Top PDF Children in Custody 2017–18: An analysis of 12–18-year-olds’ perceptions of their experiences in secure training centres and young offender institutions

Children in Custody 2017–18: An analysis of 12–18-year-olds’ perceptions of their experiences in secure training centres and young offender institutions

Children in Custody 2017–18: An analysis of 12–18-year-olds’ perceptions of their experiences in secure training centres and young offender institutions

Last year I commented on the broader context in which our surveys had taken place. I pointed out that in February 2017 I had written to Dr Phillip Lee, then Minister for Victims, Youth and Family Justice, expressing my concerns that at that time, HM Inspectorate of Prisons could not classify any STC or YOI as safe enough to hold children. This year there have been some encouraging signs of improvement in safety at some establishments, but history tells us that all too often early signs of improvement have not been sustained. A key factor in securing a safe environment for children in custody is finding positive ways to encourage good behaviour. During the year we published a thematic report on this subject, the key finding of which was that all effective behaviour management was underpinned by positive relationships between staff and children. Building those positive relationships is a key challenge for both STCs and YOIs, given the shortages of staff, their high turnover rates and, in too many establishments, very poor time out of cell for the children.
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Children and young people in custody 2012-13 : an analysis of 12-18 year-olds' perceptions of their experience in secure training centres

Children and young people in custody 2012-13 : an analysis of 12-18 year-olds' perceptions of their experience in secure training centres

Young men and young women reported largely similar experiences but young women reported more negatively about feeling safe when they first arrived, health services and whether they were encouraged to take part in activities outside formal education hours. Forty-four per cent of young people told us they were from a black or minority ethnic background, 21% told us they were Muslims, 12% told us they were from a Gypsy, Romany or Traveller background and 19% told us they had a disability. The numbers of young people who told us they were Muslims and those from a Gypsy, Romany or Traveller backgrounds are particularly striking especially as the latter varies substantially from statistical data held by the centres – this requires further investigation. In some important areas, young people from all minority groups reported different experiences from the population as a whole. Young people from black and minority ethnic backgrounds and young Muslim people both reported more difficulty in keeping in touch with family and friends than the population as a whole and both were more negative about aspects of the education they had received in the centre. A higher proportion of young people from Gypsy, Romany or Traveller backgrounds said they had felt unsafe and had been bullied or victimised by other young people and 13% said they had been physically abused by staff compared with 2% of all young people. More work needs to be done to understand the over-representation of these minority groups and what lies behind the differences in their perceived experiences.
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Children and young people in custody 2012-13 : an analysis of 15-18 -year-olds' perceptions of their experiences in young offending institutions

Children and young people in custody 2012-13 : an analysis of 15-18 -year-olds' perceptions of their experiences in young offending institutions

Similar to last year, nearly a third (33%) of young men surveyed said they had been looked after by a local authority at some point. The consistency of this figure since last year continues to reflect the over representation of looked after children in contact with the criminal justice system and wider experiences of disadvantage. They have more positive perceptions of entering establishments and navigating daily life but a greater proportion report drug, alcohol or emotional and mental health problems and victimisation by other young people, and are more likely to anticipate problems across all areas of resettlement. Positively, compared with 2011–12, higher proportions of young men who had been in care reported that most staff treated them with respect and that their personal officer tried to help them.
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Children and young people in custody 2010–11 : an analysis of the experiences of 15–18-year-olds in prison

Children and young people in custody 2010–11 : an analysis of the experiences of 15–18-year-olds in prison

• The largest type of secure accommodation for children and young people is young offender institutions (YOIs), and it is this type of custody that this review reports on. Young men aged 15 to 17 and young women aged 17 who are remanded or sentenced to custody may be placed in YOIs. Young people aged 18 who are coming to the end of their sentence or who are waiting for their transfer to the adult estate may still be held in the children and young people’s estate. The YOI estate currently has capacity for 1,933 young men and 42 young women. It comprises eight male establishments with an operational capacity ranging from 64 at Parc to 440 at Hindley. Within the male establishments there are four specialist units holding young people convicted of serious offences and/or those who are considered to be vulnerable, as well as a specialist enhanced resettlement unit. The female estate comprises three small units holding between nine and 17 young women aged 17 to 18 years old. See section 2 for a detailed description of the YOIs in the children and young people’s estate.
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Arcohe 2017-18 LCAP

Arcohe 2017-18 LCAP

During 2016-17, the district has focused on building the foundations of a sound education program to support students and staff. Knowing our assessment scores are not meeting expectations, we have targeted both core instruction as well as interventions for at-risk students. With the addition of other assessment metrics, we can tailor instruction throughout the year and engage students at their current levels. Our additions of an Instructional Coach, EL Specialist, a third Special Education teacher, the MTSS process and piloting Academic Reading and Math in two classrooms has given us some flexibility in our delivery methods. We are going to continue with these support systems moving forward and continue to add to our overall process.
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Arcohe LCAP 2017-18

