Top PDF The changing research landscape and reflections on national research assessment in the future

The changing research landscape and reflections on national research assessment in the future

The changing research landscape and reflections on national research assessment in the future

Research assessment exercises can also be used to increase research productivity by measuring research outputs in terms of quality and quantity (Calver et al. 2013; Mingers, n.d.; Pajić 2015). For example, in Australia and New Zealand there is evidence to suggest that the overall quality of research has increased since the introduction of national assessments (McGilvray 2014). Additionally, a study looking at the evolution of research assessment methodologies in Lithuania found that the introduction of formal assessments of scientific publications encouraged researchers to communicate their results in international scientific journals, and stimulated Lithuanian scientific journals to seek inclusion in international databases, as well as improve their quality (Maskeliūnas et al. 2015). As mentioned under accountability, in recent years there has been an increase in the need for government and researchers to measure and provide evidence on the value or benefit of research to society (Hill 2016). Methods to assess this include econometric approaches to quantify the relationship between investment in research and economic benefits; approaches focused on knowledge exchange interactions; and the use of qualitative methods, such as the case studies used in REF 2014 (Hill 2016). Submissions for the REF 2014 also included an ‘impact template’, which consisted of a narrative statement describing the unit’s strategy to deliver impact.
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The changing research landscape and reflections on national research assessment in the future

The changing research landscape and reflections on national research assessment in the future

future. Currently, the only other forms of output produced by more than 50 per cent of respondents were chapters in books and authored books in arts and humanities. Individual researchers also expect to start to produce more diverse forms of output aimed at a wider audience. The forms of output with the greatest expected percentage increase in the number of researchers producing them over the next 5 to 10 years are books (authored books, chapters in book and edited books), non-confidential research reports for external bodies and openly published peer reviews. The changes are driven in particular by an expectation of individual career progression, which brings with it the opportunity or requirement to produce different output forms (e.g. books). Other factors influencing the changes in output forms included desire to reach new audiences and create societal impact, changes controlled by external bodies (e.g. funding, open access requirements, REF) and wider changes that may influence the research landscape (e.g. societal changes and new technology).
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Unrelated future costs and unrelated future benefits : reflections on NICE guidance to the methods of technology appraisal

Unrelated future costs and unrelated future benefits : reflections on NICE guidance to the methods of technology appraisal

In this editorial, we consider the vexing issue of “unrelated future costs” (for example, the costs of caring for people with dementia or kidney failure after preventing their deaths from a heart attack). The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance is not to take such costs into account in technology appraisals. However, standard appraisal practice involves modelling the benefits of those unrelated technologies. We argue that there is a sound principled reason for including both the costs and benefits of unrelated care. Changing this practice would have material consequences for decisions about reimbursing particular technologies and we urge future research to understand this better.
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Environmental Assessment of Basin Geosystems Based on the Landscape Approach

Environmental Assessment of Basin Geosystems Based on the Landscape Approach

4 It is known that different parts of the paragenetic basin geosystems (watershed - slope - floodplain) have various degree of resistance to anthropogenic pressures, which activate environmentally adverse processes. To take into account the location of the landscape divisions, different types of terrains were assigned points after expert evaluation, which points reflected the degree of their resistance to the anthropogenic impact exerted (Table 4). Scores take values from 1 to 3, ascending as the susceptibility to impact increases (from weak to strong).

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Modelling national research assessments in CERIF

Modelling national research assessments in CERIF

Research groups includes basic information on the institution's research units, including their names and the units of assessment (the subject-based committees who will assess their outputs for the REF exercise) to which they have been assigned. The research staff and students section details the personnel whose research outputs are to be submitted for consideration: in addition to basic biographical information, including names, dates in post and research group memberships, this section allows linkages between individuals to be made to indicate, for example, research student/supervisor and co-authorship relations. The research outputs themselves are detailed in the next section, which primarily contains bibliographic information necessary for their unambiguous identification, also allows the flagging of sensitive, interdisciplinary and sensitive material. The funding section encodes information on research income, including research studentships and funding from external sources. Finally the research environment and esteem section allows prose statements of the institution's overall research environment and an analysis of the esteem with which its output is held in the academic community.
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The landscape of European Polar Research

The landscape of European Polar Research

In order to better and more efficiently serve the multi-disciplinary demands of the research community we have to know the strengths and weaknesses of the assets that we have available. This compilation enables the full exposition of capacity and enables managers to plan their deployment in the most suitable way, the public to understand how investments are utilised and the scientists to design major investigative efforts to solve important questions which effect the functioning of the planet. A compilation of this nature obviously involves periodic updating taking into account new facilities and capacities of the European countries and so the information contained in this report is essentially a snapshot of the current capacity and can be used as a baseline for planning new investment and coordinating existing facilities.
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The landscape of European Polar Research

