However, 2014 research in the Republic of Ireland found that children in mixed classes with older peers tended to have a more negative view of their own abilities, even after controlling for factors such as school mix, teacher experience and class size. It appears that having older peers as a reference group caused younger children to believe that they should be doing work at the same level. 36
1.9 Individual settings develop their own policies to cover local needs. The Governing Body has general responsibility for all of the setting’s policies even when it is not the employer. Each Governing Body will generally want to take account of the views of the headteacher, staff and parents in developing a policy on assisting children/youngpeople with medical needs. In LA schools the Governing Body must ensure that local arrangements comply with the Health and Safety policies and procedures produced by the LA as employer. Every setting must have a Designated Teacher with responsibility for children/youngpeople with medical needs and The Governing Body must ensure that staff who volunteer to administrate medication receive appropriate accredited training.
“The universality of the expression “Human Rights”, comprehending all human beings in its definition, might sometimes be too wide-ranging when minorities or specific social categories fought or are fighting for rights concerning their own specific contexts. This might be the example for minorities, women, children and LGBT rights. When it comes to youth and youth rights, the main question one should raise is if this category is well protected by common human rights, or if there is a need to demand and obtain more youth-related rights. Now that many European countries are experiencing an economic crisis, many youngpeople aged between 18 and 30 years are unemployed (ca. 23.2%), and in some countries such as Greece, Spain or Italy, these percentages are even doubled. The question of youth employment both at national and international (youth mobility) level should be of interest to International Organisations and Institutions concerned with international law and human rights. The European Social Charter, defines five articles (art. 7, art. 9, art. 10, art. 11, and art. 17) that might be considered related more closely than others to youth: the right to protection, vocational guidance, health, legal and socio-economic protection. These rights deal with issues that affect both children and young persons in relation to their families and societies. Since societies are evolving, young peoples are more interested and able to travel and experience other countries and societies.”
Family relations and the home environments they create have a profound effect on children’s mental health from the earliest age. The importance of these relations is evident in the accounts of children and youngpeople themselves; they see family relations as impacting both positively and negatively on their mental health (Harden et al., 2001; Shucksmith et al., 2009). They place high importance on positive family relationships in creating and sustaining mental wellbeing. Key aspects that youngpeople highlight include loving and trusting relationships, open communication, strong familial involvement, support in decision making, buffering against adversity and a sense of safety and security. Conversely, they frequently cite family discord (hostility, conflicts, divorce and family break up) and abusive relationships with parents (both emotional and physical) as a cause of mental health problems. Children and youngpeople are additionally aware of the detrimental impact that caring responsibilities for other family members can have on their own mental health (i.e. a more negative side of social support, see section 3.5.3 Social support) (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2003; Shucksmith et al., 2009). These responsibilities can lead to feelings of being different to peers, isolation, worries about the future, loss of self-identity and stigmatisation, which in turn impact on mental health. However, it must also be remembered that caring can have multiple consequences for the carer. Expert opinion suggests that being a young carer is not always or only a negative experience (Advisory Group members; Consultation comments; Personal communications with experts). For some it can boost resilience, self-esteem, self- confidence and coping skills. It is therefore the nature of the caring experience which is all important and this can be affected by such things as the wider support a young individual gets from services etc.
There is a lack of suitably validated scales to measure mental wellbeing in children under 13 years of age; the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is valid for assessing the mental wellbeing of children aged 13 years and above but is not suitable for younger children. There is therefore a need for a mental wellbeing scale which would cover children aged 8/9 up to 13/14 years old. The Stirling Children’s Wellbeing Scale for 8 to 13 year olds has recently been developed, using WEMWBS as a starting point, and shown to be valid and reliable (Carter et al., paper in preparation; for information email firstname.lastname@example.org). The scale has also been found to be suitable for older children allowing comparisons between a greater age range of children. This scale offers potential and its utility for inclusion in national surveys should be fully assessed and any additional validation required considered.
• This bespoke report for Local Authorities outlines details of the second comprehensive national stocktake of the CYP MH workforce, which builds on a previous data collection performed by the NHS Benchmarking Network in 2016. Children and Young People’s mental health services are a high profile service area that has been identified for investment and development in a number of recent national strategies including the NHS Five Year Forward View (2014) and NHS Long Term Plan (2019). CYP MH was also discussed in a recent Government green paper “Transforming Children and Young People’s Mental Health” (2017) which outlined aspirations for an inclusive multi-agency portfolio of CYP MH services that would form the backbone of an expanded delivery model in future years. Much of this vision is articulated in the NHS Long Term Plan with workforce growth central to plans to expand CYP MH services in future.
