1.1 This plot of "signal strength/CMB signal strength" as a function of frequency shows the latest noise constraints on the B-mode signal, accompanied by the latest bounds on the signal’s magnitude. The red patch shows allowed false-signal magnitudes of synchrotron radia- tion. The purple band shows allowed false-signal magnitudes from dust. The horizontal black lines are upperbounds on the B-mode signal’s magnitude. Note how they have lowered enough that there is essentially no avoiding both the dust and synchrotron radiation errors, and one must be subtracted out regardless of what frequency the signal is pursued at. As the dust model is better constrained, it was chosen to use for subtraction. The 220/270 GHz range has neg- ligible synchrotron radiation noise while still being somewhat close to the primary data taking range around 150 GHz, and thus is ideal for imaging the dust. Image Credit  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.1 Basics of bolometers. Image credit: D.F. Santavicca, licensed under
dimensions depending up on the nature of the biopolymers involved and the assembly principle used (McClements 2006; Tolstoguzov 2003). Properties of polysaccharide-protein complexes depend on various factors like charge, nature of biopolymers, pH, ionic strength and temperature of the medium (Ghosh & Bandyopadhyay 2011). The aim of the present research was to optimize the process variable for the synthesis and the characterization of micro structures of amylase entrapped in the pectin gel. We hypothesized that the binding of two biopolymers enzyme and pectin would influence the functional properties of molecules.
Because of the poor cured TDGEBA/SAA epoxy systems compatibility between TDGEBA and SAA, the impact strength properties of the unmodified TDGEBA/SAA epoxy mixtures are less than desirable. The trend of unnotched impact strength for TDGEBA/SAA epoxy mixture with various amounts of PE is consistent with corresponding hardens properties. PE exhibits a significant effect on the enhancement of impact strength proper- ties for TDGEBA/SAA epoxy mixture, which can be attributed to the in situ-formed TDGEBA/SAA epoxy with PE polymer network molecules anchoring along the interface. A greater number of in situ polymer network mo- lecules tend to be produced with increasing the quantity of PE and anchor along the interface as the result of chemical reaction. The PE has demonstrated combination of TDGEBA/SAA and PE to be an excellent reactive improvement in their impact strength properties due to internal Stress decreasing of cured TDGEBA/SAA epoxy.
Background: Thermalstability (TS) is a part of the BCG vaccine characterization by which the consistency of process in BCG vaccine production could be confirmed. To enhance the TS of the vaccine, some prevalent stabilizers in different concentrations were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to Freeze-drying process. We found a formulation more effective than the current stabilizer for retaining the higher viability of lyophilized BCG vaccine produced by Pasteur Institute of Iran. Methods: In the design of experiments using Taguchi method, lactose, trehalose, glucose, dextran, and monosodium glutamate were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to freeze-drying process. Viability of the samples was determined by counting the colony forming unit. Results: Maximum signal-to-noise ratio equal to maximum TS and viability was obtained by adding lactose, dextran, and glutamate in defined concentrations. Conclusion: Adding the stabilizers had a significant impact on TS of BCG vaccine to meet the quality requirements. DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.ibj.21.6.406
The methodology used for designing the UPFC based Simulink model is obtained from Power System Simulink Tool (PSST). Recently PSST may be used in the analysis and research for calculation of power flow, small signal stability analysis, time-domain simulation. PSST is easy to use and has good extensibility and easy to use, and it is alternative to the defect of conventional large- scale commercial software, that it is difficult to add new components to them, therefore PSST can add user defined new modules seamlessly in the form of Simulink module. As per requirement of actual simulation accuracy PSST can select appropriate Simulink solver flexibly for the simulation while the simulation model does not need to be modified. To verify the effectiveness and accuracy of simulation results by PSST, taking New England system under a certain fault condition for example, the time-domain simulation results by PSST are analyzed and compared with time-domain simulation results of the same example by powersystem toolbox (PST).
