(Table 7 ), which can reflect the contribution of a land-use type to the total ESV, the land-use type: forest
land, waters, and intertidal zone are important to the total ESV in our study. Therefore, strict ecological planning should be carried out to limit the intensity of human activity, and the development of land-use types of forest land, waters, and intertidal zones should be encouraged in future in order to protect the coastal ecological environment and increase total ESV. Therefore, understanding the land-use change process and impact factors duringurbanization can not only provide scientific references for the optimization of land-use patterns, but also ensure ESV value effectively. It is beneficial to ecological environmental restoration and promotes scientific management for the coastal ecological environment and sustainable social and economic development. Governments shall make a detailed plan to guide urbanization in order to protect the coastal ecological environment and increase the ESV. Land-use changes caused by rapidurbanization change the ESV directly and influence the ESV changes indirectly through the interaction of factors that cause land-use changes. Hence, future studies need to explore the relationship and interactive mechanism between land-use types and the ESV. 4.3. Limitations of the EcosystemServiceValue Estimation Model
protection, which in turn exacerbates official’s inclination to overlook environmental degradation (Wang et al. 2014).
In this study, the states of coastlines and land cover in coastal zones in the U.S. and China were compared. In this case, Tampa Bay (TB) in Florida, U.S. and Xiangshan Harbor (XH) in ZhejiangProvince, China were selected as study areas. The two areas possess humid subtropical climate and dense population, whereas they underwent distinct anthropogenic impacts. The coastline dynamics and land cover changes are monitored through multi-temporal remote sensing and GIS technologies. The change patterns and the land use laws and environmental regulations, and the different development stages in the two coastal areas, are compared. The major driving forces for the urban conversion were analyzed to indicate the primary anthropogenic impacts on LULC changes. Therefore, the objectives of the dissertation include: 1) examining the spatial and temporal change patterns of coastlines and LULC in the two study areas during the last 30 years; 2) proposing new algorithms to improve the accuracy of LULC classification and coastline extraction since the results from current algorithms are not satisfied; 3) assessing human impacts based on the analysis of socio-economic variables, land use laws, environmental regulations, policy documents and government reports; and 4) understanding the differences of mechanisms of human impacts on the changes of coastlines and LULC in coastal zones between the USA and Chinaduring the last 30 years. The results of this dissertation research are expected to help the governments and public assess the states of landscape and understand the
Compared to 1990, the spatial distributions of ecological risk grades changed significantly in 2000. The extremely low ecological risk grade area decreased by 1522.72 km 2 . Meanwhile, the low ecological risk area decreased slightly from 35.94% to 33.33% of the total study area. With time going, in general, the low ecological risk areas shrank to landward and were occupied by the previous relatively lower ecological risk regions. These spatial distribution changes were obvious in the central coastalzone. As the development of urbanization and industrialization, human activities mainly focused on reclamations of mountains with gentle slope, woodlands in the piedmont region, and grasslands, and the previous woodland landscape was replaced by the cropland and built-up land which usually have had a higher ecological vulnerability index. The medium ecological risk area obviously increased from 882.65 km 2 in 1990 to 1961.52 km 2 in 2000, with a proportion increased by 11%. The spatial distribution of the medium ecological risk area has expanded to the southern Hangzhou Bay. The large amount of the medium ecological risk areas in 2000 occupied the previous relatively lower ecological risk areas in 1990, mostly close to the Linhai City and Yuhuan County. In addition, from 1990 to 2000, the extremely high and high ecological risk grade areas increased slightly from 3.32% to 5.99% and 1.55% to 5.95%, respectively, mostly occurring in the estuary of Qiantang River and Wenzhou city regions. In the southern bank of the Hangzhou Bay, the tidal flat landscape constantly silted, and large sea areas were occupied by tidal flat and aquaculture landscapes. Consequently, the fragmentation index increased while the dominance index decreased, and thus the corresponding ecological risk index increased. In the Oujiang estuary and Fieyun estuary coastal zones of Wenzhou city, the cropland reclaimed in plain terrain, and the area of built-up land continuously increased. Thus, in this region, the landscape was becoming more fragmented and isolated, which led to the ecological risk index increasing.