For these reasons, we had to make some changes to the initial project plan, such as including the opinions of the carers where children were unwilling or unable to participate. This led to further difficulties. First, we had to adapt the child’s questions to the carer’s perceptions of the child’s view. Second, we faced another issue when we had both the carer and child doing the interview together, where the child did not know about the parental imprisonment. This meant that some changes to the questions had to be made for the child not to discover the truth. This created a delicate ethical situation in which we had to ‘collude’ with the carers in order to respect their wishes not to reveal the truth to the child. Third, we also had to consider another case of a five year-old boy, who only knew that his mother was in a place called Stirling and, even though he did not know the real meaning of that, he showed a lower understanding of the questions than would be expected for his age, and the questions were adapted.
Difficult to quantify, but essential to identify, are the costs and burdens that stem from society’s unhelpful attitudes. People facing mental health challenges are subject to social exclusion and stigma comparable to that associated with skin color, ethnicity, or sexual orientation—a response that has been described as a ―second illness.‖ 19 Prejudice, which includes neglect as well as active harm, can cause stress that contributes to further ill health. 20 Stigma associated with mental illness can delay or prevent individuals from seeking help, or cause them to terminate treatment early. 20, 21 Mental health professionals themselves can be both victims and perpetrators of the negative stereotypes associated with mental illness. 22 Finally, because of stigma, society loses out on the valuable contributions that excluded members could be making. Illness—regardless of the form it takes—deserves a compassionate response. Mental health conditions are no more a reflection of defects in character or personal motivation than are asthma or diabetes. Nor are mental health disorders, as a group, any more innate or predetermined, or a consequence of bad choices, than are other illnesses. In fact, as we will elaborate on further in this report, nearly all aspects of our health stem from how we and our environments interact. 23
This approach would encourage the development of a common language for describing and understanding children’s needs. It would also require better use to be made of information available from research, inspection and audit to improve understanding of the needs of individual children and to identify the most effective ways of meeting the child’s needs. The Integrated Children’s System (ICS) has been developed to support multidisciplinary and inter-agency working with children in need and their families. Social services departments take the lead in this, working with partner agencies including health, education and the independent sector. The ICS builds on the Looking After Children (LAC) system and Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families which are already in use in local authorities. It places the child’s needs at the centre of the process and takes full account of parents, family and environmental circumstances and how these impact on the child’s welfare and development. It provides a basis for developing a common language across disciplines to describe what is happening to the child.
Looked-after children and young people's access to dental care is a concern to respondents. Sometimes they need to travel considerable distances to access a dentist that has the capacity to take them. A looked-after child or young person may not attend a planned dental check for reasons relating to unplanned placement moves, fear, phobias or confidence issues. Missed appointments result in some dental practices de-registering them. Some dentists are reluctant to embark on a treatment programme if a child is in a short-term placement. There are particular needs around meeting the specialist dental needs of disabled children and youngpeople.
The duty of confidentiality owed to a child who lacks competence is the same as that owed to any other person. Occasionally, youngpeople seek medical treatment, for example, contraception, but are judged to lack the competence to give consent. A child’s confidentiality should be respected when information is shared on the understanding that the information will not be disclosed to parents or guardians, or indeed to any third party, save in the most exceptional circumstances, for example, where it puts the child at risk of significant harm or there is a suspicion that the child is being abused, in which case disclosure may take place in the ‘public interest’ without consent. Therefore, even where the health professional considers a child to be too immature to consent to the treatment requested, confidentiality should still be respected concerning the consultation, although parental involvement should be encouraged, unless there are very convincing reasons to the contrary.
In contrast to this is the acceptance of the idea of ‘idealism’. This is the view that the external world consists merely of representations and is a creation of the mind (Williams & May, 1996). Rather than searching for ‘reality’, idealists believe there are multiple realities. This is the position taken by those who undertake research from a constructivist position. Constructivists do not believe social phenomena exist outside the individual’s understanding of them. The focus of research is not the phenomena themselves, their cause or effects, but the process by which they are identified and created (Hammersley, 2007). In this approach the assumption is that researchers cannot identify social and or psychological process as all knowledge is dependent on the context (Madill et al., 2000). Instead the researcher is concerned with how people use language to describe their experiences. The approach is sometimes described as relativist as it rejects the idea that experiences inform our descriptions of them because it is language that constructs reality, rather than reality that determines how we talk about it. Murphy, Dingwall, Greatbach, Parker and Watson (1998) argue that if researchers adopt a radical relativist position then it is difficult to see how policy- makers or practitioners can make use of their findings (p.67). This is explained further by Hammersley who questions ‘..why should some ‘realities’ be published and discussed at the expense of others?’ (1992, p.49).
