Three years of hard work have left more questions than answers. There is still a lot to do! Both for the hydrological and for the biogeochemical monitoring longer time series are needed to detect long term trends and refine the calculations. A closer look has to be taken at the influence of el Niño/la Niña conditions on weather patterns and therefore on rain and cloudwater nutrient input. Also, with the use of stable isotopes it might be possible to calculate water mean transit time and derive more understanding on the water flow paths in cloud forests (Asano et al. 2002). It is to be expected that the mean transit time is much higher than previously thought for steep mountainous catchments. Further understanding of different base and storm flow contributions of watershed components might be gained by applying end member mixing analysis (EMMA) (Hooper 2003). In general, little is known about extreme events and their role in nutrient and element export. Connected to this, sediment fluxes (i.e. particulate loads) still need to be calculated to be able to compare dissolved and solid nutrient export (Sammori et al. 2004). As far as the biology of the streams is concerned, an analysis of imagines certainly has to be included, to distinguish if other factors than the ones concerning the larvae are important (Smith & Collier 2005). Some imagines, e.g. might need hiding places, others might need branches or trunks to deposit their eggs, both of which are not abundant in deforested sites. An analysis of larval feeding guilds may provide better insight into a possible alteration of the food chain, e.g. from detritus feeders in forest to grazers and collectors in pasture sites (Bojsen & Jacobsen 2003). Extreme events are also of interest with regard to the aquatic communities (Buss et al. 2004), and little is published on the recolonization of rivers and streams after high flows in montane regions. One of the challenges for the coming macroinvertebrate analyses will be the identification down to species level at least for the biologically most interesting taxa Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera.
Abstract. While tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) provide critical hydrological services to downstream regions throughout much of the humid tropics, catchment hydrol- ogy and impacts associated with forest conversion in these ecosystems remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the annual, seasonal and event-scale streamflow patterns and runoff generation processes of three neighbouring headwater catchments in central Veracruz (eastern Mexico) with sim- ilar pedological and geological characteristics, but differentland cover: old-growth TMCF, 20 yr-old naturally regener- ating TMCF and a heavily grazed pasture. We used a 2 yr record of high resolution rainfall and stream flow data (2008– 2010) in combination with stable isotope and chemical tracer data collected for a series of storms during a 6-week period of increasing antecedent wetness (wetting-up cycle). Our re- sults showed that annual and seasonal streamflow patterns in the mature and secondary forest were similar. In contrast, the pasture showed a 10 % higher mean annual streamflow, most likely because of a lower rainfall interception. Dur- ing the wetting-up cycle, storm runoff ratios increased at all three catchments (from 11 to 54 % for the mature forest, 7 to 52 % for the secondary forest and 3 to 59 % for the pasture). With the increasing antecedent wetness, hydrograph separa- tion analysis showed progressive increases of pre-event water contributions to total stormflow (from 35 to 99 % in the ma- ture forest, 26 to 92 % in the secondary forest and 64 to 97 % in the pasture). At all three sites, rainfall-runoff responses were dominated by subsurface flow generation processes for the majority of storms. However, for the largest and most intense storm (typically occurring once every 2 yr), sampled
air and waterquality, support human health and habitat (Karlen et al. 1997, 2003, 2004). To feed the growing population, soils are very important and essential for terrestrial productivity (Pappendick and Parr, 1992). Houghton et al. (1999) pointed out that landuse change, such as cultivation, forest clearing and introduction of pastures, results in changing soil’s biological, physical and chemical properties. The key drivers of environmental change are landuse pattern and natural processes which influence natural resources including the soil properties. Due to poor management of land, massive areas have been degraded, reduced the ability to produce enough food, and is a major threat to rural livelihood in many developing countries (Braimoh and Vlek, 2008). According to Sturz and Christie, (2003) assessment of soil quality is a valuable tool for evaluating soil health status, to understand natural and anthropogenic pressures. Understanding soil quality due to change in landuse is essential for sustainable land management plan (Teferi et al., 2016).
Alkalinity of water is due to primarily to the presence of bicarbonate, carbonate, and hydroxide ions. In this study, the mean total Alkalinity levels at the various sampling sites where 278, 477, 188 and 97 mg/L for normal water at Abaya Lake, Chamo Lake, Kulfo River, and Hare River respectively. Lake Chamo has the highest alkalinity level; followed by Abaya Lake. The lowest alkalinity level was recorded at Hare River. The high alkalinity level at the Chamo Lake is might be due to the livestock confinement which drains ions like carbonates, bicarbonates into the water. The alkalinity may also be influenced by rocks and soils, salts, certain plant activities, and certain industrial wastewater discharges US EPA [ 3 ]. In 2004 Ababu and Bernd studied that, Lake Chamo was more saline than Lake Abaya due to the chemical composition of largely of the bicarbonate, which is typical of the basaltic parent rock formation of the area.