The study site, Zhujiajian Island, is the fifth largest island located in the southeastern Zhoushan Archipelago (Fig. 1). Crop farming, fishing, and tourism are the main industries. It covered an area of approximately 6365.05 ha in 2014, and is located in the subtropical and maritime monsoon climate zone, with an average annual temperature of 16.1°C and average annual precipitation of 1,186.90 mm. Zhujiajian Island is a bedrock island situated in the “Min-Zhe” uplift zone of the East China Sea. There are widespread andesitic-granitic igneous rocks of Mesozoic age, and the bedrock outcrops were uplifted during the Miocene as the Fukien-Reinan Massif. The soil in Zhujiajian Island consists of typical classes widely distributed in the Zhejiangcoastal area. The lower coastal plain area consists of coastal solonchak, fluvo-aquic solonchak, gray fluvo-aquic soils, and percogenic paddy soils. The hilly upland of the island has red, red-yellow, and yellow soils from the lower to the upper zones.
This study summarizes passive surveillance data for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) reported to the National AEFI Surveillance System (NASS) in Zhejiangprovince and describes reporting trends from 2008 to 2011. AEFI reporting rates were calculated using denominator data from the Individual Immunization Information System and the Zhejiang provincial Bureau of Statistics. A total of 6,265 AEFI records were reported; the overall reporting rate was 9.2 per 100,000 doses. There were two peaks of reporting rates, which were associated mainly with the introduction of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus vaccine (pH1N1) in 2009 and the measles-mumps vaccine (MM) campaign in 2010. The majority of the AEFI described nonserious events. Fifteen deaths were recorded, but only one was possibly related to immunization. The most frequently reported reactions were fever and injection site reaction. Vaccines distributed in Zhejiangprovince have proven to be generally safe. The data on AEFI surveillance provide a reference point for ongoing reporting of trends and illustrate the value of the NASS database as a surveillance tool for monitoring of AEFI.
had received tertiary education of college/university de- grees or higher (Fig. 2). A low level of education may partly explain the higher incidence of HF burns in these patients. One case should be noted regarding two pa- tients who were under the age of 10 years; and both of these children were victims of chemical burns in family workshops. In the past, family workshops, such as glass etching, were very popular in some regions of China. These establishments were usually contained within homes where workshops would be connected to the household private area, such as living room, allowing children easy access to dangerous chemicals and increas- ing the risk and likelihood of injury. In addition, more than 71% of chemical burns were work related, occur- ring primarily in workers in the fluoride industries, and stevedoring and transportation (Table 2). A recent study investigated acute HF exposure cases occurring in 1991– 2010 using data collected from the Taiwan Poison Con- trol Centre . A total of 324 cases were identified, of which 80% were caused by occupational exposure, in- cluding those occurring in the semiconductor industry (61%), cleaning industry (15%), chemical and metal indus- tries (13%), and other industries (11%). Some obvious dif- ferences in the occupational distribution of HF burns exist between existing data and those obtained within this study. Workplace protection against chemical burns requires the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and ne- cessary professional skills and knowledge (received as
Unfortunately, this unprecedented growth in vehicles and drivers has also meant that China’s road trauma burden is high. Road crashes have been reported as the leading cause of death for those aged up to 45 years and the number one non-disease killer (Pendyala & Kitamura, 2007; Zhang et al., 2013). Although estimates and definitions of road traffic fatalities differ (see Li et al., 2012; Ma et al., 2012; World Health Organization, 2013), there is recognition that reducing road crashes and associated human trauma is an important issue requiring multi-sector efforts in China. The contribution of alcohol to the problem is difficult to quantify, yet has received increased attention in China in recent years. Alcohol plays an important role in many parts of Chinese society (Cochrane et al., 2003). Increasing annual alcohol consumption rates, together with the rapid increases motor vehicle ownership and driving participation, warrant the need to consider that alcohol-related road fatalities may also increase, unless effective countermeasures are introduced (Li et al., 2012).
