Volcanic activity is a major natural disturbance that can catastrophically change an ecosystem over a short time scale. The eruption of Mt. Agung strato-volcano in 1963- 1964 was considered among the most important volcanic event of the 20th century due to its effect on global climate. Studies on vegetation and landscape of Mt. Agung post-1970-1980 has been scarce. The current eruption of MountAgung in June-July 2018, brought awareness of the importance urge to document the past and current landscape along with vegetation on Mt. Agung. Our study aimed to utilize remote sensing technique to explore the pattern of current (2017) land cover and vegetation density on Mt. Agung and estimate of vegetated areas and whether it has changed from the past. LANDSAT 8 images (www.earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) were used in this study. Supervised classification in ENVI was employed to obtain land use or land cover of the Mt. Agung area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was also calculated using the feature in the ARC GIS. Online web-based application, REMAP was used to obtain information on past and present condition of the crater of Mt. Agung to see whether there have been changes in vegetated areas around the crater using REMAP (www.remap-app.org). Results showed there are basically five main landcover that can be recognized namely forest (20758.23 ha), settlement (4058.37 ha), water area (41606.64 ha), open area (15335.64 ha) and farming (34554.78 ha). Our NDVI analysis also resulted in areas with have high density (78836.04 ha), medium density (15490.26 ha) and also no vegetation (31008.24 ha). Using web-based GIS application REMAP, we found that there has been an increase (approximately 1 km 2 ) in vegetation cover from the 1980s to 2016. The changes in vegetation near the crater of Mt. Agung is relatively slow when compared to another volcano such as Mt. Merapi. Remote sensing application has enabled us to obtain information on vegetation change relatively easily compared to conduct an extensive on-ground survey where more time and funding is needed.
As mentioned in the literature review, several reports have shown the impact of vegetationchanges on the water yield (Bosch and Hewlett, 1982b; Brown et al., 2005). The current research emphasizes the impact of LAI on the discharge. It is surprising that the distribution of LAI remains similar over the years while the discharge varies considerably. The size of the area with healthy vegetation must also be taken into account. This vegetation-cover characteristic shows a weak relation with the discharge. When the size of the area with healthy vegetation (NDVI > 0.3) increases, the discharge decreases. However, this has only been proven for the years with realistic discharge and rainfall values.
The structure and diversity of tropical vegetation are determined by the discontinuous distribution of several biotic and/ or abiotic factors, which act in different spatial and temporal scales [2, 5, 16]. At a local or regional scale, plant diversity may be influenced by abiotic conditions, but it may also depend on other ecosystem processes, such as biotic interactions and limitations to seed dispersal [6, 16]. Vegetation profile growth used to be characterized by a description of the state and characteristic of changes resulting from growth over time. As the definition of word “growing” we can imagine the quantitative enlarging of volume of biomass of living organisms. The descriptions of state and characteristic changes coming up during forest vegetation development are made by use of enumeration survey values. Basic values of enumeration survey are e.g. number of trees per square unit (this is a basic value for computation of mean spacing), mean thickness, mean height, circular base, stock,
The chapters deal with Climate and Vegetation, Soil and Succession, Flood Plains Swamps and Lakes, Coastal Vegetation, History of Plants and Landscape and the Changing Vegetation. Much information is packed into two appendices. One lists the species for each class of vegetation with code letters which tell you, for example, that Schefflera digitata enters the forest succession early on moraines and persists abundantly, or that Poa colensoi is abundant in dense or open grassland, mainly where drainage is poor. The other adds descriptive detail for genera and species, for which it serves as an index and glossary of popular names. I found the chapter on History particularly lucid and absorbing, but the object throughout is to relate land and vegetationchanges in climate, geology and soil and the activities of animals and man. This keeps up interest on every page and provides over-all a liberal education.
and hydroelectricity, demographic growth (Tchosoua, 2006) urbanization and human activities (Mapongmetsem et al., 1997) wildfires and erosion. A man becomes a parasite in his environment and this changes the running of ecology, leading to the disappearance of many species (Wanders, 2000). The discovery of ores on mount Ngaoundal in the Ngaoundal subdivision before the independence of Cameroon, has created a project now almost at the level of its finalization. The Ngaoundal subdivision has other potentialities among which touristic sites, a military training centre etc... Other economic activities based on livestock rearing, agriculture, beekeeping and ecotourism are practiced on the mount Ngaoundal. All these factors have contributed to the deterioration of mount Ngaoundal and to the bad sustainable management of environment. The aim of this work was to study the impact of anthropic activities on the state of evolution of mount Ngaoundal for a devised together management of the mountain. Specifically it is: i) to determine the causes and consequences of anthropic activities practiced on the mount Ngaoundal; ii) to show the impact of exploitation on vegetation; iii) to study the vegetation evolution and iv) to propose protective and conservationist methods on mount Ngaoundal vegetation.