17 sampling stations with drainage areas under 50 km 2 were analyzed for waterquality
trends and land-use changes. The annual average for each of the following waterquality parameters were calculated and graphed: temperature (˚C), dissolved oxygen (DO), percent saturation of DO, conductivity, pH, total phosphorous (TP), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia, chlorophyll-a (uncorrected), fecal coliforms, and Enterococci. In order to determine if any of the observed trends were statistically significant, a Mann-Kendall Trend Analysis was conducted. In addition, both a Kendall’s tau-b Correlation and a multiple linear regression were conducted to explore the relationships between waterquality, land-use, and basin size. All raw data can be found in Appendix G, H, & I. Each LULC type for each year was paired with the corresponding annual averages for each waterquality parameter and basin size, the results can be found in Appendix H & I.
The dampening effect of the vegetation in the swamp could have played an important role in helping the retention of nutrient and sediment. The dampening effect of the oscillation on discharge and solute loads was also observed during this short-term study, and was noted especially during high water, when the channel bank over flows occur due to increased flow resistance by the thick macrophytes. Impediment of water flows by macrophytes increase nutrient removal through sedimentation [32, 33]. Bottom shear stress is reduced when water is flowing through stocks of submerged plants, thus organic particles preferably settle within and in vicinity of macrophytes stands  thus acting as temporary nutrient sinks . According to Reddy and D’Angelo  the amount of phosphate retained in wetland will depend on the concentration in the overlying water column and associated biogeochemical processes functioning in the soil. Inorganic P added at concentrations considerably greater than those present in the interstitial water of wetlands soils may be retained by oxides and hydrous oxides of iron, aluminum and calcium carbonate.
Table 2 shows the mean physico-chemical parameters of various wells, the Keta lagoon and its surrounding flood- plains in comparison with rain water, FAO drinking wa- ter standards and FAO irrigation water standards. pH ranged between 7.3 - 8.3, temperature was from 25.8 to 29.2˚C, and phosphates ranged between 0.1 to 3.5 mg/l which all fell within WHO standards and FAO irrigation water standards, whilst all the other parameters such as electrical conductivity, nitrates, ammonium, sodium, chlo- ride exceeded WHO and FAO irrigation water standards, except for calcium which although exceeded WHO stan- dards, fell within FAO irrigation standards. Also, nitrate pollution poses a serious threat to the domestic use as measurements of nitrate in the experimental well showed an average value (72.8 mg/l) above the WHO Standard for drinking water of 50 mg/l . Eutrophication of aquifers and water bodies are normally determined by the amount of nitrates and phosphates they receive from their surroundings. Nitrate is easily leached from the farmland while phosphate is normally retained in the soils fixed with aluminium, iron and calcium, and for that matter not easily leached. Thus phosphates are usually the limiting factors for algal blooms. The sandy soils on the Keta sand spit (farmlands) have a low content of iron and alu- minium and therefore a low phosphorus-retention capac- ity and it is not clear whether the phosphorus-retention in some of the soils is exhausted and hereby increases the potential eutrophication of the lagoon, in the next few
Based on its function, watershed is divided into three parts, namely upstream watershed, central watershed, and downstream watershed. Upstream watersheds are based on managed conservation functions to maintain the watershed environment conditions that are not degraded, which can be indicated by watershed vegetation cover conditions, waterquality, water retention, and rainfall. The central watershed is based on a river water utilization function that is managed to provide benefits for social and economic interests, which can be indicated from water quantity, waterquality, water delivery capacity, and groundwater levels, and is related to irrigation infrastructure such as river management, reservoirs, and lakes. Upstream watersheds are based on river wateruse functions that are managed to provide social and economic benefits, which are indicated through the quantity and quality of water, water delivery capabilities, rainfall levels, and related to agriculture, clean water and wastewater .
The lowlands of the Pacific (750m) are mostly flat except for a chain of active volcanoes that stretch from the Golfo de Fonseca to Lago de Nicaragua (Library of Congress Online Catalog 2012). Mean daytime temperatures vary between 30ÛC and 33ÛC. Nighttime temperatures generally range from 20ÛC to 24ÛC. The Pacific coastal region is characterized by a rainy season from May to October and a dry season from November to April (Perez et al. 2007). Total annual rainfall ranges from 500mm – 1,500mm (Figure 2.4) (Perez et al. 2007). The distinct decrease in rainfall from the middle of July to the middle of August is known colloquially as la canicula or “the heat wave” (Ramirez 2005). Seasonal moist forest, TDF, and fertile lowland plains characterize this region (Figure 2.5). Mangroves are found adjacent to Golfo Fonseca (WWF 2012).