The landscape of European Polar Research

The objectives of this analysis were to identify and characterise critical elements for deepening the collaboration between European polar research agencies, harmonising management processes and to strengthen European polar coordination in a global context. To obtain this result, an extensive platform of information was needed to highlight the current European strengths and weaknesses and to develop strategies and suitable instruments for future planning. It can thereby increase the possibilities for new collaborations, strategic activities and exchange of infrastructure elements and also provide an overview of the future needs in the RTD landscape. Multinational and interconnected long-term planning between European countries is potentially very powerful and will significantly contribute to establish collaborative programmes and policies. The main strategic conclusions are presented in this report.
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A Research on the Characteristics of the Inspiring Teacher

A Research on the Characteristics of the Inspiring Teacher

In the study, an exploratory sequential design a mixed method was used in the current study. Mixed methods studies contain combining quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis in a single study (Creswell, Fetters & Ivankova, 2004). In the first step grounded theory research design as a qualitative research design was used in this study. That aims to reveal characteristics of inspiring teacher according to the opinions of teacher candidates and independently of current ideas and theories. When a field of study is new or has little constructed ideas and theories, grounded theory, which seeks to construct theories, is suitable to study in that field (McMillan & Schumacher, 2006). In the currents study, grounded theory research design as a qualitative research design was used. In the second step survey research model as a quantitative research design was used. A descriptive analysis was used to analyze data obtained through scales (Yildirim & Simsek, 2001).
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Forty years of Landscape Research

Forty years of Landscape Research

Comparison of these findings with editorials and other retrospections and predictions (e.g., Brotherton, 1981, 1985; Burgess, 1993, 1996; Cosgrove, 1990; Howard, 1993; Roe, 2009; Thompson, 2004) highlights some interesting points. In 1996, Jacqueline Burgess noted that ‘[m]any of the trends evident by the end of the 1980s look set to continue for the foreseeable future’, but she also identified new and emerging landscape research issues, namely sustainability, environmental economics and post-colonial critiques (Burgess, 1996, p. 6). She then discussed themes she ‘would like to see develop over the next few years’ (Burgess, 1996, p. 5), which included methodological and epistemological issues in landscape research and the ‘The Rise of Social and Cultural Theories in Landscape Research’ (Burgess, 1996, p. 9). In reflecting on Burgess’ speculations, Thompson (2004, p. 5), in his first editorial, confirms continued interest in ‘sustainability, particularly in the context of landscape ecology and landscape planning’ as well as questions of meaning. He qualifies Burgess’ prediction of environmental economics as a potential theme, but notes a trend towards small-scale ethnographic studies and studies using participatory approaches. In looking forward, Thompson asked Board members of the LRG and the editorial board what they believed to be the ‘most important questions’ for landscape research in the opening years of the twenty-first century. He grouped the answers under various headings, including questions of evaluation, heritage, character, representation and identity, plural values, the creation of valuable places and the internationalisation of landscape research.
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Past, current and future of Japanese national program for earthquake prediction research

Past, current and future of Japanese national program for earthquake prediction research

The Japanese national earthquake prediction program started in 1962 with a blue print for the scope and direction of research to follow. Substantial time and efforts were subsequently devoted to the construction of new observation networks and the study on the earthquake generation mechanisms. An important result has been the recognition of the great difficulty in identifying creditable precursors due to a diversity of earthquake generation process. In recent years, a new age of near real time observations of Earth’s crustal processes by dense arrays of seismic and the GPS (Global Positioning System) stations has arrived. The results of the real time monitoring may lead to a new approach in the earthquake prediction research, i.e., the quantitative forecasting of the crustal activities. The new national program, which inherits its essential observational network from all the previous programs, emphasizes the importance of modeling as well as monitoring for a sound scientific development of earthquake prediction research. Key words: Earthquake prediction, national program, quantitative forecast, the blue print, asperity.
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Prospects for Cohesion Policy in 2014-20 and Beyond : Progress with Programming and Reflections on the Future

Prospects for Cohesion Policy in 2014-20 and Beyond : Progress with Programming and Reflections on the Future

