after stroke. 32 Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that XNJ has neuroprotective effects in cell and animal models of stroke. 33 XNJ contained some small molecules including muscone, borneol and Camphor. 34 Unlike large molecule agents, such as therapeutic antibodies or neurotrophic factors lack of transport across blood brain barrier. 35 Here comes an innate advantage for XNJ to become therapeutic agents for brain diseases.
Traditionalmedicine (TM) is a comprehensive term used to refer both to systems such as traditionalChinese medi- cine, Indian ayurveda and Arabic unani medicine, and to various forms of indigenous medicine. In countries where the dominant health care system is based on allopathic medicine, or where TM has not been incorporated into the national health care system, TM is often termed "comple- mentary", "alternative" or "non-conventional" medicine . The links between TM and biodiversity are exempli- fied by a long tradition of healing powers associated with the earth's natural systems, whether this entails medicinal plants and animal species, the ambient salubrious air, spring water or the natural scenery. The pharmacopoeia of folk seties as well as professional medical systems like Chinese, Ayurvedic, Unani and biomedicine contain thousands of medicines made from leaves, herbs, roots, bark, animal, mineral substances and other materials found in nature [2,3].