Many human exercises, for example, urban improvement, modern preparing, horticultural practices, synthetic spills, business/local squanders and family septic frameworks cause huge ground- water sullying in regions that beforehand had perfect, consumable groundwater.
Abstract - Biological assessment is a useful alternative for assessing the ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems since the biological communities integrate the environmental effects of water chemistry. Algal and water samples were collected from three sites of River Dham (Pavnar, M.S.). viz., Pavnar Ashram (S1), Ghorad (S2) and Morchapur (S3) and analyzed for Waterquality variables (physicochemical) parameters. The data was analysed with reference to ISI & WHO standards. It was found that the water is safe for domestic purposes and aquatic life as far as levels of pH, density, surface tension, viscosity, conductance, TDS, alkalinity, DO and chloride concentration. However, the waterquality parameters such as total hardness and Ca++ hardness at some stations were beyond the permissible limit. Therefore, it was suggested to remove total hardness and Ca++ hardness to make it fit for consumption. Phytoplanktons encountered in the water body reflect the average ecological conditions and they may be used as indicators of waterquality. During the investigation total 53 algal species were encountered and identified.
The function of SOM springs from its effects on soil structural stability (its action as a bonding agent between primary and secondary mineral particles leads to enhanced amount, size and stability of aggregates) and soil water retention (as a water adsorbing agent, it enhances water acceptance and availability) and, hence, on infiltration and percolation . At the same time, SOM controls soil nutrients that affect biodiversity and system productivity. Soil structural stability is influenced by the type of organic matter, as well as its amount. Therefore, in some cases, high SOM content is not accompanied by high structural stability. Some fungi exude oxalic acid, which enhances dispersion and breakdown of aggregates . Humic substances are the components of SOM which play the key role in detoxifying the soil from pollutants such as Pb and Cd residues of agro-chemicals from surrounding areas . Unsatisfactory levels of SOM exhibit the poor activity of humic substances and resultant soil pollution. Even a milder form of soil contamination in the Horton Plains cannot be afforded since the montane vegetation is highly sensitive to even minute changes in the environment. This condition may also have triggered forest dieback in this specific forest.
Types of landuse, intensity of cultivation and fertilizer sources are major factors responsible for soil properties transformation. Some inherent soil properties such as soil pH and texture as well as climatic conditions might also have substantial influences on soil properties transforma- tions. Site 1 soil was lower in SOC and SON stocks than Sites 2 and 3; while Site 2 soil was lower in macro AF and AS than Sites 1 and 3. The later was also deficient in Cu, Fe and Zn due to its inherent properties and pH. Con- trastingly, Site 3 revealed higher SOC and SON stocks, but had limited P content. Interestingly, the variation in SOC and SON stocks, and nutrient concentrations be- tween the crop lands (Site 1 and Site 2) suggested that external fertilizer supply should take into account the indigenous nutrient supply potential of soil and the macro and micro nutrients balance for sustainable crop production. Generally the studied soils showed medium to high CEC and high percent base saturation (PBS), reflecting fairly good fertility. In nutshell, these findings are useful as a baseline for future intervention and sus- tainable utilization of the Andosols of the rift valley of Ethiopia. Furthermore, detailed studies of soil mineral- ogy and soil fertility based on use of test crops with addi- tion and omission of nutrients are suggested.
Categorical variables further distinguished important household characteristics. These include: housing types, forestry policy awareness, land tenure regimes, and dominant energy types used for cooking. There is a mixture in housing units, although more temporary structures are located in the rural areas, particularly, Bugoma, Budongo and semi-arid AEZs. Permanent structures are more common in the peri-urban areas, an indicator of a better wealth status. Forestry policy awareness is generally lacking amongst the majority of the surveyed households, possibly related to their low levels of education, and therefore considerable efforts would be required to improve policy awareness: and natural resources exploitation and protection policies could perhaps be inculcated in the primary school education curriculum. The dominant land tenure type is the customary system that encourages land fragmentation as land is passed on from one generation to another, which could be a disincentive for large-scale agricultural production, and would therefore keep the already poor households in further poverty. While this (land tenure systems) will be examined in the subsequent chapters on its role in deforestation, it is apparent that the incentive for keeping natural forest on private land would be limited without considerable conservation effort with external funding. Biomass is the main source of energy for cooking across the landscape. This is related to its availability and the high costs involved with seeking alternative energy types (e.g. hydro-electricity, solar energy and biofuels).