Arcohe LCAP 2017-18

For Goal 1, Action, 4, the discrepancy between the budget and actual expenditures is the training of staff with the new ELA curriculum. The original plan for the initial implementation was to use the textbook company to provide free training to all staff. It was apparent this training was not going to be sufficient in scope which necessitated additional professional development from the Sacramento County Office. Teachers received continuous training throughout the year both on understanding the curriculum but also in analyzing current student work in relation to the curriculum. This professional development will carry on through the 2018-19 school year with the formation of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs).
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ANNUAL REPORT 2017/18

ANNUAL REPORT 2017/18

A pioneering legal resource organization, Legal Aid and Consultancy Center (LACC) was established in 1987 by a group of women lawyers. Its mission is the empowerment of women, the furthering of their socio-legal status and the protection of women’s and children’s rights. LACC's approach to combating injustice is to offer comprehensive support that encompasses a number of interconnected areas. Provision of free legal aid is LACC’s core service and comprises telephone counseling, psycho-social counseling, mediation, legal advice and court representation. However, LACC is also committed to promoting change across a number of other platforms, including policy intervention, human rights training, awareness initiatives, advocacy campaigns, sensitization, research, and networking. Additionally, LACC has also been involved in drafting legislative bills and publishing legal information.
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Bonding 2017-18.ppt

Bonding 2017-18.ppt

• A non-polar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced. distribution of electrical charge... N[r]

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Toothbrushing behavior in children – an observational study of toothbrushing performance in 12 year olds

Toothbrushing behavior in children – an observational study of toothbrushing performance in 12 year olds

difficulties in performing the required movements, and incomplete visual control of the tooth brushing. Since the present study did not control any of these potentially influencing factors, it is not possible to decide which of them were responsible for the neglect of the inner sur- faces in our participants. However, with respect to mo- tivation the current data argue against that explanation. Children who completely adhere to the recommenda- tions of the brushing song would show a total tooth con- tact time (without spitting out, changing the position of the brush etc.) of approximately 100 s. The children under study showed a mean tooth contact time twice that long. Thus, the motivation to clean the teeth to the best of their abilities was apparently high. This makes the other factors more probable. Indeed, the additional finding about the distribution of the brushing time to sextants within inner and outer surfaces supports the hypothesis of visual control and/or difficult movements: On the outer surfaces, the children concentrated on the perfect visible front region (longer brushing times at the 2nd and 5th sextant). Concerning the inner surfaces, brushing times indicate that especially the lateral sex- tants of the maxilla appear to be difficult to reach (see Fig. 2). This is supported by other studies which also found a neglect of posterior inner surfaces in different age groups [35, 41–43]. While in younger children this neglect might be due to missing motor skills [35, 38, 43], children at the age of 12 should have acquired these skills already. Nonetheless, it might be less comfortable to brush these surfaces or one might assume that the visibility of plaque plays a major role when it comes to the decision of where to brush.
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Participation of Year Olds in Education and Training. 1.1 To report on the participation of year olds in education and training.

Participation of Year Olds in Education and Training. 1.1 To report on the participation of year olds in education and training.

 Connexions annual Year 11 activity surveys; participation rates in education and training by 16-18 year olds (for NEET); the September Guarantee rates for 16 and 17 year olds; the annual post 18 destinations surveys.

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Children adopted from care in Northern Ireland 2017/18

Children adopted from care in Northern Ireland 2017/18

Adoption, unlike any other permanence option, involves the ending of a child’s legal relationship with their birth parents and family and the creation of a lifelong relationship with new parents. The facilities to be provided as part of the adoption service, including arrangements for assessing children and prospective adopters, placing children for adoption, and the particular procedures to be followed before and after a child is placed for adoption are all specified in legislation – the Adoption (Northern Ireland) Order 1987 and the Adoption Agencies Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1989.
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Discitis and Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Children: An 18-Year Review

Discitis and Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Children: An 18-Year Review

ture, a complete blood count and differential, and radiographs of the spine. Nuclear bone scanning may be helpful in very young children in whom localization of the inflammatory process is uncertain by physical examination. If the roentgenograms are not characteristic of discitis, MRI of the spine should be performed. Once the diagnosis is established, an- timicrobial therapy is always indicated for the child with vertebral osteomyelitis, and the drug and length of therapy should be guided by the causal agent. Use of antimicrobial therapy in children with discitis remains controversial because there are no controlled studies to guide specific therapy, route of administration, or duration of treatment.
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A review of the quality of care following prolonged seizures in 1–18 year olds with epilepsies