Carmo-Silva, E., Scales, J., Madgwick, P., Salvucci, M., Raines, C. and Parry, M. A. J. 2014. Improving the thermalstability of Rubisco activase. Reynolds, M., Braun, H., Listman, M., Quilligan, E. and Molero, G. (ed.) Proceedings 4th International Workshop of the Wheat Yield Consortium, Cuidad Obregon, 24-25 March 2014 . Centro Internacional de
action energies in the native state were more favorable in thermophilic proteins com- pared to their mesophilic ortholog in 11 of 13 pairs. As seen previously, the RNaseP and Thiroredoxin systems were the only two pairs that were exceptions to this finding. The discrepancy between PDB and MD based analysis is again observed, particularly with the PaiA and RNaseH systems where the trends are reversed. For the ACP pairing, PDB based calculation shows almost no difference in the electrostatic in- teraction energy between thermophilic and mesophilic constituents, in contrast to the MD generated trajectory based calculation (compare the third column between Tables 6.2 and 6.3). These findings are consistent with several experimental studies demonstrating the importance of charged residues and improved electrostatic inter- action in protein stability. 67,73–75,321,322 Particularly, Makhatadze and colleagues have
The TG-DTA analyzer (type DTG-60, Shimadzu Cor- poration, Japan) was used to determine the TG-DTA curves of the sample. SPN-500-type nitrogen generator (Hewleet-Packard, Beijing Institute of Technology, China) was used to provide a high purity nitrogen atmosphere for the experimental system of thermal analysis. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (type WQF, Beijing Beifen-Ruili Analytical Instrument (Group) Co, Ltd) was used to analyze PSI. Gel permeation chromatography (type Agilent1100, Agilent Corporation, America) was used to analyze PSI’s purity and the number-average molecular weight (M n ) and polydispesity index (M w /M n ).
www.wjpr.net Vol 3, Issue 8, 2014. 789 hand aromatic nitriles have a wide range of applications in pharmaceuticals, pesticides and dye industries. [1-4] Aromatic nitriles are useful in the manufacturing of protection coating, moulding resins, antioxidants and optical brighteners. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in synthesis of heterocyclic compounds by using nitriles that have biological and commercial importance. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation that is very similar to sun light and radio waves. [5-6] Microwave irradiation having some advantage over the conventional heating viz., uniform heating, purity in final product, low operating cost , etc., [7-8] In this paper, we have described the microwave assisted synthesis, physico-chemical characterization, thermalstability and biological significance of Mn(II) complex with 2-aminobenzonitrile and octanoate ligands. The structure of the complex supported by micro analytical, spectral studies. The antimicrobial activities of the complex have also been evaluated.
This Statewide Permanent Load Shift (PLS) Program is designed to help customers shift their cooling electricity use and lower their energy costs by offering one-time, upfront incentives to offset initial investments in mature (proven) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) technologies. TES systems accomplish load shifting by creating and storing ice or chilled water in off-peak hours and utilizing it for cooling in the typically hotter on-peak hours of the afternoon. The incentive is based on designed cooling load (tons) shift resulting in demand (kW) shift and, when coupled with bill savings from load shifts out of expensive peak hours, can improve the payback period on an investment in a TES system.
The usage of environmentally benign products as lubricants has many advantages. Some of the positive points are high biodegradability, no toxicity to living organisms and no pollution to water, soil and air. A good choice for benign raw material is vegetable based oil. This base mate- rial is derived from a renewable resource. Vegetable oils have already been considered as potential industrial ﬂuids as early as the 1900s. The early use of vegetable oils as an industrial component includes use as a coolant in power capacitors and electrical transformers in the 1990s. However, the use was merely experimental rather than commercial . The interest in using this type of oil decreased due to its several disadvantages in industrial applications such as oxidation and thermalstability. Furthermore, these oils have less economic advantages since the price is at least twice as much as petroleum based oil. Thus, later, these oils were used mainly as foodstuﬀ.
Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serologic tests that use Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigen to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the larvae. In general, however, these assays do not have adequate specificity for use in countries in which other soil-transmitted helminths are endemic. The use of recombinant antigens in these assays, however, is promising for improving the specificity of the diagnosis of toxocariasis. Toward this goal, we developed an IgG4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) involv- ing three recombinant antigens: rTES-30USM (previously produced), rTES-26, and rTES-120. The latter two antigens were produced by reverse transcription-PCR cloning; subcloned into glutathione S-transferase (GST)- tagged and His-tagged prokaryotic expression vectors, respectively; and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were subsequently purified by affinity chromatography using GST and His-Trap resins. The diagnostic potential of each purified recombinant antigen was tested with various immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgM, and IgE) and IgG subclasses. The IgG4 ELISA was determined to have the highest specificity and was further evaluated using a panel of serum samples. The rTES-26 IgG4 ELISA showed 80.0% (24/30 samples positive) sensitivity, and both the rTES-30USM IgG4 ELISA and rTES-120 IgG4 ELISA had 93.0% (28/30) sensitivity. Combined use of rTES-120 and rTES-30 IgG4 ELISA for the diagnosis of toxocariasis provided 100% sensitivity. The specificities of rTES-26, rTES-30USM, and rTES-120 antigens were 96.2%, 93.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. These results indicate that the development of a diagnostic test using the three recombi- nant antigens will allow for more-accurate detection of toxocariasis.