A stronger case for retaining Cohesion policy across all regions, including in richer areas, has been made in several other contributions to the debate on geographical targeting in Cohesion policy. The European Commission and European Parliament have always argued for a pan-EU Cohesion policy to support all Member States, with a higher concentration of funding in the less-developed EU regions. For the 2014-20 period, the Commission examined a ‘lagging country focus’ option in its impact assessment accompanying the reform proposals with funding restricted to the less-developed Member States. 22 The scenario implied a budget half the size of the alternative status quo option covering only those countries with an average GNI/head of less than 90 percent of the EU average and 22 percent of the EU population. While concentration on less-developed countries would save money for the EU budget, the option was rejected for four reasons: Cohesion policy would become a redistributive policy losing its allocative benefits across the EU; there would be lower incentives to foster cross-border spill-over effects across countries and regions; the incentives to contribute to EU- wide priorities would decline; and there would be lower growth effects on the EU economy
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Research on the Employee Motivation in Tourism Industry in Danang City

Research on the Employee Motivation in Tourism Industry in Danang City

Danang has recently been viewed as one of the famous tourist destinations in the world. The New York Times has ranked Danang at the fifteenth out of 52 must-go destinations in 2019. The boom of tourists also motivate travel companies to increase their presence in this beautiful coastal city. It is demonstrated that human resource management is the most valuable asset as well as the most important factor in determining the success or failure of the company in the future; therefore, companies irrespective of size and market strive to retain the best employees. If the employees are not satisfied with their jobs, or are not motivated to fulfill their tasks, they cannot ensure a customer satisfaction service, thus influencing on organizational effectiveness. In order to overcome these drawbacks, companies should create a strong and positive relationship with their employees and direct them towards task fulfilment. As a such competitive context, there are many reasons for employees to abandon their work. For example, they feel dissatisfied with weak material facilities, no respects, no sharing from monitors, no motivation, no chance to develop their career, no training, no clear policy, injustice, poor working environment, non-democratic, etc. If human resources are not planned effectively, enterprises cannot get optimal benefits from human resources. Obviously, employee motivation has always been a central problem for leaders and managers, especially in the tourism industry. This is the main reason why the author conducts research on
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Reflections on the culture of the preimplantation embryo

Reflections on the culture of the preimplantation embryo

The choice of a medium depends on the purpose for which it is to be used. The uses fall into three categories: (a) biotechnical, including assisted reproduction, (b) experimental for the study of development, and (c) experimental for physiological studies. In all of these applications it is important to be aware of the artefacts that can be produced by the culture media. In general the biotechnical applications require the use of a medium that is as simple and economic as possible, but at the same time ensures that the young eventually produced after development in a surrogate uterus are normal or at least viable. It is for this reason that the final evaluation of a medium will be made by the determination of the rate of normal embryos born (review: Gardner and Lane, 1997). Recently Gardner and Lane (1997) have proposed that a two-step culture system be adopted; a medium for the culture of the pre-compaction stages and a more elaborate medium for the culture of the post-compaction stages. Whether this procedure yields more robust young than those produced by a one-step culture method involving only one medium needs confirmation. Developmental research often in- volves the study of the action of some gene product or a growth factor. Our interpretation of negative results requires caution, for if a strain of mouse is used which is susceptible to the two cell block completely misleading results will be obtained. However, there may be more subtle artefacts. Biggers (1993) wrote:
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Open Access Publishing: Pros, Cons, and Current Threats

Open Access Publishing: Pros, Cons, and Current Threats

community by publishing in peer-reviewed journals. You invest your time and energy conducting your research and preparing your manuscripts, so be mindful when choosing a journal to showcase your work. Carefully check the quality standards of the OA journal you consider and, with pride, set your work free.

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Evidence Assessment of Management of Acute Otitis Media: II. Research Gaps and Priorities for Future Research

Evidence Assessment of Management of Acute Otitis Media: II. Research Gaps and Priorities for Future Research

Our technical experts recommended leaving the def- initions open to ones used by different studies. This evidence assessment found that the type of outcome measure varied between studies and the definition of common outcomes, such as clinical failure, were not uniform. These inconsistencies made it difficult not only to combine results across studies, but also to conduct analysis for subgroups of patients. We en- courage the adoption of common outcome defini- tions to increase the comparability of future research outcomes.