Abstract: The economic analysis of the Bali cattle farm was carried out on Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, which was carried out from January-December 2018. The research location was selected purposively which represented the pasture agroecosystem located in Belu District, Malaka District, and Timor Tengah Utara District. Kupang District and Kota Kupang are areas that represent agricultural agroecosystems and plantation agroecosystems, and Timor Tengah Selatan District represents forest agroecosystems. Whereas the determination of respondents is 5-10% of the number of farmers in each agroecosystem that has > 10 Bali cattle. Data collection methods are done through observation, interviews and documentation. This research uses descriptive data analysis about income, production costs, and capital. The results showed that Bali cattle farm on Timor Island who had better value in terms of production costs per tail of cattle were farmers in the pasture agroecosystem (IDR 4,506,035) followed by farmers in the forest agroecosystem (IDR 4,549,186), farmers of agricultural agroecosystems (IDR 4,691,241) ), and farmers in plantation agroecosystems (IDR 4,736,346). But based on the aspect of better livestock income per cattle by farmers in the Timor Island agroecosystem are farmers in plantation agroecosystems (IDR 8,698,116) followed by agricultural agroecosystems (IDR 8,478,431), forest agroecosystems (IDR 7,648,095), and pasture agroecosystems (IDR 7,503,937). Then the net profit obtained by farmers in plantation agroecosystems is IDR 3,961,770/tail, agricultural agroecosystems IDR 3,787,190/tail, forest agroecosystems IDR 3,988,910/tail, and pasture agroecosystems IDR 2,997,902/tail. BEP of Bali cattle price in plantation agroecosystem is IDR 5,505,948, pasture agroecosystem is IDR 5,672,376, agricultural agroecosystem is IDR 5,786,974, and forest agroecosystem is IDR 6,047,452. The value of rentability from plantation agroecosystem was 53.9% followed by agricultural agroecosystem by 40.6%, pasture agroecosystem 28.6%, and forest agroecosystem by 23.2%. In general, Bali cattle farmers in Timor Island agroecosystems that have good economic value in terms of income are farmers in plantation agroecosystems, followed by farmers in agricultural agroecosystems, forest agroecosystems, and pasture agroecosystems. Factors affecting the income of farmers is the selling price and the number of Bali cattle.
Fisheries management in Indonesia is considered not optimal, both in capture fisheries and aquaculture, and even this condition has experienced dilemma ( Mous et al., 2005 ). In the fisheries catch sector, there are still many illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities ( Varkey et al., 2010 ). This is further exacerbated by over-fishing symptoms in some waters (especially in western Indonesia) ( Mous et al., 2005 ) even though in other regions (Eastern Indonesia) still have considerable potential for exploitation ( Widodo, 2003 ). Over-fishing that occurs in Indonesia is estimated due to the use of fishing gear that is environmentally damaging and certain chemicals that damage the ecological chain and destroy the habitat of fishery resources in the region. This condition is estimated due to the ineffectiveness of the fishery resources management system such as the still weak supervision system of fish resource utilization and the low capacity of human resources owned. In tuna capture fisheries at Pelabuhan Ratu, from studies conducted, almost over 98% were juvenile yellowfin tuna (<85 cm fork length) captured in March-May 2005 ( Mertha et al., 2006 ). This indicates the absence of regulation of tuna catch size at this time.
The Balinese seem to be coping with the tourist invasion as well as they have coped with others, so they are taking what they want, but they do not allow surrendering their cultural value. This appears to have been the stories throughout Bali’s history, outside cultures have come, perhaps only as visitors and traders, but Balinese society and culture have remained distinctive, accepting outward forms, but molding them to its own different purposes. So there is need to sustaincultural value and other types of regular performances to encourage community participation and support for the heritage and ancient value of Bali. The focus of the program is not only on the conservation of the cultural heritage and ancient value itself but also efforts to make better relationships between heritage conservation and commercial tourism.