Full atomistic simulations are implemented using classical MD, utilizing the first-principle-based ReaxFF potential [43,44], known to provide an accurate account of the chemical/mechanical behavior of carbon nano- structures [21,45-49]. Due to a bond order-based formu- lation, ReaxFF can reflect the bond hybridization of the polyyne structure of carbyne, as well as the effect of other valence terms (angle and torsion), without explicit parameterization . It is noted that at such a scale, electron behavior may play a critical role. For example, a previous study demonstrated that in linear carbon chains, a local perturbation through the displacement of a single atom creates atomic force and charge density Friedel-like oscillations . Other electron-dependent effects may include Jahn-Teller distortions  or Möbius topologies [52,53]. While such complex behavior is incapable of being replicated by MD potentials, it is deemed sufficient for the current scope of length and temperature effects on unfolding. A time step is chosen to be on the order of a fraction of femtoseconds (0.1 × 10 −15 s) to ensure the stability and reflect the high vibra- tional frequency of the acetylene groups of carbyne. All simulations are subject to a canonical (NVT) ensemble, with varying prescribed temperature (10 to 800 K), performed using the massively paralyzed modeling code LAMMPS (http://lammps.sandia.gov/) .
Producing synthetic fibers and yarns is almost impossible without applying a lubricant to the fibers during extrusion and spinning processes. The applied lubricant or ‘finish’ reduces static electricity, fiber-fiber and metal-fiber friction, provides integrity to the filaments, and thereby eases the manufacturing processes [1-20]. However, a finish must satisfy many requirements for high quality yarn production. During textile processes such as drawing, texturing and drying, fibers and yarns frequently contact hot surfaces or pass through high temperature ovens. The finishes applied to the fibers should have enough thermalstability to withstand this extreme condition. Since modern manufacturing equipment runs at higher speeds and subsequently at higher temperatures, the applied finish thermally degrades and generates unwanted decomposition products. These byproducts can be in the form of toxic and nontoxic gases; in liquid form, leaving a sticky residue on the yarn, or even in solid form such as a varnish on hot surfaces, which is very difficult to remove [2-6]. The presence of the varnish interferes with continuous, efficient production leading to significant economic losses due to equipment shutdown and product failure. Environmental and safety issues related to the formation of toxic gases and lower quality fibers produced by oxidized finish are other important aspects associated with the thermal degradation of finishes [6-8].
The source to gain this temperature gradient is from a thermal energy - an energy that is generated within a system or an object. As the thermal energy is captures, it applies into the peltier module. Peltier module is made of two semiconductor pellets and connects to electrodes. One of the pellets will act as a hot surface while the other one is as a cold surface. Surface that absorbs heat becomes cold and a surface that release heat becomes hot. Hence, temperature gradient can be calculated by the temperature difference of the both pellets.
Superalloys are widely used in high temperature environ- ments, having the ability to tolerate the harsh working environments with high temperature and pressure. They exhibit a unique combination of good high-temperature strength, oxidation resistance, corrosion resistance and toughness. 15) Among various kinds of superalloys, Nickel- based superalloy is the best choice of material for aero-engine and power generation applications due to their excellent phase stability and mechanical properties at high temperature. The typical microstructure of Ni-based superalloys is mainly composed of a FCC £ matrix and a dispersion of ordered L1 2
The fast growing problem of the depletion of the available non renewable energy resources has focused the world’s attention on the need of proper use and harvesting of the renewable energy resources. One of the important renewable energy resources is solar energy. In recent times the use of PCM (phase change materials) for storage of thermal energy in solar water heaters has come forward as an efficient way for trapping and storing solar energy. This paper is a summary of the analysis made on how efficiently thermal energy can be stored using PCM in thermal energy storage systems of solar water heaters. The solar water heater is so constructed that it is a combination of two working systems, the first of the two absorbing systems is the solar water heater and the second is TES (thermal energy storage system). TES systems which have paraffin as the PCM are under study here. These systems trap and store the solar energy during daytime with the help of PCM (paraffin) which can later be used during night time to heat water. This heated water can then be used for domestic as well as industrial purposes. TES with PCM has been termed as an effective way to store thermal energy on the basis of the recent experimental studies highly due to their large heat trapping capacity and also because of their isothermal characteristics. These systems are examined properly to check their efficiency.
layer where it is most sensitive to the underlying surface fluxes with the remaining column amount in the free tropo- sphere or stratosphere. Figure 2 shows averaged total col- umn measurements derived from GOSAT radiance measure- ments (e.g., Parker et al., 2011, and references therein) and free-tropospheric measurements from the Aura TES instru- ment (Worden et al., 2012) for July 2009 (see Appendix B and Sect. 2.3). Although the total column measurements are more sensitive to near-surface measurements than the TES measurements, both measurements broadly see similar fea- tures because they are both strongly sensitive to the bulk of the methane column. The largest methane values occur over the eastern parts of North America and Asia and moderate values of CH 4 over central Asia. Lowest values of the total