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Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care

Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care

ings from basic science into the development of assessment tools that can screen for, or diagnose, clinically significant cognitive decline is in its infancy and still requires more research regarding the usability and validity of any par- ticular eyetracking-based assessment. However, the basic research that has been done to date collectively suggests that eyetracking-based assessments have the potential to fill a critical gap in health care by providing a means for quick and effective screening and diagnostics. In particular, there are advantages to using eyetracking-based assessments in multicultural or urban settings in which language fluency, education, and/or literacy levels may vary. In addition, there are advantages to using a non-verbal task with no motor requirements, except for the movement of the eyes them- selves, with clients who may have language comprehension or production deficits or have restricted mobility due to stroke or other brain injuries. To determine whether eyetracking- based assessments could augment current tools, as well as to more broadly uncover the considerations for launching new technologies and assessments in the health-care community, we consulted with health-care professionals through a focus group methodology. We engaged health-care professionals who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations, to provide us with insight into the fol- lowing three questions:
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Research on sexuality and religion: some reflections on accomplishments and future directions

Research on sexuality and religion: some reflections on accomplishments and future directions

In the past twenty years or so, the sociological study of sexuality and religion has come a long way indeed. The professional loneliness I experienced in 1990s was incrementa l ly replaced by a sense of excitement, as research on non-normative sexualities and religio n proliferated (for more details, see e.g. Hunt, 2015). In addition, Hunt’s (2012) five-volume collection also offers an impressive range of previously-published works on and sexuality and religion more broadly. Suffice it to say that this body of literature has collectively mounted a credible challenge to the powerful secularist bias in academic and popular discourses of sexuality and religion. In this biased view, religious spaces, cultures, and structures (as opposed to secular ones) are inherently conservative and restrictive on sexuality issues; thus religio us actors (as also sexed beings) are consequently ‘agentically-constrained’. Empirical research has consistently demonstrated that, whilst stories of tension and conflict continue to persist, there are also the less-frequently reported narratives of integration, transformation, and growth. This is especially evident amongst young religious actors who, compared to the older generations, are more pragmatic and pluralist in their construction of religious identit ies, emphasising the functionality and usefulness of religious beliefs rather than dogma and tradition. When it comes to sexuality matters, they also demonstrate the ‘individualisation of sexual ethics’ – as part and parcel of their broader endeavour to construct ‘ethics for life’ – which involves reflexive adaptation of religious dogma and beliefs, rather than uncritical and complete adoption or rejection of them (e.g. Collins-Mayo and Dandelion, 2010; Page and Yip, 2017; Yip and Page, 2013).
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Reconfiguring contract research? Career, work and learning in a changing employment landscape

Reconfiguring contract research? Career, work and learning in a changing employment landscape

The CRS who participated in our study could broadly be defined as falling into one of these categories. However, in their descriptions of themselves and their occupations, most drew attention to the ways in which these categorical identity positions were not simply taken up and shaped by them through personal choice but, rather, were being influenced by various external constraints. Many of those who fitted the profile of Career Starter, for example, had had more than one or two contracts and had also experienced a fairly long period of employment in contract research while they waited to move into more permanent research or lecturing posts. Three factors were regularly mentioned as influencing this situation. One concerned the lack of geographical mobility for some due to family commitments and another, departmental attitudes towards recruitment, as exemplified in the following quotation from a researcher who had been doing contract research for eleven years:
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Reconfiguring contract research? Career, work and learning in a changing employment landscape

Reconfiguring contract research? Career, work and learning in a changing employment landscape

The CRS who participated in our study could broadly be defined as falling into one of these categories. However, in their descriptions of themselves and their occupations, most drew attention to the ways in which these categorical identity positions were not simply taken up and shaped by them through personal choice but, rather, were being influenced by various external constraints. Many of those who fitted the profile of Career Starter, for example, had had more than one or two contracts and had also experienced a fairly long period of employment in contract research while they waited to move into more permanent research or lecturing posts. Three factors were regularly mentioned as influencing this situation. One concerned the lack of geographical mobility for some due to family commitments and another, departmental attitudes towards recruitment, as exemplified in the following quotation from a researcher who had been doing contract research for eleven years:
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<p>Reflections on Atherosclerosis: Lesson from the Past and Future Research Directions</p>

<p>Reflections on Atherosclerosis: Lesson from the Past and Future Research Directions</p>

A new fi eld of research is focused on the study of dysregulated immune cells within atherosclerotic lesions. The use of innovative single-cell proteomic and transcrip- tomic analyses allows to detect the immune diversity and to identify the molecular alterations of immune cells in the atherosclerotic plaques, promoting the design of new and more precise cardiovascular immunotherapies, tailored to immune molecular and cellular defects. 100 High-parameter technologies, such as mass cytometry (CyTOF) and single- cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq), showed an unexpected diversity among murine aortic leukocytes; in particular, CyTOF has proven more speci fi c in distinguishing the phenotypic diversity of the leukocyte subsets, while scRNAseq provides more information on their likely func- tions. The de fi nition of leukocyte diversity may be useful to establish a functional relevance for lesional leukocytes in human atherosclerosis. 101
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