In this study we focused on understanding the responses of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species richness and abun- dance, as well as their community structure and compos- ition to differentlanduse types. Our study was conducted in a region that was originally dominated by neotropical montane cloudforest. We expected to find a decline in mosquito diversity from preserved to urban forests due to homogenizing conditions (e.g., simplified habitat structure, more resources for anthropophilic mosquito species, breed- ing sites such as cans, tires) of cities that usually favor a few urban adapted species. Hence, higher mosquito diversity is expected in the well-preserved cloudforest due to its more natural and complex composition (i.e., well-defined vegeta- tion layers) compared to simplified land types (e.g., shade coffee plantation, cattle field). We expected a similar com- munity structure and composition among sites with similar vegetation structure (i.e., well-preserved cloudforest, peri- urban and urban forest) due to the high connectivity across the studied landscape. The study was performed in three defined seasons (“dry”, “rainy” and “cold”) of the year; higher mosquito richness and abundance during the rainy
The analysis of the INDCs shows that the largest abso- lute reductions of net LULUCF emissions (compared to the BAU scenario development) are expected from Indo- nesia and United States, followed by Brazil, China, Ethio- pia, Gabon and the DR Congo (see Fig. 3 and Table 3). The INDC for Indonesia indicates that a lion’s share of emission savings is expected from a reduction of the deforestation rate and reduced emissions from peat oxi- dation. Brazil is expecting a significant reduction of net LULUCF emissions through implementation of the For- est Code and achieving zero illegal deforestation in the Amazon biome. In the case of USA, net LULUCF emis- sions are expected to be reduced through maintenance of the current level of carbon sequestration and thereby avoid the expected loss of the carbon sink as projected in the BAU scenario. China is planning to reduce net LULUCF emissions through afforestation measures and enhancements of the national forest carbon stock. According to the INDC of Gabon, net emissions reduc- tions (compared to the BAU scenario) will be reached through successful implementation of a number of miti- gation policies relating to the forest sector (e.g., Code Forestier, Plan National d’Affectation de Terre). Reduc- tion of net LULUCF emissions in Ethiopia is expected through an increase of the forest carbon stock, forestland protection and forest reestablishment. The INDC of DR Congo states that the reduction in net LULUCF emis- sions will mainly be achieved through the implementa- tion of afforestation and reforestation measures.
The term organics refers to the general class of chemicals composed of carbon (C) and one or more of the following elements: hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O). The term organic dates to early studies of chemistry when substances were categorized as inorganic when they were obtained from mineral sources and as organic when they were derived from living organisms. Today, many organic compounds are derived from sources other than biological activity. A wide variety of materials are synthesized by the chemicals industry. The molecular structure of these synthesized compounds may also contain atoms of sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), and/or one or more of the halogens, that is, ﬂuorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I), as well as a variety of other elements. Many naturally occurring compounds may also contain these atoms as well, but they are found to a lesser degree. There are many chemical species that are com- monly considered to be inorganic in spite of having C, H, O, and N within their structure. Examples of such compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbonate (CO 3 2− ), bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ),
At the regional level, landuse changes can occur under the influence of agricultural market prices evolution. In our particular case, an increase of crop price p C would
make it profitable to use more land as cropland, as the economic proxy defining the threshold between land uses would increase. In this subsection, we examine two potential ways to cope with the consequences of such a change on the abundance of a species, by defining incentive policies to protect the biological population. A widely used instrument is the per hectare subsidy, in spite of its high cost to get efficiency (Gottschalk et al., 2007). First, we consider a case in which the decision maker focuses only on the landscape stability, with respect to some underlying habitat suitability index. Second, we consider the case in which the decision maker has information on the population dynamics, and targets the population maintain without focusing on landscape.
The research aimed at comparing the chemical properties of peats underdifferentland uses in peats dome of the catchment area of the Sibumbung River and the Komering River in Pedamaran Sub-Districts, OKI South Sumatra, Indonesia. The research was conducted in January 2019 and used a Randomized Complete Block Design with two blocks and five natural treatments namely swamp grass, bush swamp, peat forest, oil palm, and intercrop- ping between oil palm and pineapple. Most of the chemical properties of peats at the depth of 30–50 cm showed no changes due to the effects of land uses and drainage; however, there were significant differences with the peat depth of 5–15 cm. Decreasing organic C, exchangeable Al, Al saturation and soluble Fe on the cultivated peats were significantly different compared with the uncultivated peats. An increase in the available P, K, pH, CEC and base saturation on the cultivated peats were found and differed significantly on test level 5% compared with the uncultivated peats due to the application of ameliorant materials. The total N and C/N values were not significantly different. Most of the chemical properties of peats were decreased by the depth of peats. Soil ameliorant materials would change the buffering system of the peats to neutralize soil acidity and the pH increase.