Top PDF Changes over time in teachers’ interpersonal role identity

Changes over time in teachers’ interpersonal role identity

Changes over time in teachers’ interpersonal role identity

The increase in identity verification follows the expectations of Burke and Stets (2009). Burke and Stets (2009) stated that in case of non-identity verification (as was the case for 14 of our participants in 2011), individuals will try to reduce their negative feelings by changing their behaviours, perceptions of situations and/or their identity standard in order to achieve identity verification (as was the case for nine of our participants in 2013). The participants who lacked identity verification in 2011 often experienced negative feelings possibly due to this lack of identity verification and therefore they might have changed either their appraisal of specific situations or their interpersonal identity standard. Based on this research, we can only speculate about a possible explanation for teachers who lacked identity verification but who did not change. It might be that for these teachers other role identities were more important to them than the interpersonal role identity. Following Stryker (1980) and McCall and Simmons (1978), all role identities of a teacher are part of a hierarchy that consists of the interpersonal role but also of a subject matter-, didactical-, pedagogical- and mentoring-role.
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Monitoring changes in cohesion over time in expedition teams:the role of daily events and team composition

Monitoring changes in cohesion over time in expedition teams:the role of daily events and team composition

The diary method allowed us to test the validity of monitoring daily events to predict fluctuations in cohesion. Similar methods were used by Smith et al., (2018), to predict fluctuations in positive and negative affect by monitoring daily events and coping strategies. Some associations between the team-focused events and cohesion were expected: for example, “camaraderie with team mates” led to an increase in perceived cohesion and “feeling concerned about the effectiveness of the team” led to a significant decrease in perceived cohesion. This validates the cohesion measure as reflective of changing perceptions of teamwork across the expedition. Other associations that were made between the daily events and perceptions of cohesion were less obvious and may be of particular value in indicating how to mitigate breakdowns in cohesion. Reporting “feeling satisfied to cope with the challenges of expedition” and “feeling satisfied with the progress of the expedition” both led to increases in cohesion. These results suggest that experiencing a sense of achievement (satisfaction of coping with challenges) and achieving shared goals (such as progressing in the expedition) are important aspects in the maintenance of team cohesion. Previous work has theorised how this process occurs by suggesting that superordinate team goals encourage social identity, which is an important component in the development of cohesion (Salas & Cannon- Bowers, 2001). Only one diary item that was not explicitly related to teamwork significantly contributed to a reduction in cohesion and this was reporting a problem with digestion. Problems with digestion and diet have previously been identified as major stressors, leading to increased tension amongst crew mates during a 105-day space simulation (Sandal, Bye, Van de Vijver, 2011). Overall the results from the diary data are promising, demonstrating the benefit of the diary methodology to track cohesion over time and assess the utility of daily events to predict changes in cohesion. This was an exploratory study; further research should explore if the relationships between variables identified in this study are consistent for teams operating in other contexts. This could facilitate the development of a mobile monitoring system, allowing team leaders to monitor fluctuations in cohesion in real time and therefore mitigate breakdowns in effective teamworking.
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Model based approaches for predicting gait changes over time

Model based approaches for predicting gait changes over time

predictive matrix corresponding to the nearest neighbour is used and the differ- ence is included in prediction of the test gallery. Time-invariant covariates are now included in the time-invariant predictive model. Our earlier approach pre- dicted the time-dependent covariate [7]. However we did not take into account time-invariant covariates. In this paper we try to predict changes in gait due both to time-variant covariates and to time-invariant covariates. In this case the time-invariant predictive matrices are calculated which represent dependency between normal walk of a subject and different possible extra covariates of the same subject. The combined predictive model now takes into consideration both time-dependent and time-invariant covariates of gait. The models suggested in the paper are linear, since it is the first approach to handling changes in gait over a lengthy time interval and it is a reasonable initial assumption. We show that CCRs can be increased by several times when using the new predictive models and in same cases more than 90% CCRs were achieved.
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Investigating changes over time of annual rainfall in Zimbabwe

