Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop around the study area and its flour is used to make breads, cookies, cakes, breakfast snacks, injera and it is also consumed as roasted and boiled without further processing. Wheatflour is used as a base to make breads by blending with locally available vitamins and mineral rich products are getting attention in different socioeconomic groups of many developing countries. This is because of it accelerate rheological properties of dough at the time of processing and developing breads. Wheat bread is the main wheat products in the study area and is consumed as stable food. The replacement of wheatflour with other ingredients as complements or supplements helps the wheat bread consumers to fill the gaps of minerals, vitamins and additional quality of the breads. The replacements of wheat with pumpkin flour breads show differences in chemical, physical and sensory qualities than the control one and with each other. From all the treatments the more preferred and accepted one is the bread with 10% pumpkin blended with 90% wheatflour. Therefore, the study of nutritional and sensory acceptability of the wheat bread enriched with pumpkin give the direction of possibility to incorporate 10% pumpkin flour in developing wheat bread to strengthen breads potential both in consumer acceptance, nutritional terms and as a value added product in study area of South Ethiopia.
a homogeneous mixture of species Chlorella and Scenedesmus the combination of Ginger Bread, cakes and cookies spinach or green tea taste bitter taste is similar algae, and algae found in all foods dominance, color food that used to be changed (Powell et al., 1961). Danesi et al. (2010) showed that the protein can be used to enrich bakery products from micro-algae S. platensis use, without considerable changes in tissue expansion coefficient, the percentage composition and sensory acceptance of the product (Danesi et al., 2010). Sources indicate that information about micro-algae S. platensis powder enriched wheatflour for pasta production is very low. S. platensis unicellular algae, photosynthesizing, with spring-like filaments and belongs to the family of cyanobacteria that grows naturally in alkaline lakes and tropical America, Mexico, Asia, Central Africa (Belay, 2004). Pasta is so different processes including: kneading semolina with water, extrusion, pressing through the mold and finally drying is achieved. Various factors in the processes that affect the quality of the final product such as mixing time and speed spiral rotation, extrusion and mold temperature control, pressure adjustment, drying and ... (Ghiassitarzi et al., 2012). In the present study the possibility of wheatflour fortification at 0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% w / w with microalgae S. platensis powder was investigated and the effect of varying the amount of microalgae powder used on features chemical,
untreated paper (UTP) were compared . Forcing of WG- coating into the bulk of paper was marked in UTP and TP. The enhanced of penetration not worthy affect the surface properties, the transfer properties of WG-coated papers were increased when WG-coating highly charged while WG-TP acted as a micro- perforated material and the WG-UTP behaved as WG-film . Xiaoqing Zhang and Yesim Gozukara (2010) reported biodegradation of an array of chemically changed thermally processed wheat gluten (WG) based natural polymers were analyzed according to Australian standard (AS ISO 14855). Within 22days of compositing this type materials reached 93-100 % biodegradation. Chemical crosslinks  reduced the degree of the biodegradation with various for different modified systems. These segments contain shapes derived from the reaction with additives such as tannin or epoxidised soybean oil remained in the degradation residues while the glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane agent formed 20 % un-degraded having silicon-crosslinking structures. Component of the materials was also different with the protein and starch components degraded fast in biodegradation rate. Finally in this process they concluded chemically changed thermally processed WG materials  shows that most of the materials were still biodegradable but rate and degree of degradation could be varied due to formation of various network structures by various chemical modifications. Yi Zou et al (2010) recorded whole and split wheat straws (WS) length upto 10cm used with poly propylene (PP) webs to generate light weight composites with properties remarkable to jute-PP composite with same density . Also wheat straw concentration, length and wheat straw split configuration on flexural and tensile properties of the composite has been inspected. Also sound absorption properties of composite from whole straw and split straw have been learned .
Nutrients are indispensible chemical substances that are essential for growth and healthy life. Nutritional value of food depends upon macro and micro molecules present in it. The Indian population as whole is deprived of ample amount of nutrients necessary for good health (21). Wheat is a good source of Vitamin B complex, dietary fibers, magnesium and Vitamin E and is one of the important constituent of Indian diet which provides significant amount of nutrients. Wheat contain 8-20% proteins , and the samples studied in present study revealed protein content from 10.2 to 13.8% whereas, the reference samples showed 14% protein . It is indicative that the grinding process is the most crucial step in preserving proteins and other nutritional content of wheatflour . Traditionally wheat is processed by using ball milling or roller milling method at very high speed. Processing at higher temperatures also damages biomolecules and reduces their nutritional value. Traditional stone mill grinding involves shear stress , compression and friction that helps in preserving these natural compounds.