A review of the quality of care following prolonged seizures in 1–18 year olds with epilepsies

Although the precise prevalence of the epilepsies in children is unknown, a 2005 systematic review found a median reported prevalence of active epilepsies (i.e. seizures within the previous five years) in European 0-19 year olds of 4.3 per 1000 1, 2 . This equates to an estimated 65,000 children and young people with active epilepsies in the UK. With appropriate treatment, many of these children will achieve seizure-freedom and be able to participate in their home and school environments. For others though, particularly those with associated developmental co-morbidities, seizure control may be impossible and with a high risk of frequent, severe and prolonged seizures. Data from England in 2011-12 showed that there were 10,840 hospital admissions of children aged 0-14 with a primary diagnosis of epilepsy, and 1,402 with a status epilepticus 3 . The 2012 report of the Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network (PICANet) for the UK and Ireland, listed 1,101 admissions to intensive care units with status epilepticus over three years (2009-11 4 ).
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Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

High self-efficacy helps calm feelings in approaching difficult tasks and activities (Chahine, 2015). On the other hand, people who doubt their abilities can believe that something is more complicated (Taufik, Yudha, & Suryana, 2019). Based on Sandi's (2017) study of the Relationship of Self-Effectiveness with Student Learning Interests - the results show that there is a relationship between self- efficacy and learning interest in YPK Southeast students indicates that self- efficacy is closely related to student interest. Baron and Byrne (2004) revealed that when an individual has confidence in his or her ability to cope with anxiety, the body produces natural and safe remedies, which can reduce stress and improve performance. An individual who is confident in his or her environment is capable of coping with the situation and the context in which he or she is dealing with the individual, the individual will feel at ease and not worry, and will be able to think clearly. Individuals with low Self-efficacy are individuals who are incapable, vulnerable, anxious, and shy away from challenges and tasks, sensitive to stressful situations, lack of commitment, and slow recovery (Bandura, 1997; Bangcola, n.d.; Rusmana, 2019; Tho, Dong, & Noi, 2015).
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Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Specifically, the results of SEM analysis showed that MTE, UE, SI, and FC had significant direct effects on BI of teachers in using the mobile heutagogy learning approach. Such findings are consistent with the findings of previous studies. (Abu-Al-Aish & Love, 2013; Attuquayefio & Addo, 2014; Teo, Fan, & Du, 2015; Wong, Abdullah & Goh, 2019; Wong, Teo & Russo, 2013; Wong et al., 2019) that focused on technology acceptance models, such as TAM, C-TAM-TPB, TAM2, and UTAUT. Based on the analysis of direct effects, it could be argued that teachers with positive UE (indicating that the use of the mobile heutagogical practices approach could help improve student learning and their teaching practice) would have a greater inclination to accept and use such a teaching approach. The opposite would be true for those with poor UE. Noticeably, teachers’ intention to implement mobile in heutagogy learning would intensify when they believe that its implementation would improve the learning process. The unexpected vital and interesting finding was that the study also found that MTE has stronger influences towards BI among practicing teachers in the use of mobile heutagogical practices. One of the most promising reasons is most of the pre-service teachers are from Generation Y and Z. They are related to digital natives, as given by Prensky (2001). This generation is sensitive to the use of digital equipment, and they have used technology to do most activities all day. Indeed, they always use technology in a variety of daily activities and communicate using the language of technology, and using the latest social media institutions to communicate with peers. On this basis, pre-service teachers did not feel the importance of MTE in the use of mobile heutagogical practices. 11. Acknowledgment
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Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