Investigating changes over time of annual rainfall in Zimbabwe

The Pettitt test identified significant change points or change of the median of the OND rainfall at three out of the 40 stations (Fig. 4). These change points were identified for the 1946/1947 season at two stations (Plumtree, Kezi) lo- cated on the western part, and in 1986/1987 for a northern station (Banket). Conway et al. (2008) also found a change point occurring in 1945 for the annual rainfall at Victoria Falls which is in the northwest. Significant change points for the JFM rainfall were identified at six stations with four of these being located on the eastern part of the country (Fig. 4). These change points have been identified for different years with the exception of two stations. The occurrence of change points in different years suggests that these changes are not due to a regional change of physical processes responsible for rainfall formation such as the atmospheric circulations. These change points could be due to changes in the exposure of rain gauges (Stott, et al., 2010). No significant change points in annual rainfall were identified except for three stations for the following periods 1926/1927, 1980/1981, 1994/1995 (Fig. 4). Stations for which change points have been identified in the OND, JFM, and in annual rainfall time series, are not located in geographically contiguous areas, while neighbouring stations do not have similar changes in the median. The change points have been identified at few stations, 7 to 14% of the total number of stations analysed which raises doubts about the physical significance of these changes.
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Narratives of traumatic birth: Quality and changes over time

Narratives of traumatic birth: Quality and changes over time

The aim of the study was therefore to examine whether narrative characteristics are specific to PTSD or observed in all those who experience a highly emotive and potentially traumatic event, such as birth, and to examine changes of narrative characteristic over time. Women with high PTSD symptoms after a difficult or traumatic birth were matched on key obstetric events with women with no, or very low, PTSD symptoms. Thus groups were matched for the objective severity of birth to ensure that all women experienced potentially traumatic birth events. Descriptions of women’s experiences of birth and appraisals are reported elsewhere (Ayers, 2007). In this analysis, narratives three and six months after birth were examined for content (threat, emotion, support, and postpartum stress), coherence (fragmentation, nonfluencies, inability to remember details), cognitive and perceptual
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The Macedonian Question – changes in content over time

The Macedonian Question – changes in content over time

he gave it formal legal and institutional expression”( Rosses (1994) p.369, taken from Zlatko Isakovic ( 2000) p.200 ) 22 . Indeed, the Macedonians were not able until than to come closer to any kind of lasting legal identity that could mean future state, if ever that was to come. On the other hand, the official Yugoslav politics with that decision has as aim to renounce the Bulgarian aspirations and possibly to make it easier to satisfy the needs for “their own state” of the serious influx of Macedonian refugees undergoing further extermination of Macedonian population from Aegean Macedonia, during the Greek Civil War (1946-1949) . Only later came the recognition of the Macedonian republic (in the Yugoslav Federation) by Bulgaria, but it must be stressed that it was refused to be recognized the existence of the Macedonian nation. Subsequently, the situation beyond the borders of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, the creation of legal bases of the Macedonian identity began the process of an establishment of the Macedonian minorities in Bulgaria and Greece, which now had a state to identify with. 23
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Opinion leaders and changes over time: a survey

Opinion leaders and changes over time: a survey

For the present work, there are a number of limita- tions. The first limitation was the low response rates, which lead to concerns about the generalizability of con- clusions. However, our response rates were similar to response rates reported for other surveys using the Hiss instrument within both randomized trials and observa- tional studies. While it is always preferable to see higher response rates, rates of this magnitude are acceptable for mail-out surveys, even with multiple reminders, so our response rates were expected and were consistent with those achieved in the 2003 survey. Concerns about nonresponse bias were attenuated by the observed lack of difference between participants and nonparticipants (in the second survey) with respect to sex, age, and clin- ical experience. The second limitation was that 5% of pathologists and 3% of surgeons changed hospitals between 2003 and 2005 and may have disrupted local social networks. However, as the number of address changes encountered appears to be low, we believe that
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Changes in Prognosis of Heterotaxy Syndrome Over Time

Changes in Prognosis of Heterotaxy Syndrome Over Time

Patients were divided into 4 eras based on birth year: 1985 to 1991, 1992 to 1998, 1999 to 2007, and 2008 to 2014. Descriptive statistics are shown as median (interquartile range [IQR]) or n (%). The primary outcome was de fi ned as survival, and follow-up time was defined as time from birth to death or last contact date. Mortality incidence rates (number deaths divided by total follow-up time) were calculated for each birth era, the overall cohort, and the subgroup of patients who underwent surgical intervention. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to estimate the overall hazard for death and survival probabilities by the 4 birth eras, and the distributions were compared by using the log-rank test and the Wilcoxon – Gehan test. On the basis of review of the Kaplan – Meier analyses, an additional cutoff of birth year 1991 was chosen, and mortality
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Changes over time in the "healthy soldier effect"

Changes over time in the "healthy soldier effect"

The reduced mortality in national service veterans was observed in both the group that deployed to Vietnam and the group that did not. The national service pro- gram allowed the Australian Army to select from the population more educated and skilled personnel than it had been attracting at that time [16]. In addition, the selection process of national service veterans involved a series of medical, psychological, and educational assess- ments. Consequently, the criteria used to select these personnel may have resulted in a healthy soldier effect stronger than that observed in the selection of the enlisted groups.
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CHANGES OVER TIME[1]