Sensoryevaluations are based on human judgement which is individual and not always consistent. Still these are important because it is they who are going to eat it. Sensory evaluation of the experimental products was carried out on a panel of judges using a score sheet and is summarised in Figure 2. As revealed by the data, the bread made from Bhalia wheatflour with 1% ARF supplementation was rated near to the standard CRWF and showed excellent crumb characteristics. Breads prepared with 3% ARF supplementation had moist andsticky crumb, so got low score and were unacceptable. This is also felt by Kent- Jones and Amos,1967 in breads possessing excessive amylase activity. Total score obtained by Bhalia (1% ARF treatment) was 76 which were highest among the experimental products whereas fall in score was noticed on additional levels of ARF. As the level of ARF increased, the colour of the crust changed from pale to dark brown. There were cracks seen on the crust in the bread with 3% ARF specially Bhalia bread. Too much dialytic activity in 3% ARF addition gave rise to darker crust. Porous open texture was missing in case of 3% ARF addition breads. Results of statistical analysis on the total scores obtained by each product indicated significant difference in the products prepared by the additions of ARF but insignificant difference in the breads prepared from the three varieties of wheatflour.
Indonesia has a diversity of traditional food. One of them is tempe, a fermented food which is generally made from soybean. Currently, the diversity of tempe raw materials and tempe products are widely developed with the aim of increasing the nutritional content of tempe. Processing soybean into various foods is generally a simple process, like chips. Chip is one of the most popular snack food consumed by all ages. The effects of rice bran tempe flour addition as a fortification of wheatflour in the processing of simulated chips was determined. Rice bran tempe has been made through fermentation method using Rhizopus oligosporus culture. This study aims to determine the chemical properties and sensory tests of simulated chips with the addition of rice bran tempe flour. The simulated chips were formulated by supplementing rice bran tempe flour at different proportions (10%, 20%, and 30%) with 100% wheatflour as a control. Results have shown protein, fat and ash of the simulated chips to be increased, while carbohydrate content decreased corresponding to the increase in proportion of rice bran tempe flour. The result of hedonic test showed that the addition of 10% rice bran tempe flour is the most favourite compared with others. However, the consumer perception has stated that simulation chips product with added rice bran tempe flour has no resemblance to the commercial product as a whole product.
The results for chemical composition of WF and FF are shown in the Table 1. The moisture content of flour samples differed significantly (p<0.05), the higher value observed for wheatflour (10.0%). The moisture content for WF as well as FF was in acceptable limit for safe storage. The ash and fat content of FF (3.62 and 4.97%, respectively) were also significantly higher than wheatflour (1.7 and 1.8%, respectively). Studies also reported fenugreek as a rich source of minerals 30 and unsaturated fatty acids 31 . Being
Lavaş preparation. For the preparation of the lavaş samples, the method was used given by Coskuner and Karababa (2005). To prepare lavaş samples, doughs comprising flour (200 g, 14% moisture basis), salt (3 g), compressed yeast (2 g), baking soda (0.5 g), and water (adjusted by adding 2 points over the farinograph absorp- tion) at 30°C were mixed in a mixer Hobart N50 (Hobart Canada Inc., North York, Canada) for a period of 45 s at maximum speed (to obtain optimum dough consistency). In WBF enriched lavaş samples, wheatflour was replaced with 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% (w/w) WBF and at 3 different replacement ratios (20, 30 and 40% w/w) with gluten and SSL additions. Control samples were made with wheatflour. After mixing, the doughs were allowed to ferment at 30°C and 85% relative humidity for 1.5 h in a fermentation cabin. The doughs were divided into 4 pieces, and then they were rounded into a ball shape and dusted with flour of the same blend to aid sheeting. The dough balls were rolled to the final thickness of 3 mm and diameter of 20 cm. Baking was performed at 280 ± 5°C on a pre-heated (50–300°C) iron plate (sac or sadj) (Otm, San Ltd. Şti, Konya, Turkey) for 2.0 minute. After baking, the lavaş samples were cooled to room temperature (approximately 1 h) after which the thickness of the breads was measured with a digital micrometer (0.001 mm, Mitutoyo; Minoto-Ku, Tokyo, Japan) while the diameters were measured with an ordinary ruler.