Urban forests have been regarded as important elements for improving the green infrastructure network in the urban landscape . They not only make the large contribution of providing multiple benefits such as social, architectural, climatic and economic benefits, but also enhance the quality of urban life . Urban forest lands therefore play a vital role in effective urban planning to support various ecosystem services and achieve sustainable urban development. The assessments of the urban forest connectivity can quantitatively reflect the quality of green infrastructure network. Urban forest landscape connectivity exerts very important influences on urban ecosystem services and functions (e.g., seed migration and proliferation, animal migration, and gene flow) and interferes with water infiltration and soil erosion. Connectivity is directly related to the integrity, sustainability and stability of urban ecosystems . Maintaining landscape connectivity is a crucial part of sustainable planning and the management of urban forest landscapes . Thus, the topic of studying urban forest connectivity has driven many planners and researchers to apply landscape connectivity in urban planning to effectively support ecological services [20–22].
Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a Gram-nega- tive coccobacillus that can cause invasive and severe in- fections, such as bacteria pneumonia, epiglottitis, sinusitis, and similar conditions, in both adults and children, especially in children under 5-years-old [1, 2]. There are two main types of H. influenzae based on the capsule: encapsulated H. influenzae and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi). The NTHi cannot be typed by the serum agglutination test. Serotype b H. influenzae (Hib) used to be the main type of H. influenzae in respiratory tract infections, but the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae disease has changed substantially, with most invasive diseases now caused by non-b serotypes and NTHi strains [3–8]. Different types of H. influenzae have different pathogeneses and require different treatments [9, 10]. Detection of H. influenzae by traditional methods like bacterial culture is cheap and facilitates the detection of antibiotic resistance. However, it is time- consuming and may give false-negative results during ongoing antibiotic treatment. Serum agglutination test- ing was widely used to determine the serotype of encap- sulated H. influenzae, and it can also be used to discriminate the encapsulated H. influenzae from NTHi. However, sometimes there are bacterial self-coagulation phenomena and cross agglutination, and serological reagents are more expensive.
The Permian–Triassic strata of the Lower Yangtze area have been the subject of concerted research effort, and include the well-known Meishan GSSP (Yin et al. 2001; Xie et al. 2005; Shen et al. 2011; Li et al. 2016). The Meishan section itself, has been considered to record sedimentation in a platform ramp setting during the end Permian due to the presence of turbidites in the succes- sion (Li et al. 2016). However, detailed carbonate micro- facies analysis has revealed that the influence of turbidity currents on deposition at Meishan section was negligible, and so a lower shelfal setting remains a possi- bility for Meishan section. Not far from Meishan section, the Huangzhishan section in southeastern Changxing County preserves abundant calcareous sponges, suggest- ive of the deposition on a carbonate platform (Chen et al. 2009b). However, the lack of microbialites at Huangz- hishan section indicates that the water depth around the PTB interval was probably deeper than that of a typical shallow platform. In contrast, our newly studied Panjiaz- huang section (31°02 ′ 40 ″ N, 119°51 ′ 35 ″ E), 20 km east of the GSSP at Meishan, contains abundant Late Permian calcareous algae, typical for an upper marine shelf set- ting. Microbialites in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction at Panjiazhuang section are comparable to those reported from other contemporaneous shallow carbonate platform settings in South China, but with some differences, described below.