MSc trainees will be supported through regular supervision and multidisciplinary meetings to provide a community based early intervention approach. Assessments will be done both individually and jointly, and the information gathered will be used to develop a clear formulation of a child and young person's presenting difficulty to guide intervention. Intervention will be individual, family and group of a short-term duration. Therapeutic skills can be developed through discussion in supervision, guided reading and audio- or video- taping of patient sessions. Treatment often requires liaison with other services and requires significant attention to the family system. Opportunities exist to participate in multi-professional consultation clinics for primary care staff, social work and education. Trainees will be encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions using a range of age appropriate formal and informal measures.
An Act of the Scottish Parliament to make provision about the rights of children and youngpeople; to make provision about investigations by the Commissioner for Children and YoungPeople in Scotland; to make provision for and about the provision of services and support for or in relation to children and youngpeople; to make provision for an adoption register; to make provision about children’s hearings, detention in secure accommodation and consultation on certain proposals in relation to schools; and for connected purposes.
There are so many opportunities for children and youngpeople to take an active part in shaping where they live, the services they use and the running of local and national organisations. They have a right to be involved in the decisions that affect them. This is promoted in law, policy and guidance: the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Every Child Matters, the Children Act 2004, Youth Matters, Children’s Trusts and inspections. Their participation is essential in order to achieve change: to improve policy and services and ensure the best outcomes for them as set out in Every Child Matters: being healthy; staying safe; enjoying and achieving; making a positive contribution; and economic wellbeing. This briefing is written for adults working with, and responsible for, the involvement of children and youngpeople and offers guidance to help make their participation as safe, sound and effective as possible. It is to be read alongside Hear by Right, standards framework for the participation of children and youngpeople i , (The NYA/ LGA, revised 2008).
followed by continuation bid funding. The library service provides leadership and expertise on book collection, pack provision, activities and events. Libraries Young Peoples Services Coordinator (YPSC) writes required reports and funding bids and supervises project workers. New Charter Housing trust provide the accommodation for the project, administer the funding, employ the staff and provide day to day management via the manager at HPU. Quarterly evaluation reports are written for the Children’s Fund outlining indicators of success/improvements in the quality of the life of children/family members; evidence of involvement of children and families in developing the project; evidence of meeting project targets linked to the five outcomes from Every Child Matters. Evaluation forms are completed by children, parents and carers. Other evidence includes statistical data and case studies, which will be used to support the value of mainstreaming the project as part of children’s services for children and youngpeople in temporary accommodation.
(Howard 2002) identified that they provide an extensive range of services, including assessment for and provision of wheelchairs. It has been suggested that not allowing a child to engage in the same childhood occupations as his or her peers by limiting mobility goes against the enabling occupational focus of occupational the ap Ni holso a d Bo sall . A hild s independent mobility can facilitate the breadth of learning experiences and cognitive and psychosocial development (Wiart and Darrah 2002, Richardson 2002). Deitz et al (2002) found that for two youngchildren with severe motor impairments and developmental delay, the use of a powered mobility device may have increased self-initiated movement during free play and may facilitate the transition to wheelchair use in the larger community.
‘Mainstreaming Peace Education: Competence Framework’, a project funded by the EU Erasmus+ Programme under the Key Action 2 - Strategic Partnerships in the Field of Youth Strand. It is a result of a collaborative learning, writing and editing process undertaken together by the partner organisations in Germany, Latvia, the Netherlands, Turkey and the United Kingdom. For further details about the project and its other activities, please visit www.peaceducation.eu. For information about editors, authors and other contributors, please see chapters 4 and 5.
Any it e m a n d it s a ss o ci a t e d m e t a d a t a h el d i n t h e U niv e r si ty of C u m b r i a ’s in s ti t u ti o n al r e p o si t o r y I n si g h t ( u nl e sss t a t e d o t h e r wi s e o n t h e m e t a d a t a r e c o r d ) m a y b e c o pi e d , di s pl ay e d o r p e rf o r m e d , a n d s t o r e d i n li n e wi t h t h e JIS C f ai r d e a li n g g ui d eli n e s ( av ail a bl e h e r e ) fo r e d u c a t i o n al a n d n o t-fo r-p r ofi t a c tiviti e s
educational reform was not simply about improving young people’s political literacy (i.e. learning about politics) but it offered a clear approach which sought to promote active citizenship amongst youngpeople. It envisaged that youngpeople should be taught to realise their voice, work together and take practical action, using their knowledge and understanding of citizenship to contribute to a better society. Within the education sector the importance of children and young people’s engagement was acknowledged when a new duty was placed on all maintained schools in England and Wales to consider their views with the passing of the Education and Skills Act (2008). This significant legal reform substantially strengthened the legal rights of children to participate in school decision making and today it is not unusual to see youngpeople involved in consultations around new appointees, funding bids and decision making such as food provision in schools.