The study was conducted on the chemical composition and organoleptic attributes of cakes and buns fortified with moringa oleifera leaf and rough lemon peels flour blends. 20 panelists filled the questionnaire on the sensory evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using the ANOVA of SPSS to determine the mean and the standard deviation.The study examined the chemical composition and organoleptic attributes of cakes and buns fortified with Drum stick leaf (Moringa oleifera) and rough lemon peels (Citrus limon) flour blends. Cake and buns had its macro and micro nutrients but when fortified with moringa leaf and rough lemon peels could add more value and nutrient to these products. The study was an experimental research design of one way ANOVA. The population of the study were 14 lectures and 43 final year students of Home Science department. 20 panelist form the sample size of the study, these was chosen through a random sampling techniques. 9-point hedonic likert scale questionnaire was used to determine the organoletic attributes of the samples. This work revealed that cake and buns were produced from wheatflour and quantities of moringa leaf and rough lemon peels (1%, 2% and 3%) respectively with cake from 100% wheatflour used as control. Chemical analysis carried out on the cake sample include calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron and phosphorus. All parameters determined showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in cake and buns sample. Cake and buns with more moringa leaf and rough lemon peels had 160.50+0.71/Ca 64.35+0.21Mg, 20.05+0.07P, 82.45+0.07Na and 10.40+0.14Fe (cake). 290.00+1.41Ca, 71.00+056Mg, 145.90+0.14Na, 4.97+0.01Fe and 18.85+0.91P (buns). Control sample that was not fortified with moringa leaf and rough lemon peels had least mineral content. Sensory evaluation showed significant difference (P>0.05) between control (100% wheat) and other samples. In taste, colour, flavor, texture and general acceptability. The cake and buns sample with 1% moringa and 1% rough lemon peels addition was the most preferred in terms of colour, taste and flavor and general acceptability. Moringa leaf and rough lemon peels could be used in fortification of bakery products
Blend formulation: The wheatflour was supplemented at 5, 10, and 15% of dried germinated fenugreek flour. The flour blends were mixed using laboratory mixing machine (Model: R100C, CAT, Chicago, 1970). The flour mixtures were individually blended, homogenized, packed in polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature till further use. All formulated blends were analyzed for proximate composition (Moisture, total ash, fat, protein and fiber), physico-chemical analysis (Color grade value, falling number, wet gluten, water activity and farinograph values such as water absorption, stability, development time, degree of softening and farinograph quality number), functional properties (Bulk density, water absorption capacity, dispersibility, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity) using standard methods Etana et al (2013).
From the current results it is concluded that blending of wheatflour up to 3% citrus peel flour is suitable for cake development with acceptable sensory attributes. It is assumed from the study that blending of fine flour with citrus peel powder could develop appreciable quality cake containing high nutritious value. Addition of citrus peel, the chemical nature of citrus peel cake, Crude fat, crude fiber and ash contents increased whereas moisture and crude protein content reduced. Organoleptic attributes of citrus peel cake like color, taste, texture and overall acceptability were varied remarkably but within acceptable range. Further research work should be done to determine the influence of packaging and nutritional quality of citrus peel cake. There should be further work needed on preparation of nutritious baked products blended with citrus peel with other cereals. It is recommended that addition up to 3% citrus peel flour is acceptable in the cake.
The pasting properties are shown in Table 4 below. Pasting properties are the most commonly assessed set of quality characteristics probably because the methods are well established and have been proven to be a reliable predictor of flour quality. The pasting properties are important as it is used in predicting the pasting behavior and ability of the flour samples. The peak viscosity value ranged from 42.30RVU to 92.69RVU. The highest value was recorded for AB1 (100% wheatflour) while the lowest value was recorded for AB5 (50% wheatflour substituted with 50% walnut flour). There were significant differences among the five flour samples at (p < 0.05) and it was observed that the higher the quantity of walnut substituted, the more the reduction in peak viscosity of the flour samples. The peak viscosity is indicative of the strength of pastes, which are formed from gelatiniza- tion during processing in food applications. It also reflects the extent of granule swelling . It also provides an indication of the viscous load likely to be encountered during mixing. The trough value ranged from 39.60RVU to 59.19RVU while the breakdown ranged from 25.57RVU to 66.30RVU. The highest value of the trough and breakdown was recorded for AB1 (100% wheatflour) while the lowest value of the trough and breakdown was recorded in AB5 (50% wheatflour substituted with 50% walnut flour). There were significant differences among the five flour samples at (p < 0.05) which meant that the higher the quantity of walnut subs- tituted, the lesser the trough and breakdown values of the flour samples. Breakdown viscosity reflects the stabil- ity of the paste during processing. The higher the breakdown in viscosity, the lower the ability of the starch in the flour samples to withstand heating and shear stress during . It was also reported by  that high break- down value indicates relative weakness of the swollen starch granules against hot shearing while low breakdown values indicate that the starch in question possesses cross-linking properties. Final viscosity value ranged from 252.09RVU to 95.51RVU while Set back viscosity value ranged from 55.93RVU to 192.85RVU. The highest value of the final viscosity and setback viscosity was recorded for AB1 (100% wheatflour) while the lowest value was recorded in AB5 (50% wheatflour substituted with 50% walnut flour).
The chemical properties of wheatflour and Moringa oleifera leaf powder are shown in Table 1, while the proximate composition of bread samples is shown in Table 2. The moisture content decreased significantly (p < 0.05.) from 35.20% in 100% WF to 27.65% in 95 WF: 5 MLP composite bread. This could be due to the low moisture content of Moringa leaf powder used in the blends and might have implications in terms of the tex- ture and microbiological quality of bread processed with added Moringa leaf powder. Olaoye et al.  reported similar values for wheat, plantain and soybean composite bread. The moisture content of foods is usually used as an indicator of food quality. It is important to measure the moisture content in breads because of its potential impact on the sensory, physical, and microbial properties of the bread.
Wheat is the most important stable food crop for more than one third of the world population and it contributes more calories and proteins to the world diet than any other cereal crops (Kumar, et al., 2011). It is nutritious, easy to store and transport and can be processed into various types of food. Wheat is considered as good source of protein, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fibre (Shewry, 2007) although the environmental conditions can affect nutritional composition of wheat grains with its essential coating of brain, vitamins and minerals; its an excellent health-building food. Wheatflour is used to prepare bread, produce biscuits, confectionary products, noodles and vital wheat gluten.
acids of the product, chemical or microbial alterations during the process or addition of additives. The moisture value of cookies with sweet potato flour was not significantly different from cookies made with only standard flour (p>0.05, Table 3). The replacement process, therefore, does not change aspects as texture, filamentous fungi, and yeast (microbial aspect). Besides, the processed cookies are within the standards of the legislation that determines a maximum humidity of 14% (Cauvain and Young, 2002). Higher values of moisture in cookies were found by (Baptista et al., 2012, Zuniga et al., 2012; Costa et al., 2015). The content of ash on cookies were lower than 3% (Table 3), which is within the established and released for marketing. The values of ash of standard cookies differed from cookies with a higher amount of sweet flour (p<0.05, Table 3), meaning a higher mineral content that was proportional to the percentages of substitution of wheat for sweet potato flour. Different studies present values of ashes close to those verified in this research (Baptista et al., 2012; Cunha et al., 2015). Salts are added during the processing of making cookies so that there is a variation in ash values from different works (Silva, 2017). Lipid content does not differ between the standard cookies and cookies with sweet potato (Table 3), does not affecting the percentual of fat. The levels of lipids in commercial cookies may vary between 9 and 23% (Cunha et al., 2015; Santana et al., 2011; Fasolin et al., 2007), and the values found here were around 22 and 23%. When analyzing the values obtained for total soluble sugars, it can be verified that biscuits produced with reduction of the brown sugar, according to percentages of insertion of the flour of sweet potato, managed to maintain similar levels of soluble sugars. But, there was a significant difference at the level of 5% (p <0.05), by the concentrations of 75/25 (B3) and 50/50 (B4), confirming the possibility of sugar deduction and substitution of wheatflour. The soluble sugars content in cookies may vary considerably depending on the formulation adopted, as in the case of the data presented by Silva (2017) for cookies made with peppermint bran replacing the ammonia and Miamoto (2008) in cookies produced with yam flour.
The cooking time decreased as the level of UBWF in- creased in the composite spaghetti (Table 3). The addi- tion of non-gluten flours in the production of spaghetti dilute the gluten strength of the semolina, interrupting and weakening the overall structure of the spaghetti, fa- cilitating the heat transfer during cooking and thus lead- ing to faster cooking . The control spaghetti as well as those with 15% and 30% of UBWF had similar cooking loss values (Table 3); the spaghetti with the highest UBWF level showed the highest cooking loss value. The control spaghetti had the lowest cooking loss value (4.94%), a value that was lower than in spaghetti with 100% semo- lina: 6.40% - 6.50%  and 6.50% . However, the lower cooking loss value (0.93%) was determined in the spaghetti with 100% semolina . These values show that wheat durum varieties and the process conditions for spaghetti preparation play an important role in the cook- ing loss. For spaghetti made with 100% semolina, the cooking loss of ≤8% is considered acceptable for good quality pasta . In this sense, the spaghetti types con- taining different levels of UBWF were within the ex- pected values of cooking loss, and they could be consid- ered as spaghetti of good cooking quality. A similar pat- tern in the cooking loss value was reported in the com- posite spaghetti because the control sample presented a lower cooking loss value than the composite spaghetti types. This may allow for a leaching out of more solids from the pasta into the cooking water . Bahnassey & Khan  reported that the cooked weight of spaghetti
such as hardness, fracturability, springiness and chewiness were measured from the curve. Measuring the influence of gluten and wheatflour on these textural properties of the vegetable sausages, it was imperative to use the response surface methodology (RSM) to describe the linear, interaction and quadratic effects of the factors on the response parameters. A number of researches have been conducted on the textural properties of meat sausages (Mielnik et al., 2002; Kerr et al., Wang & Choi, 2005; Garcia et al., 2006; Herrero et al., 2007). Information however on vegetable sausages is very limited. In 2007, Yang and colleagues tried to produce low fat sausages from pork by adding tofu as a texture-modifying agent. In this research tofu is the main protein isolate used for the manufacture of vegetable sausages. The objective of this research was to use RSM approach to study the effect of gluten and wheatflour on the textural properties of vegetable sausages.
For WF controls and the 10 flour composites, differences in amylograph viscosity maxima cor- responded with level of Falling number (r = 0.92, p < 0.001; data not shown). Besides amylo- graph maximum viscosity, partial differentiation of the flour composites was obtained at the tem- perature corresponding to this maximum. Ta- ble 1 shows that there was a lesser influence of chestnut flour and strong one of acorn and bar- ley flour. A negative influence of chestnut flour confirmed results by Hegazy et al. (2014) using the RVA test - the viscosity for wheat-chestnut flour 90:10 (w/w) was clearly lower than for wheat control (2036 vs. 2651 mPa.s; decrease ca 23%). Conversely, as expected, higher TDF con- tent due to additions of acorn flour caused an in- crease of the maximal viscosity that exceeded the amylograph technical limit of 1000 Brabender units (BU). In combination with BF, high amy- lase activity in the alternative cereal flour sup- pressed the thickening effect of the acorn flour. For wheat-barley-chestnut composites, it seemed that chestnut flour partially buffered the effect of BF. Contrary to our results, direct comparison of pasting of the chestnut and the acorn starches conducted Yoo, Lee, Kim, and Shin (2012) by us- ing of the RVA proof, showed lower peak viscosity for the acorn starch than chestnut starch (4874 mPa.s against 5640 mPa.s, respectively). For acorn starch, these authors determined that this was caused by the smaller size of starch granules, slightly higher total amylose content as well as a weaker resistance to swelling (features swelling power and solubility at 80 o C).
WG samples, compared to RF, are attributed to the lower content of damaged starch caused by the mill- ing process (Table 1). Among the WG, the SC-SRC was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the variation in particle size, increasing from 77.30% to 88.02%, as the particle size was reduced. The increase in SC- SRC was positively correlated with the damaged starch content (r = 0.98), indicating a higher interaction of sodium carbonate with damaged starch components. LA-SRC refers to the resistance of gluten. The low- est values found for the WG samples, relative to RF, were confirmed by a trend of reduction in the gluten aggregation values (Table 1) and stability found in the Mixolab (Table 2). SUC-SRC provides an indication of the content of arabinoxylans in the flour (Gaines 2000). Arabinoxylans are highly hydrophilic structural carbohydrates that absorb 10–18 times the weight of water (Sanz Penella 2008). With the presence of the outer layers in the composition of WG samples, flours with a higher concentration of arabinoxylans were produced, resulting in higher SUC-SRC indexes, as compared to RF.