Top PDF Children’s voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children subject to immigration control in England. August 2017

Children’s voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children subject to immigration control in England. August 2017

Children’s voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children subject to immigration control in England. August 2017

Migrant children’s self-esteem was often rooted in an individual confidence, which they were most able to realise when pursuing goals, such as education: “I love to go to school and study ‘cause it’s the only thing that takes my mind off like problems I have in my life. Once I’m in the classroom, that’s me. Like every other problem is not in my head at that precise moment ‘cause I have to focus on getting that done, doing that… So other stuff in my head… That’s my comfort zone” (Sigona & Hughes, 2012). Despite the fact that many migrant children demonstrated surprising levels of self-esteem, it is important to acknowledge that, particularly for those awaiting status determination, their immigration status remained a defining and crippling feature of their identity. In the words of an Afghan boy seeking asylum, “…at the moment I am not a complete person. Only when I have documents can I say that I will be complete” (Sigona & Hughes, 2012). His statement reflects the reality that children subject to immigration control have a different legal identity than other children, and particularly where the government prioritises immigration control over child welfare, are often granted fewer rights and entitlements in practice. This imposes important practical restrictions on their lives as well as their identities. As a young Iraqi boy poignantly expressed:
Show more

46 Read more

Children’s Voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children with mental health needs in England. October 2017

Children’s Voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children with mental health needs in England. October 2017

A mixed search strategy was adopted, which included both manual and automated methods. Automated methods involved entering combinations of relevant search terms into databases, digital libraries and search engines. Given the rapid nature of the review a ‘guided’ approach was adopted to conducting automated searches: rather than systematically reviewing all hits resulting from a certain combination of search terms, researchers scanned search results for relevant papers to review, and ran additional targeted searches when it appeared that all relevant papers had been retained. In addition, sources were accessed through bibliographies and works cited pages of shortlisted publications. Finally, particularly given the focused nature of the literature search, an independent expert was asked to identify any key papers that related to the subject.
Show more

30 Read more

Children’s voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children excluded from school and in alternative provision in England. November 2017

Children’s voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children excluded from school and in alternative provision in England. November 2017

‘My mum makes me come in [laughs]’. Female student in AP, aged 12 to 16 (Michael 2013) “I don't think you are born clever but if you study really hard… If your parents are more pushy then you are more clever.” Student at risk of exclusion, aged 11 to 16 (Sartory 2014) Other young people discussed some of the challenges that they had faced in their family lives. Some of the difficulties included: bereavement; witnessing and experiencing domestic violence and abuse; living with family members with mental health issues; and family members’ involvement with the police. Children related some of these experiences to the behaviour that they displayed at school:
Show more

39 Read more

Children’s voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children in detention in England. November 2017

Children’s voices : a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children in detention in England. November 2017

 Khan et al. (2010) was an audit review study carried out by the Centre for Mental Health, exploring mental health services for young people in secure justice settings. The study was initially excluded as most of the data was collected from (70) members of staff, rather than from young people themselves. Nonetheless, a couple of points of analysis from this study were ultimately judged to be useful and relevant during the write up of the report, and therefore the study was re-included. In addition to interviews with 70 members of staff, researchers sat in on multidisciplinary meetings and observed interactions between mental health teams and their colleagues and between staff and young people. A small (unspecified) number of young people and family members with experiences of mental health difficulties and the youth justice system were consulted throughout the review and invited to discuss the findings and contribute to service user experiences and perspectives.  User Voice, the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (2011), ‘Young People’s Views on
Show more

35 Read more

Objectivizing the Subjective: Measuring Subjective Wellbeing

Objectivizing the Subjective: Measuring Subjective Wellbeing

afflicts us all. Too much and for too long, we seemed to have surrendered personal excellence and community values in the mere accumulation of material things. Our Gross National Product, now, is over $800 billion dollars a year, but that Gross National Product—if we judge the United States of America by that—that Gross National Product counts air pollution and cigarette advertising, and ambulances to clear our highways of carnage. It counts special locks for our doors and the jails for the people who break them. It counts the destruction of the redwood and the loss of our natural wonder in chaotic sprawl. It counts napalm and counts nuclear warheads and armored cars for the police to fight the riots in our cities. It counts Whitman's rifle and Speck's knife, and the television programs that glorify violence in order to sell toys to our children. Yet the gross national product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education or the joy of their play. It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials. It measures neither our wit nor our courage, neither our wisdom nor our learning, neither our compassion nor our devotion to our country, it measures everything in short, except that which makes life worthwhile. And it can tell us everything about America except why we are proud that we are Americans.”
Show more