The data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. In this research, the questionnaire is used to capture the difficulties of students in creative writing while the interview is used to capture the difficulties experienced by students in creative writing. Interviews are conducted with reflective and flexible techniques. Data analysis techniques include the stages of identification, classification, reduction, exposure, and verification (Miles & Huberman, 2014). At the last stage, the exposure of research data was carried out. As for the research assessment, the researcher adapted Martin & Pear (2015) which relates to (1) the screening phase, (2) the pre-program phase, (3) the handling phase, and (3) the follow-up phase. In this study, the assessment only used three phases, namely networking, handling, and follow-up.
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Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Giraldo and Bermudaz (2014) conducted a study with the intention to explore the learning curve by utilizing the concept of “function” as a mathematical position. They aimed to shed light on how problems arising from mathematics education, both social and cultural, can be reduced for hearing disabilities students through teacher intervention using specific order of sequences to transfer learning experiences, along with the use of a computer learning environment. The researchers recommend using the theoretical framework provided by Brousseau's Theoretical Framework in educational situations for the hearing disabilities, and Duval's records of semiotic representation in teaching geometry in particular.
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Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Abstract. This paper aims to quantitatively analyze the features of twelve Japanese historical fifth-year English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) textbooks (Book-5) and their current counterpart by using correspondence analysis, and to compare the results with those of the correspondence analyses of the first- and third-year EFL textbooks (Book-1 and Book-3). The following were the obtained results. First, the correspondence analysis results proved capable of differentiating quantitatively the features of the textbooks dealt with. Second, the explaining categories were explained 84.4 percent by four dimensions: speech-oriented (+) vs. exposition-oriented (-) discourse (Dim 1), easy (+) vs. difficult (-) texts (Dim 2), variety-rich (+) vs. variety-poor (-) (Dim 3), and teacher-assistance (+) vs. non-teacher-assistance (Dim 4). Third, the similarities/differences of the thirteen Book-5 textbooks were explained by the categories similar to but slightly different from the Book-1 and Book-3 results up to the fourth dimension. Finally, the results of the present correspondence analysis were graphically represented by (1) two-dimensional coordinate representation covering only Dim 1 and Dim 2 and (2) cluster-analysis-based dendrogram covering all the features of twelve dimensions specified. On the former, only Sunshine-5 and Seisoku-5 were distinctively different from the other textbooks, which proved the correspondence analysis map comprised of Dim 1 and Dim 2 to contribute to differentiating their inter- relationships, while on the latter, the same two textbooks were also distinctively different from the others. This could suggest the two textbooks should be closely examined from the qualitative perspective as well as the quantitative one.
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Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

The present paper set out to study how learner contributions can be shaped by teachers across question-answer sequences with a particular emphasis on interactional practices around RQs. Research on CIC (Walsh, 2013) has demonstrated how teachers’ appropriate interactional decisions can create learning space and opportunities for learner participation in the classroom. In line with what such research has offered to date, in this study teachers’ interactional practices before, during and after asking RQs were investigated with a conversation analytic methodology and categorized as either facilitative or obstructive for the elicitation of elaborate responses from learners, and consequently, for maximizing their participation opportunities. Facilitative practices identified in this study included asking RQs at TRPs, asking referential follow-up questions when a communicative breakdown emerges, teacher echoing of learner responses and paraphrasing the RQ already asked. On the other hand, practices including self-elaboration, self-answering, asking RQs in or after extended teacher turns, teacher interruptions and teacher turn completions were found to have obstructive effects on learners’ responses. These results can inform both research and practice in language teaching, assessment, and materials development. Similarly, the results imply the need for considering the development of CIC in language teachers as a key component both in pre- service and in-service teacher training programs. The present research built upon audio-recorded interactions among teachers and students in a COIL program. Yet, recent conversation analytic research has tended to incorporate video data in the analysis of classroom interaction as well. This enables researchers to attend to temporal and sequential organization of classroom interactions by teachers and learners (Mondada, 2016; Hall & Looney, 2019). Further research utilizing video data may shed more light on the way teacher turns may facilitate or impede opportunities for extended learner participation in the language classroom.
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Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Vol 18, No 12 (2019)

Similarly, research evidence indicates positive results of early bilingualism particularly on the cognitive development of young children (Poulin-Dubois, Blaye, Coutya, & Bialystok, 2011). For instance, it is worth mentioning that the research was conducted through a meta-analysis of 63 studies that examined the cognitive effects of bilingualism for children, and the results showed that early bilingual experience produces cognitive advantages for children in the areas of working memory, attention control, metalinguistic awareness, and abstract and symbolic representation (Adesope, Lavin, Thompson, & Ungerleider, 2010). More to the point, further research results showed that early bilingualism is associated with better results for planning and decision-making skills by bilingual children compared to monolingual peers (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009). These cognitive benefits of early bilingualism extend across the life span (Bialystok, Abutalebi, Bak, Burke, & Kroll, 2016). In addition, the same topic was investigated in a Korean-English context with 56 four-year-olds and it was found that bilingual children had a more operational network of executive controls for conflict resolution, better speed in attention processing and problem- than monolingual children (Yang, Yang, & Yang, 2011). Moreover, another study was carried out with bilingual and monolingual children in a Russian-Hebrew context and to compare certain cognitive skills (Leikin & Tovli, 2014). The results showed that balanced bilingualism is associated with the development of creativity in children’s problem-solving skills. These findings were consistent with a previous study conducted in a similar context, the results of which indicated that early bilingualism had a positive impact on children’s general and mathematical creativity (Daubert & Ramani, 2019).
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