CHANGES OVER TIME[1]

• Darwin hypothesized that number of different plant and animal species had come to Galapagos Islands from the mainland... Galapagos Organisms: Comparison Among the Islands.[r]

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Ch 7: Ape Populations over Time: Case Studies from Gombe, Mount Halimun Salak, Sabangau, and Wamba

Ch 7: Ape Populations over Time: Case Studies from Gombe, Mount Halimun Salak, Sabangau, and Wamba

Th e third case study examines the con- servation of bonobos in the DRC’s Luo Scien- tifi c Reserve. Th e bonobos of Wamba are the focus of Furuichi’s study, which uses data going back 40 years. Local people in the Luo area have long sustained a taboo against the hunting and eating of bonobos, but the wars and political and economic upheavals that have plagued the DRC over the past two decades have led to in-migration and asso- ciated pressures that have altered local practices. Specifi cally, changes such as the presence of military and weaponry, as well as the settlement of populations for whom no such taboo exists, have resulted in an increase in hunting. Although bonobos are not deliberately hunted, they can fall victim to illegal snares set for other wildlife, which can result in injury or death. Th is case study —which is based on a research program that involves long-term community support —highlights the challenges of balancing conservation and the needs of people.
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Staff perception of Lean, care giving, thriving and exhaustion: a longitudinal study in primary care

Staff perception of Lean, care giving, thriving and exhaustion: a longitudinal study in primary care

The three hypotheses were tested using models involving moderated mediation. This comprised tests of whether changes over time in Lean maturity operated indirectly through a mediator (job resources or job demands) on an outcome (SSC, thriving and exhaustion), and whether the size of that indirect effect was dependent on (moder- ated by) another variable (job resources or job demands). The variables job demands and job resources were used as a mediator or moderator depending on the outcome variables (cf. Fig. 1), as described in the JD-R theory [19, 20]. Time was included as a covariate, as were gender and years worked in the profession. Regarding the covari- ates gender and years in the profession only statistically significant covariates were kept in the model. To model the nested and repeated structure of the data, the free SPSS macro program MLmed for multilevel mediation analysis [58] was used. As MLmed can only handle two levels (here the repeated design), the clustering of individ- uals within primary care units was ignored; this was also supported by the low ICC values (Table 4). MLmed was not developed for pooled datasets from MI, and therefore the last MI dataset was selected for analysis. An explicit quantification of moderated mediation was used: the index of moderated mediation [59]. Confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a Monte Carlo method [58].
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Experimental and Theoretical Considerations of Electrolyte Conductivity in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell

Experimental and Theoretical Considerations of Electrolyte Conductivity in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell

ρ (the reciprocal of conductivity) for each initial KOH concentration was plotted against the glucose concen- tration in Figure 1. It can be seen that for each initial KOH concentration the glucose, a nonionic compound, increased the solution’s resistivity (decreased the solu- tion conductivity). To discern the changes in the solu- tions’ conductivity caused by factors other than KOH— which is the major contributor to the conductivity—the normalized resistivity ρ (reciprocal of normalized con- ductivity) was plotted against the glucose concentration in Figure 2. Once all the graphs of the different KOH concentrations were combined into one graph, the data indeed showed that the glucose concentration was res- ponsible for the conductivity changes. To demonstrate the effect of time on fuel cell electrolyte conductivity, the conductivity was monitored in three solutions, repre- senting high (0.8 M), medium (0.25 M) and low (0.05 M) KOH concentrations. The data shows that normalized resistivity was linear with the glucose concentration for both instantaneous and subsequent measurements (after 3 - 4 days).
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Rationality and time: A multiple self model of personal identity over time for decision and game theory

Rationality and time: A multiple self model of personal identity over time for decision and game theory