This research was conducted in the Bali Province, Indonesia. The island of Bali is situated to the west of and bordering the deep-water Lombok Strait. The larger region, collectively known as the Lesser Sunda Islands, extends from Bali in the west to Timor in the east and has been characterized as the Lesser Sunda Ecoregion (Green and Mous, 2007). With the main Lesser Sunda island chain, Bali forms part of the north-western boundary to the Indian Ocean and provides a major point of differentiation in several key climatological and oceanographic features (Turak and deVantier, 2012). Unlike the adjacent region to the west, which sits atop the Sunda Shelf, and regions much further east (eg. Papua) located atop the Sahul Shelf, the Lesser Sunda Islands, with islands to their north, have, during the past several million years, always had deep water adjacent to their coasts. These islands have presumably played a major role as biological refugia during the Pleistocene glaciations, with significant biogeographic implications (Barber et al., 2000).
A volcano can be defined as a complex system, not least for the hidden clues related to its internal nature. Innovative models grounded in the Artificial Sciences, have been proposed for a novel pattern recognition analysis at Mt. Etna volcano. The reference monitoring dataset dealt with real data of 28 parameters collected between January 2001 and April 2005, during which the volcano underwent the July-August 2001, October 2002-January 2003 and September 2004-April 2005 flank eruptions. There were 301 eruptive days out of an overall number of 1581 investigated days. The analysis involved successive steps. First, the TWIST algorithm was used to select the most predictive attributes associated with the flank eruption target. During his work, the algorithm TWIST selected 11 characteristics of the input vector: among them SO 2 and CO 2 emissions, and also
The study of changes in rocks due to interaction with hydrothermal fluids at active volcanoes provides insights into wall rock alteration associated with ore deposits formed in the geological past. Therefore, the nature of mineral alte- ration and chemical changes experienced by wall rocks can be investigated at eruptive sites on active volcanoes and the results used to better constrain ore-forming processes. In this study, we investigated the alteration at eruptive sites at Mount Cameroon volcano. These eruptive vents lie along NE-SW-trending fissures that define the Mount Cameroon rift. The vents are surrounded by cones composed largely of pyroclastic materials and to a lesser extent lava. Fumaroles (volcanic gases) rising through the vents during and after the 1999 eruption have resulted in the alteration of the pyroclastic rob- ble along the fissures and the inner walls of the cones. Consequently, altered basaltic materials are covered with thin films of reddish, yellowish to whitish secondary minerals. These coatings result from an interaction between the surfaces of the basaltic glass with volcanically-derived acidic fluids . Petro- graphic investigations and XRD analysis of the basalts have identified prima- ry mineral phases, such as olivine, pyroxene (mainly augite) and feldspars. Alteration products revealed include ubiquitous silica as well as gypsum, magnetite, feldspar, alunite and jarosite. Jarosite occurrence indicates that SO 2 is the primary volcanically-derived acid source involved in coating for-
On paper, the 1 st grade has 30 hours per week of education, the 2 nd grade 31 hours, 3 rd grade 36 hours, 4 th , 5 th and 6 th grade 40 hours per week. However, after a simple calculation: the school provides a maximum of 5 (hours) X 6 (days) = 30 hours per week (usually even less, because there are so many ceremonies in Indonesia), while on paper it has to be 40 hours per week. The comments of the English teachers and head masters were that they try to follow this curriculum in the best way possible. The most important subjects are: Indonesian language, mathematics and science (which are determined by the central government). These are the only three courses included in the national examination. Next year, there will be no English in the standard curriculum; however schools can decide to teach English on their school as an extra subject. To teach English as an extra subject, schools have to decrease hours from another subject in order to make time available for teaching English. As seen in the Table 5, mathematics, the foreign language English, and civics are taught at elementary schools in Bali as separate subjects. Reading is included in the subjects: Indonesian, Balinese, and English. The teachers at elementary schools, teach the children how to learn by showing them how to use a dictionary and how to study step by step. The teachers can apply their own strategy concerning this. Unfortunately, the schools do not have access to a computer room or other ICT facilities for pupils to teach them about ICT. All four visited elementary schools have one computer available for the administration. Moreover, all four head masters are of opinion that ICT provisions are important to further improve the quality of education on their schools.