To evaluate the technology innovation capability index selection is very important, different countries have their different indicators. In Italy, three indicators including the patent, technology trade, high-tech products import and export were used to measure its national innovation ability. Japan science and technology department measure the national technological evaluation with the index including the patent, technology trade, technology intensive products output, total value-added manufacturing. in order to highlight the important role of human resources, The EU member states evaluate the innovation ability of the EU member states, with the index system of innovation made up of the human resources, the creation of new knowledge, knowledge application and diffusion, innovation fund output and market.
hospitalization. Individuals who had non-hospitalization behavior due to financial difficulties were vulnerable groups in society, and their health status was poorer. The behavior of non-hospitalization increases the burden of disease for both individuals and society. The absolute price and the reimbursement of medical insur- ance cannot be easily changed in a short period of time due to the rising health care costs and increasing pressure on the pool of medical insurance funds. To improve the inequity of hospitalization, the focus of policy reform should be placed on the stimulation of the use of hospitalization for the poor. First, Zhejiang has a standard medical assistance system for the poor, but the application procedure is a complicated and involved process. It is hoped that more vulnerable groups can be brought into the medical assistance system and that the application procedure can be simplified. In addition to the medical assistance system, Zhejiang also set up a temporary assistance system called “Red Cross Aid”, which can give poor people medical support when they suffer from serious illness.“Red Cross Aid” should be im- proved upon in the future as a supplemental medical support for the poor. Finally, in the next formulation of policy, if hospitalization could be included into the pay- ment of individual accounts, this change could stimulate the utilization of inpatient services and, as a result, im- prove the inequity in hospitalization. The expansion of individual account payments can also accelerate the pro- motion of the overall medical insurance system, thus in- creasing equity in the reimbursement of hospitalization, regardless of the different socioeconomic characteristics of insured persons.
Liu, X. 66th Annual meeting of Labor and Employment Relations Association, Labor and Employment Relations Association, Portland, OR, "The changing face of employment relationships in China: How institutional demands and organizational characteristics explain variation in contingent work," (May 2014).
Second, the implementation of urbanization plans should attach importance to how to solve problems relating to farming, agriculture, and rural areas (Luo, Shen, & Gu, 2014). The ideal way to address these challenges is by fostering urbanization, industrialization, information technology, and modernization of agriculture. Urbanization not only improves industrialization and strengthens urban economic power, but also creates demand for agricul- tural products. Cities support the countryside, absorb rural labor force, promote agricultural scale operation and thus increase farmers’ income earnings. New-type urbanization development is not about destroying rural areas and reducing agricultural production, in other words; rather it is about converting farmers into workers or new type farmers enjoying the full benefits of urban citizenry, thus achieving a kind of “urbanization for the people”. New-type urbanization also highlights a new collective public awareness—that is, a need for resource intensive conservation and ecologically friendly development.
preliminary productions. It particularly fits the situation where initial capital and labor skills are lacking in the rural areas, and is very effective in the transformation of rural employment structures. However, the physical transformation of the landscape lags behind. On the contrary, in Fuqing we have seen a tremendous physical transformation of the previous rural landscape, driven by intensive foreign capital inflows into the various zones, leading to the emergence of large-scale areas with urban-like landscape. But this type of development is not as effective as the one in Jinjiang in creating non- agricultural employment opportunities. Interestingly, leaders in both Jinjiang and Fuqing have realized the shortcomings of their development models, and what they propose to do in the future in each case is to try to draw on the strength of the other model. In Jinjiang, TVEs are encouraged to move to the industrial zones, which will lead to more physical transformation of the rural areas. In Fuqing, the municipal government has begun to pay increasingly more attention to TVE development. The government has also realized that while it is important to introduce and develop big foreign-funded enterprises, more attention should be paid to the introduction and development of medium and small projects. A metaphor in Fuqing regards big foreign- funded enterprises as the moons and the suns, and the small TVEs as the stars. Fuqing’s leader proposed that while we had had already the big moons and suns, we should also have the sky full of stars (speech of an official of Fuqing Municipal Government collected during fieldwork, October 1996). If this is achieved, it will certainly help to create more non-agricultural employment. The strong industrial bases built up in recent years through foreign capital inflow should be conducive to this effort. Thus Fuqing and Jinjiang may have chosen different ways of rural-urban transformation, but ultimately they will lead to the same final result of rural-urban transition.
Cleansing 133 people with water, which is effective for 57 people, the positive rate was 45.86%; cleansing 49 people using soap, which is effective for 49 people, the positive rate was 26.53%; cleansing 411 people using cleanser, which is effective for 123 people, the positive rate of 29.93%; commonly using soap intergrated cleanser to cleanse 7 people, 2 were effective, the positive rate was 28.57%. Calculated with the chi-square test, P value was less than 0.05, with highly statistical significance (Table 7).
As a fossil wood morphogenus, the systematic affinity of Brachyoxylon is still undetermined. It has been linked to various coniferous families, such as Araucariaceae (Hollick and Jeffrey 1909), and Cupressaceae (Seward 1919). How- ever, Brachyoxylon has been more frequently related to the distinct family Cheirolepidiaceae (e.g., Alvin et al. 1981; Alvin 1982; Machhour and Pons 1992; Limarino et al. 2012). The finding of Brachyoxylon woods in association with conifer leaves and Classopollis-bearing cones (Zhou 1983) suggests that at least some Brachyoxy- lon woods may be representatives of the Cheirolepidia- ceae. In fact, the type species B. notabile Hollick et Jeffrey was related to Brachyphyllum macrocarpum Newberry 1896, a possible Cheirolepidiaceae (Alvin 1982). It is of interest that compressed leaf fossils of possible Cheirolepi- diaceae, e.g., Pseudofrenelopsis parceramosa (Fontaine) Watson, Pagiophyllum delicatum Cao, P. obtosior Cao, and P. xinchangense Cao, have also been described from the Lower Cretaceous Guantou Formation in the same fossil locality (Suqin Village of Xinchang County, ZhejiangProvince) with Brachyoxylon zhejiangense sp. nov. (Cao 1989, 1991). Additionally, Pseudofrenelopsis papillosa Chow et Tsao and P. parceramosa have also been found from the Guantou Formation in adjacent Jingling Village of Xinchang County (Ren et al. 2008). Generally, the co-occurrence of Brachyoxylon wood and leaf fossils of Cheirolepidiaceae in the Lower Cretaceous Guantou For- mation further implies that the fossil wood genus Bra- chyoxylon may be systematically referable to the conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae.
Abstract: With the rapid development of urban economy and the rapid increase of city population, the ecological environment stress effect of the urbanization process is increasingly prominent. The article is based on 2007-2012 statistical yearbook of Xianning City, Hubei Province, China, and two subsystems of urbanization development and ecological environment are estabilished respectively. The principal components analysis (PAC) is taken to determine the comprehensive level of both systems, and to determine the relative changesduring these years by comparing the comprehensive level of them. Regression analysis method is used to calculate the related indices between urbanization rate and ecological environment, such as discharge amount of sewage, production of solid wasted and amount of exhaust emission, and to explore the urbanization concrete stress effect on the ecological environment, namely the concrete stress effect of urbanization development on the water environment, soil environment and atmospheric environment. Results show that there is linear correlation between urbanization rate and ecological environment. The increase of urbanization rate brings seriously negative impact on ecological environment. And based on this, the article makes some scientific suggestions for the coordinate development between urbanization process and ecological environment.
A litterbag experiment was conducted to investigate the changes of tannins and nutrients in branchlets at different decomposition stages of Casuarina equisetifolia in southern subtropical coastalzone, China, using the colorimetric assays. The time required for the loss of half of the initial dry weight (t 50 ) was 9.13 months. Total phenolics (TP), extractable condensed tannins (ECT), protein-bound condensed tannins (PBCT), total condensed tannins (TCT) and protein precipitation capacity (PPC) of branchlets litter decreased rapidly, while fibre-bound condensed tan- nins (FBCT) increased during decomposition. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of the branchlet litter both increased gradually during decay. Negative correlations between TP and nitrogen or phosphorus, as well as TCT and nitrogen or phosphorus were found. These chemical changes enhanced the current knowledge on the potential ecological role of nutrient transformation in tannins in C. equisetifolia plantations.