Hyperbolic discounting has also been motivated by the idea th a t both risk and uncertainty, as well as preference change are associated with distance in time. For instance, Weitzman (2001), Gollier (2002) and Halevy (2008) consider how time-indexed probability functions and risk evaluations can influence mo­ tivations for time discounting. Note, though, that probabilities have also been used to motivate exponential discounting (such as a constant probability th a t a decision-maker’s life may end, (Mas-Colell et al., 1995). In the context of hy­ perbolic discounting, Halevy (2008) considers how time impatience can vary, and establishes a dependence between time impatience and the perception of risk: present bias that is typical for hyperbolic discounting weakens when the imme­ diate becomes risky. Preference change theories of time discounting motivate time differences with changes in the propositional attitudes of agents. In those theories, the future goodness evaluations of agents are discounted with their di­ minished present credibility due to changes in preferences, as suggested by, for instance, Strotz (1956) and (Frederick et al., 2002, 389). Less formally, Parfit (1984) also suggests time discounting because of changes in preferences. The lat­ ter proposals have also been dubbed ‘multiple-self’ accounts of time discounting (for instance in the Frederick et al. (2002) review), suggesting th a t the present self evaluates prospects from her perspective and discounts the evaluations of future consequences to reflect th at her future selves might have changed prefer­ ences. Furthermore, in Thaler and Shefrin (1981), Ainslie (1992), Ainslie (2001), Fudenberg and Levine (2006), Read (2006), and (Xue, 2008), decision-makers are explicitly assumed to be multiple-selves to discuss intertemporal decisions and time discounting. As mentioned in the initial review of the multiple-self liter­ ature in Chapter 2 of this thesis, those authors assume th a t there can be more than one self at a time (in most of those contributions, a decision-maker is as­ sumed to consist of a far-sighted ‘planner’ self and short-sighted ‘doer’ selves) and attem pt to discuss intertemporality in a wide sense, commenting on time discounting, problems of dynamic consistency, planning, and the formation of second-order beliefs by decision-makers about those problems. These proposals will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 6 of this thesis.
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The Design And Development Of Temperature Controlled Oyster Mushroom Farmhouse Using PID Control Technique

The Design And Development Of Temperature Controlled Oyster Mushroom Farmhouse Using PID Control Technique

4.5a Serial monitor for temperature and light intensity reading in Arduino IDE. 47 4.5b Serial plotter for temperature and light intensity reading in Arduino IDE. 48 4.6 PCB layout circuit in Proteus ARES software. 49 4.7a The top view of the PCB circuit layout printed on accublack paper. 50 4.7b The bottom view of the PCB circuit layout printed on accublack paper. 50 4.8 The GUI concept for the system running using LabVIEW. 51 4.9 The error in GUI concept for the system running using LabVIEW. 52 4.10a The top view of the PCB circuit layout soldered on PCB board. 53 4.10b The bottom view of the PCB circuit layout soldered on PCB board. 54 4.11a The hardware prototype for the farmhouse system. 55 4.11b The hardware prototype with AC light bulb turned on. 55 4.12a The changes of temperature over a period of time in farmhouse system 65 for K = 1, K = 0, K = 0.
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Vol 7, No 6 (2016)

Vol 7, No 6 (2016)

study, the questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire enjoyed an acceptable degree of reliability and validity though it is developed for the first time in Iran as an EFL context. Regarding the first question of the study, Iranian EFL teachers’ conceptualized their managerial roles in the classroom as knowledge transmitter, trader, juggler, interaction supervisor, entertainer, arbiter, and promoter. They perceived their professional dimension of their teaching as pundit, collaborator, and learner. The cultural and social side of Iranian EFL teachersrole identity under the main category of acculturator sub-divided into social panacea, cultural adapter, and tutelage-provider. Pertaining to the second question of the study, a model emerged in three order of CFA based on the developed questionnaire. Although the model was not fit the data initially, it was fit the data with some modifications in it, eventually. In the final fit model, thirteen factors of role identity explained three main role identities and these three main identities in their own turn explained Iranian EFL teachersrole identity (Figure 3). It is worth to mention if the questionnaire and the model of the current study intend to be used in other ESL and EFL contexts, ‘local exigencies’ (Kumaravadivelu, 2012) must be taken into consideration. This means that with some reasonable modifications in the model’s factors and checking the reliability and validity of the questionnaire again, the model and questionnaire can be employed in other contexts. The next matter that can be take into consideration in the future study can be an exploring the relationship between demographic information and Iranian EFL teachersrole identity.
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An analysis of time use patterns of primary school teachers in Tasmania

An analysis of time use patterns of primary school teachers in Tasmania

The model of the teacher’s thumbprint can also be viewed in the context of the six professional life phases (PLPs), as developed by Sammons et al., (2007). These PLPs include “commitment (support and challenge), ..., identity and efficacy in classroom, ..., managing change in role and identity, ..., work life tensions, ... [and] ..., declining motivation and ability to cope with change ...”(Apple & Jungek, 1990; Reynolds, 1992; Shalem, 1992; Graham, 1993; Talbert, 1993; Clandinin et al., 1995; Sumara & Luce-Kapler, 1996; Collinson & Cook, 2000; Lynn, 2002; Vogt, 2002; Webb et al., 2004; Sammons et al., 2007, p.686; Basol & Bardakci, 2008; Jephcote & Salisbury, 2009; Webb et al., 2009). Teachers go through development stages that are “associated with increased effectiveness – from being a novice through to advanced beginner, competent, proficient and expert” (Baldwin, 1934; Chapel, Leask & Turner, 1997; Johnston, McKeown & McEwen, 1999; Duggleby & Badali, 2001; Ejieh, 2003; Sammons et al., 2007, p.686). Day, Sammons and Gu (2008, p.337) found “a relatively greater decline in commitment among late-career teachers ... [and that] ... teachers in their early years were, in relative terms, no more or less committed than teachers in their middle years” (Lynn, 2002; Day, Sammons & Gu, 2008, p.337). It is important, therefore, to examine time allocation behaviours of teachers using socio-demographic and school variables as much as they can be supported by theory and data.
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CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDISATION OF TEACHER INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP SCALE (TIRS)

CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDISATION OF TEACHER INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP SCALE (TIRS)

In the past decade, the rise of interest in interpersonal relationships in education is mirrored by an increased focus on the importance of relationships among educators. Recent studies suggest that relationships among teachers are important in building strong school communities (Penuel, Riel, Krause and Frank, 2009), and that strong teacher networks can enhance teacher commitment and give teachers a sense of belonging and efficacy (Grodsky and Gamoran, 2003). Moreover, strong social relationships in and among schools are found to play a crucial role in policy implementation, instructional change, and teachers professional development in support of increased student achievement (Baker-Doyle and Yoon, 2010; Daly and Finnigan, 2010; Moolenaar, 2010; Veugelers and Zijlstra, 2002) and interpersonal relationships among teachers are important as they provide access to information, knowledge and expertise (Frank, Zhao and Borman, 2004), facilitate joint problem solving (Uzzi, 1997) and shape an environment of trust (Bryk and Schneider, 2002). . After reviewing the available literature in this field (Brok, Tartwijk, Wubbels and Veldman (2010), Brady (2011), Fan (2012) and Wentzel (2012) the investigator felt the need to develop the teacher interpersonal relationship scale owing to the fact that human relationships have drastically changed over the period of time due to the impact of digital media and ever-changing socio-economic behaviour pattern. Studies also indicate that interpersonal relations of the teachers to different dimensions and especially with the students can play a vital role in creation of smooth teaching learning environment in the class rooms and academic achievement of the students is always influenced positively by cordial and democratic relations.
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Exploring Teachers' Role Identity among Iranian EFL Teachers: A Narrative-based Research

Exploring Teachers' Role Identity among Iranian EFL Teachers: A Narrative-based Research

Several frameworks have been suggested for the subject of teachersrole and identity. For example, Gee (2000-2001) assigned four components for the notion of identity, i.e. ‘nature-identity, institutional-identity, discursive-identity, and affinity-identity’. In Gee’s framework, identity was viewed as a multidimensional and dynamic process in which it was constructed and developed across different time and contexts. Gee’s model as an analytical tool provides an opportunity to the teachers to seek and investigate their own identities in educational contexts from both theoretical and practical dimensions. Wenger (1998) proposed ‘community of practice’ as a model to examine the process of identity formation. In Wenger’s model, community of practice includes a group of people who seek mutual aims, share a common profession or enterprise, and develop themselves personally or professionally. In this community, belonging to teachers’ professional community helped teachers to construct their own identity. Bijaared, Verloop, and Vermunt (2000) introduced teachersidentity model based on what teachers do by examining teachers’ professional identity from three angles of expertise, such as ‘subject matter, pedagogical and didactical expertise’. Beijaard et al. (2000) believed that traditional view to “a conception of teaching takes insufficient account of the complexity of teaching, and new conceptions of the teacher as classroom manager, facilitator of learning, etc. are acknowledged” (p. 751). They also emphasized that teachers should think about what model works and what model does not work in their teaching. Moje and Luke (2009) investigated how teacher identity could be shaped within the literacy context and how this identity construction might be related to literacy. They looked at identity and literacy as an interconnected and interrelated matter in which
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EXPLORING GENDER IDENTITY AT PRIMARY STAGE: STORIES SPEAK

EXPLORING GENDER IDENTITY AT PRIMARY STAGE: STORIES SPEAK

JAN-FEB 2017, VOL- 4/29 www.srjis.com Page 4684 Gender sensitization programmes through storytelling, dramatization, short documentaries, etc must be formally launched in schools. When parents and teachers do not get enough time to interact with children about the important role they are going to play as future active members of society, such formal associations will go a long way to revamp society in totality. In such gender sensitization programmes and classes, children must be explicitly taught the negative effects of biased and primitive social conditioning. Parents and teachers must come up with innovative methods of enhancing the understanding of their children and their own idea of living in a just society.
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