Tropical countries of eastern Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines) have conventionally been consid- ered to have low JE risk . In Indonesia, for example, only 41 JE cases were reported for the whole country dur- ing the 11 years from 1986 through 1996 . Although JEV was isolated from the mosquito vector in 1972 and serological surveys confirmed the prevalence of JEV infec- tions in endemic wild birds and domestic animals, only sporadic human JE cases have been reported in Indonesia [20-22]. Previously, this low JE-risk to humans was attrib- uted to a less virulent JEV circulating in the region . Our study results suggest the contrary. In Bali alone we identified 90 JE cases in humans within just 2.5 years. Even this may be an underestimate given that 135 of the 239 suspected JE cases provided only acute-phase CSF samples within the 1 st week of illness onset, of which only
I Gusti Bagus Udayana, born in Jakarta, Mei 29, 1964, Agronomy Program (S1) Udayana University (1983 - 1989), Dryland Program (S2) Postgraduate-Udayana University. (2000-2002), and Study Program (S3) Agriculture Industri Teknologi- Bogor Agricultural Institute (2005-2010). Presenter at the International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture Food and Energy (SAFE) in 2014 at Warmadewa University, Bali and SAFE Conference in 2015 at Nong Lam University in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Presenter at the International Conference on Sustainable Agricultural, Food and Energy (SAFE) in 2016 (Summer Course) at Warmadewa University, Bali. Publications 1) In International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering and International Informatics Technology (IJASEIT): 2088-5334, Vol. 4 (2014) No. 1, pages: e-ISSN: 2460-6952. 25-29. Marketing Risk Management of Palm Oil Based Biodiesel Agroindustry. 2) Model Development Industrial Cluster Coffee Arabica in The District Bangli, Province of Bali. 3)The Role of Perceived Organizational Support to Increase Effect of Organizational Justice Dimension on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. JOSR Journal of Business and Management. E-ISSN:2278-487X. Volume: 18 Issue:8 (Version-III)
Over the years the population movement or transmigration was under various Departments. This evidence indirectly caused the changes in its policy. Hardjono (1972:22) said that in the years between 1950 and 1969 it is understandable that policies changed frequently, depending upon the policies of the Department under which transmigration happened to be placed. Furthermore, she concluded that the frequent alterations were basically a reflection of: a) the lack of political orientation and stability during the first twenty-five years of independence, and b) the fact that government views about the importance of transmigration and its relation to other government institutions altered frequently. Similarly, Soebiantoro (1973:23) commented that the implementation of transmigration in the fifties (with frequent changes in the agencies charged with transmigration problems from one ministry to another) looked more like a social-humanitarian undertaking, giving the impression that transmigration was just an effort to transfer poverty from Java, Madura and Bali to other islands, neglecting follow-up measures needed by the new settlers in their new re-settlements.
Tuberculosis has been known as a threatening disease in the community but has not lead to stigmatization such as happened to HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, TB patients are voluntary coming to health services. Whereas, due to stig- matization and discrimination, HIV/AIDS patients are seldom and do not even want to seek services. Based on this notion, the research question is ‘what is the prevalence of HIV infection among TB patients in Bali?
Subak THK endurance spatial patterns in the areas of the study form clusters following distance decay principle from Kuta tourism center. The rapid development of tourism triggers the regional development with the symptoms which are represented in the forms of (1) increasing role of secondary and tertiary sectors followed by decreasing role of primary (agricultural) sector, (2) demographic development and heterogeneity, (3) increasing number of road infrastructures and social economic facilities, (4) increasing built-up areas and (5) change in spatial planning toward the one that emphasizes metropolitan/urban character. To maintain subak sustainability and saving Bali development for the future, then (1) the government ought to immediately establish eternal agricultural/subak spatial zonation together with its consistent, firm and fair application; (2) the government ought to reorient the development priorities toward the agricultural sector through capacity building programs, particularly farmers (subak members) economic empowerment that supports tourism sector; (3) Subak leaders and subak members should regulate parties who will exploit resources (particularly rice fields and water) for non-agricultural purposes in awig-awig and give them strong, firm and fair sanctions.
Subak has existed for a millennium (Purwita, 1993), however, now it is facing increasingly more complex problems. The empirical conditions in the field show that the THK endurance of the subak, particularly in Badung regency is increasingly under a threat, along with the era of economic development. The most serious threat is felt in palemahan and pawongan components. The serious problem in palemahan is the rapid land conversion from rice field to nonagricultural use and the scarcity of water irrigation supply (Sriartha, 2011, 2014). Bali Province Central Bureau of Statistics (2007) recorded that during the 1997-2007 period, the conversion of rice field land in Bali was 5.601 ha, which means that the rate of rice field land conversion was 560,1 ha each year. The serious problems in pawongan are in the form of the degradation of collective life tradition, the decrease of the number of subak members/farmers, no interest shown by young generation in becoming farmers, weakening of subak institution, low income earned from agriculture and business orientation held by the subak members/farmers. These problems cause subak marginalization. Sutawan (2005) and Windia (2008) stated that almost all subak in Bali are undergoing marginalization that the end of the sustainability. Lansing, a foreign researcher (Lansing, 2013) studied subak from 1974 and also saw that subak was on the verge of destruction despite its success in its service of keeping the sustainability of agricultural environment for more than 1000 years. Thus, it is under a threat because of its popularity.