41 Read more

Principles for Children in Immigration Reform

Principles for Children in Immigration Reform

As our nation’s leaders move forward with the important task of reforming the federal immigration system it is critical that they consider the specific needs of children and youth. Children of immigrants currently comprise 1 in 4 of all children in the U.S. and represent the fastest growing segment of the child population. The number of unaccompanied immigrant children entering the U.S. has also reached record- setting numbers in recent years, with more than 14,000 children coming into the custody of the Office of Refugee Resettlement in fiscal year 2012.
Show more

9 Read more

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2017–2018

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2017–2018

Reviewers of available studies by the CDC, the WHO, and independent investigators have consistently found that timely oseltamivir treatment can reduce the duration of fever and illness symptoms and the risks of complications, including those resulting in hospitalization and death. A 2014 Cochrane meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oseltamivir or zanamivir overwhelmingly performed in outpatient adults and children with confirmed or suspected exposure to naturally occurring influenza revealed that the question of whether the complications of influenza are reduced by NAIs is not settled, so the balance between benefits and harms should be considered when making decisions about use of NAIs for either treatment or prophylaxis of influenza. Unfortunately, treatment efficacy has not yet been adequately evaluated among hospitalized children or children with comorbid conditions in randomized trials. Although limited prospective comparative data exist to date, multiple retrospective observational studies and meta-analyses have been conducted to determine the role of NAIs in treating severe influenza. Most experts support the use of NAIs to reduce complications and hospitalizations, although less agreement exists on the use of NAIs in low-risk populations in whom the benefits are likely modest.
Show more

22 Read more

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2016–2017

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2016–2017

an important factor in treatment decisions for pediatric patients who present with influenza-like illness. Antiviral treatment should be started as soon as possible after illness onset and should not be delayed while waiting for a definitive influenza test result, because early therapy provides the best outcomes. Influenza diagnostic tests vary by method, availability, processing time, sensitivity, and cost ( Table 7), all of which should be considered in making the best clinical judgment. Testing should be performed when timely results will be available to influence clinical management or infection control measures. Although decisions on treatment and infection control can be made on the basis of positive rapid antigen test results, negative results should not be used in a similar fashion because of the suboptimal sensitivity and potential for false-negative results. Positive results of rapid influenza tests are helpful, because they may reduce additional testing to identify the cause of the child’s influenza-like illness. Available FDA-approved rapid molecular assays are highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests performed in less than 20 minutes with the use of RNA detection. These molecular assays or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmation are preferred in hospitalized patients because they are more sensitive compared with antigen detection. Presumptive antiviral treatment in high-risk and hospitalized patients should be started before receiving rapid test, molecular assay, or PCR results. Immunofluorescence assays may be an alternative to PCR testing,
Show more

20 Read more

Children : introduction of 30 hours of free childcare in September 2017 (England)

Children : introduction of 30 hours of free childcare in September 2017 (England)

This new “extended entitlement” is due to be introduced from September 2017 across England, with some parents in pilot and “early innovator” areas benefitting earlier. In the 2015 Spending Review, the Government announced an extra £300 million to increase the national average funding rate for free childcare for 3 and 4 year olds to £4.88 (although the actual rate paid to providers will be determined by local authorities). In addition, £100 million of capital funding has been allocated to create 18,000 additional places.

18 Read more

Lesser or just different? Capturing children''s voices in consumer research

Lesser or just different? Capturing children''s voices in consumer research

Whilst the United Nations and Market Research Society have aided the description of a child they have, nonetheless, grouped different age groups and stages of child development under the sole umbrella of childhood. Within ‘childhood’ lie vast differences and capabilities and it should also be recognized that age alone should not be used as the sole determinant of ability or performance (Garbarino and Scott, 1992). In addition to using age as a defining criteria of childhood status, it is often found that children are also defined in terms of a comparison to adulthood. Here children are viewed as ‘incomplete humans’ (Jenks, 1996; Mackay, 1991; Skolnick, 1975) who ