Top PDF Chemical Structure of Kerogen of Shale Formations. (By the Example of the Shale Formations of the East European Platform)

Chemical Structure of Kerogen of Shale Formations. (By the Example of the Shale Formations of the East European Platform)

Chemical Structure of Kerogen of Shale Formations. (By the Example of the Shale Formations of the East European Platform)

allowed us to study in detail the structure of individual structural components and the features of a fragment of the chemical structure of kerogen. The obtained model of the chemical structure of kerogen of Upper Jurassic deposits has a number of similar and distinctive features if compared to the structure of kerogen of Upper Devonian deposits. The kerogen of Upper Jurassic deposits is a highly aliphatic polymer, whose n-alkyl constituents are bound to the matrix with sulfur and oxygen atoms. The increased content of oxygen-containing structures in it is probably due to the effective conservation of carbohydrate components in diagenesis, and to the saturation with ether bonds typical of the initial organic matter of Algaenan shales. The presence of a carbohydrate component is confirmed by the high contents of “linear” short-chain thiophenes in pyrolysis products. The S/C values exceeding 0.04 classify the Upper Jurassic kerogen as Type II-S. The main sulfur-containing moieties of the geopolymer are sulfide(polysulfide)bound n-alkyl structures. Nitrogen is mainly present in the amino acid constituents of kerogen. Lipid moieties mainly dominate in the kerogen of Domanic deposits. The content of n-alkanes and n-alkenes in pyrolysis products of kerogen of Domanic deposits is twice as high as that in the kerogen of the Volga shales. The formation of n-alkanes and n-alkenes is partially due to the pyrolysis destruction of the algaenan structural moieties found in the geopolymer. The n-alkyl structures of the algaenans of domanik are allegedly bound mainly through ester bonds, as evidenced by the increased content of CO 2 released during pyrolysis as compared to CO. The S/C atomic ratio is below 0.04, thus allowing to classify this kerogen as Type II. Both short-chain and long chain sulfur-bound n-alkyl structures are less typical of D3dm kerogen. The low level of sulfurization of kerogen of Upper Devonian deposits is confirmed by low values of the thiophene index. The increased nitrogen content in such kerogen is explained by the presence of highly gelatinized chitinite, the starting material of which was the chitinous shells of tentaculites. Analysis of gaseous pyrolysis products of kerogen showed a high content of water released, probably, due to the elimination of hydroxyl groups of phenolic type. Some aromatic structures are formed directly in the kerogen itself in diagenesis and continue to form during further processes of transformation of OM, while some other aromatic structures are inherited
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Determination of the Chemical Structure of the Iraqi Oil Shale and Its Hydrocarbon Forms

Determination of the Chemical Structure of the Iraqi Oil Shale and Its Hydrocarbon Forms

with alternating layers of carbonate and organic matter. In Iraq, nowadays, there is no viable literature found regarding these rock types. Part of the reason for the lack of research work relative to “oil shale” is due to cheap production of crude oil in Iraq. The proven massive oil reserves in the country are considered to be the world’s fifth-largest with 140 billion barrels [2]. Oil produced from shale formations costs $50 to $100 for a barrel to be produced, compared with $10 to $25 for a barrel for conventional supplies from the Middle East and North Afri- ca. Table 1 summarizes the results of some of Iraq’s oil technical service con- tracts signed by the Iraqi government with some big oil companies [3]. As the table shows, the cost of Iraqi oil extraction is relatively low. Besides, geologists and consultants have estimated that relatively unexplored territory in the west- ern and southern deserts may contain estimated additional 45 to 100 billion barrels (bbls) of recoverable oil.
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Evaluation of the Organic Carbon Content in the Low-Permeability Shale Formations (As in the Case of the Khadum Suite in the Ciscaucasia Region)

Evaluation of the Organic Carbon Content in the Low-Permeability Shale Formations (As in the Case of the Khadum Suite in the Ciscaucasia Region)

Typically, the different types of kerogen have different generation ability. The first type is able to be almost completely recycled into HC in the catagenesis process, while the third type of kerogen, on the contrary, for the most part consists of not generating parts and gives a little HC. If we compare the source rocks, represented by different types of kerogen but with the same initial TOC content at the time of the maximum maturity, we can see that the kerogen which generated the largest number of HC is most weakly expressed in the TOC value, because of what its significance might be underestimated. As a result of transformation, the kerogen, capable of generating the heaviest hydrocarbons, has the lowest current TOC value. And vice versa, the kerogen which formed the least amount of hydrocarbons is presented in the modern composition by the highest values of TOC. By identifying the type of kerogen, it is possible to assume how many TOC will be converted into HCs: type I – up to 80%, type II – up to 50% and type III – up to 20.
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Geochemical study on Upper Bhuban shale in Aizawl district of Mizoram, India: an implication of chemical weathering, geochemical classification, tectonic setting and provenance

Geochemical study on Upper Bhuban shale in Aizawl district of Mizoram, India: an implication of chemical weathering, geochemical classification, tectonic setting and provenance

Th/Sc, Th/Co, Th/Cr, Cr/Th, and La/Sc ratios of shales from this study are compared with those of sediments derived from felsic and basic rocks (fine fraction) as well as to Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and Post Archean American Shale (PAAS) values. This compari- son also suggests that these ratios are within the range of felsic rocks. In addition, the La/Th and Th/Sc ratios are fairly constant in sedimentary rocks (2.4 and 0.9, respectively). The La/Th and Th/Sc ratios of the shales in the present study are more or less close to PAAS, 16 which suggest
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Effect of the Chemical Structure of m and p N-Vinylbenzylidene of 5-Methyl-Thiazole and 1,2,4-Triazole on Antimicrobial Activity

Effect of the Chemical Structure of m and p N-Vinylbenzylidene of 5-Methyl-Thiazole and 1,2,4-Triazole on Antimicrobial Activity

at 5.90 ppm and a double of doublets at 6.77 ppm. However, different signals appear for the substituents of the heterocyclic rings depending on the type of their structure for example a singlet of three protons located at 2.49-2.40 ppm for the methyl group of 2m and 2p respectively as shown in the fig 1. Another singlet at 14.09-14.07ppm is assigned to (NH) of 4m and 4p.

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Peculiarities of secondary structure of serum albumin of some representatives of the animal kingdom

Peculiarities of secondary structure of serum albumin of some representatives of the animal kingdom

Methods of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) are suitable techniques for detection of proteins structural changes. These methods were used for determinating peculiari- ties of the secondary structure of serum albumins in some representatives of two classes of reptiles: Horsfield’s tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi), water snake (Natrix tessellata) and grass snake (Natrix natrix) and birds: domestic goose (Anser anser), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic duck (Anas platyrhyncha) and dove colored (Columba livia). An analysis of IR spectra and spectra obtained by the method of CD of serum albumins of both classes representatives revealed that β-folding structure and α-helical sections that form the α-conformation play an important role in conformational structure formation of polypeptide chain and also disordered sites of molecules of these proteins. It was observed that certain redistribution depending on animals species exists, in the formation of secondary struc- ture of serum albumins of the investigated repre- sentatives of reptiles and birds classes between the content of β-folding structure, α-helical sections and disordered sites in molecules of these proteins.
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Role of multidomain structure of urokinase in regulation of growth and remodeling of vessels

Role of multidomain structure of urokinase in regulation of growth and remodeling of vessels

показано, что на поверхности гМк крингл-домен связывается с протеином, который отличается от uPar и интегринов и активация миграции под действием крингл- домена может происходить и бе[r]

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Geochemical Method Of Exploration For Hidden Complex Rare Metal Deposits Of Black-Shale Formations (Illustrated By Black Shales Of Western Uzbekistan)

Geochemical Method Of Exploration For Hidden Complex Rare Metal Deposits Of Black-Shale Formations (Illustrated By Black Shales Of Western Uzbekistan)

These criteria reflect the hydrogeological conditions of deposits and ore occurrences of known uranium ore areas lying among the black shale stratum of the folded base of the platform, which are mainly determined by the dynamics of infiltrated fractured underground oxygen-containing waters and the depth of their penetration from the surface through permeable structures and bedding rock. It is natural and logical to assume that these conditions varied in stages of development depending on the tectonic, geomorphological, landscape, and climatic conditions of the ore areas. The formation of geomorphological uplifts — the horst structures of Auminzatau, Beltau, Bukantau, Tamdytau, Northern Nuratau and others — led to an intensification of the dynamics of groundwater, an increase in the depth of their penetration, and the emergence of discharge centres along the periphery. The structural situation of this period was determined by the development of numerous heterogeneous violations, layer-by- layer breakdowns of rock brecciaing areas and zones, delamination and karst pore spaces, leaching pore spaces, caver and porosity of siliceous rocks, their fracturing, etc. The permeability of structures and host rocks has increased especially in connection with movements along faults at the Neogene-Quaternary and modern stages of Late Alpine activation. Repeated differentiated raises of the territory of ore fields and deposits at the last Neogene-Quaternary and modern stage of development caused significant changes in the level and hydrodynamics of underground fissure water in ore-bearing rocks. In turn, this led to the intensive development of the processes of transformation of uranium mineralization with the formation of the vertical supergenic mineralogical and geochemical zonality described above. On an individual basis, we observed this process in the southern part of the Altyntau ore field, when drilled airblast wells with depths of up to 70-80 m exposed ore sections and anomalies in black shales, and a couple of hundred meters on an adjacent profile located lower in the direction of groundwater movement, sample analysis revealed increased uranium content with a coefficient of radioactive equilibrium many times shifted towards uranium. Further, to the south uranium passed into the Lower Cretaceous sediments of sedimentary cover.
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Peculiarities of chemical composition of sainfoin seeds powder

Peculiarities of chemical composition of sainfoin seeds powder

increasing the share of legumes in the structure of field rotations is a stabilizing factor for quantitative and qualitative characteristics of soil fertility. Thus, besides increasing availability mineral forms of nutrients for plants, the use of legumes in crop rotation helps to reduce losses of humus and to optimize of its composition, and therefore has a positive effect on stabilization of environmental stress in field crops.

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Synthesis and Process Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Coatings Depositions on Pure Magnesium via Simple Chemical Conversion Method

Synthesis and Process Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Coatings Depositions on Pure Magnesium via Simple Chemical Conversion Method

supplied by the alkaline solutions enhanced the phase transformations of the DCPD to HA, in accordance with equation (4). The fluctuations of potentials in the curves from 1-4 minutes of alkaline treatment could be subjected to the nature of the conversion process of the DCPD into HA. It is stated that the phase transformations of DCPD into HA is a fast solid-solid phase transitions that occurs very quickly at high liquid-to-solid ratio, generally 100:1[11][13]. So, the fluctuations of potential-time curves are anticipated. Besides, the potential fluctuations may also occur because micro-dissolutions of the coatings towards the formation of stable HA along with the filling effect of pores and gaps on the coating-substrate interface. As the alkaline treatment time prolonged, the potential curve steadily increases and stable, indicating the progressive HA coating formations.
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Kerogen variation in a Devonian half graben system

Kerogen variation in a Devonian half graben system

against microfacies. Normally high H/C values are not associated with high TOC values, because the kerogen is diluted by phytoclasts and spores, which have generally lower TOC contents. This is not the case here because Figure 5-36c shows that slightly higher H/C ratios are found in deeper water facies. This could be being caused by AOM (high initial H/C ratio)

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Investigation of Structural Behaviour of I Beam Honeycomb Structure

Investigation of Structural Behaviour of I Beam Honeycomb Structure

The First level or Preliminary analysis of design uses tools that have to be simple to design the Hexagonal cell structure and I-beam Hexagonal cell structure and then extrude. After that Assembly of the group of Hexagonal cells will be generated for some cases for analysis. The secondary level of design of panel of the rectangle. Numerical codes are based on finite difference methods (FEM) or finite element methods (FDM), with 1D, 2D or 3D models of physical phenomena (structural analysis). They allow precise calculations or optimization up to defining the final geometry as shown in fig.1.
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Analysis of Biomechanical Behaviour of Dental Structure in Orthodontics Movement

Analysis of Biomechanical Behaviour of Dental Structure in Orthodontics Movement

Major part of the research was designing the model of Lateral Incisor tooth, Periodontics Ligament, Cortical and Trabecular bone using Materialise Mimics v17. Initially the 2D image or the Tomography is loaded in the Mimics database, since tomography comprises of slices and sections of a 3D Object we categories the plane in Sagittal, Coronal and Axial planes. So, Mimics basically works on the concept of Mask and Object, where mask is an outline of the 3D object in 2D format and consist of pixels and object is derived from a mask. Mimics need perfection and patience to design an object because every pixel contributes in the making of a complete model. The best thing of Mimics is that we get an actual model with real shape, dimension and flaws. We have to consider all the three planes when creating a mask because as you edit in one plane you can see the effect on other planes so it’s important to synchronize and edit the mask. Editing the mask, it can be done in 2D (on each plane) and 3D. After editing is done the model needs to be smoothened to get the best results in Meshing and Analyzation. And all these above tasks require experimenting with trial and error method for best results. 3- Matic is also 3D modelling Software for giving anatomical shape and all important details, complexity from start to finish. Here we used 3-Matic for fixing, Stitching the Dental Structure and to export in (.)STP Format for Ansys Analysis.
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The investigation of the folding pathway of trp-cage miniprotein using explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation

The investigation of the folding pathway of trp-cage miniprotein using explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation

The objective of this study is to investigate the folding pathway of Trp-cage miniprotein. The structure and trajectories of this protein has been studied using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation was run at 300K for 250ns. Clustering analysis was conducted to group the trajectories according to the RMSD value and six clusters were generated. From this, the best conformation was identified to best represent the Trp-cage miniprotein. The formation of the hydrogen bond that involved Gly11-Ser14 assisted the formation of 3 10 -helix.

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Chemical Modification Methods of Nanoparticles of Silicon Carbide Surface

Chemical Modification Methods of Nanoparticles of Silicon Carbide Surface

Annotation: silicon carbide exhibits exceptional properties: high durability, high thermal conductivity, good heat resistance, low thermal expansion factor and chemical inactivity. Reinforcement with silicon carbide nanoparticles increases polymer’s tensile strength and thermal stability.Chemical methods of modification of the silicon carbide surface by means of variety of reagents from ordinary molecules to macromolecular polymers are reviewed in the review.The structure of silicon carbide surface layer and the nature of modificator bonding with the surface of SiC particles are reviewed. General examples of surface modification methodologies and composite materials with the addition of modified SiC are given.
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Theoritical Investigations of Structure of N-Methyl-Salicylideneimine Diethylboron Complex

Theoritical Investigations of Structure of N-Methyl-Salicylideneimine Diethylboron Complex

Semi-empirical AM1, PM3, MNDO and MINDO/3 methods proved to be important auxiliary tools for geometry optimization and vibrational frequencies. The correlation coefficients for bond lengths are 0.966, 0.983, 0.980 and 0.903 for AM1, PM3, MNDO and MINDO/3. PM3 method gives best linearity between experimental and calculated bond lengths (CC=0.983). The correlation coefficients for bond angles are 0.937, 0.934, 0.982 and 0.818 for AM1, PM3, MNDO and MINDO/3 semi-empirical methods. Here, MNDO method gives most satisfactory correlation. Thus, semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations can successful be used to predict the geometry and thermodynamic properties whose supported of structure.
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Palynofacies and Kerogen Analyses of Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Danian) Shales of Ugwueme Section of Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria

Palynofacies and Kerogen Analyses of Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Danian) Shales of Ugwueme Section of Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria

Three samples belonging to Nkporo Formation, Mamu Formation and Nsukka Formation of upper Cretaceous sediments exposed at Nkwe, AcharaUgwueme and Umuaku villages within Ugwueme and environs were obtained for the analysis. Three kerogen slides were prepared from the samples using conventional method of acid maceration. Each slide was examined using the transmitted light microscopy at x10 and 40 magnifications for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Particulate Organic Matter (POM), determination of the palynofacies association and kerogen types, spore/pollen colouration and estimation of thermal alteration index (TAI), vitrinite reflectance (R O %) and organic thermal maturation.
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Determinants Of Capital Structure Media Of Nifty

Determinants Of Capital Structure Media Of Nifty

The study is focused on determinants of capital structure of media companies listed on NIFTY. Eleven independent variables Profitability, Tangibility, Firm Size, Growth, Risk, Liquidity, TAX, Dividend, Interest cover, GDP and Inflation taken as determinants and leverage ratio is taken as capital structure. Media companies listed on NIFTY are considered as representation of entire media phenomena period in between 2013-14 to 2017-18. The result indicates that profitability, tangibility, size and growth have positive impact where GDP has negative impact.
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Structure of Corporate Governance and Financial Performance of Nigerian Quoted Banks

Structure of Corporate Governance and Financial Performance of Nigerian Quoted Banks

Board composition based on corporate governance in finance based institutions operating in Nigeria is made up of Chairman, deputy chairman, Chief Executive Officer, Executive Director and Non-Executive Directors. according to Clifford and Evans (1997) board composition is number of independent non-executive directors in board members in relation to entire directors Based on position and Nigerian based corporate governance structure, directors are main policy maker for any firm, so the links between board composition structure and organization performance is expected to be close because board composition make up corporate governance, so our studies takes involves evaluating this assumed relationship between composition of board and finance based performance of firms.
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DAILY ACTIVITY OF MUD VOLCANOES AND GEOECOLOGICAL RISK: A CASE FROM GAYNARJA MUD VOLCANO, AZERBAIJAN

DAILY ACTIVITY OF MUD VOLCANOES AND GEOECOLOGICAL RISK: A CASE FROM GAYNARJA MUD VOLCANO, AZERBAIJAN

Mud volcanoes are mainly located in oil and gas regions in the Rebublic. eruption of mud volcanoes results with the releasing of volcanic products from the depth of 6-9 km or more, among which oil shale and oil-bearing rocks are traced [1–9]. age of the oil shales is paleogene-Miocene and they are very rich with organic matter [14–19]. laboratory analysis of these rocks gives a positive results for their or- ganic chemistry composition [18–29].

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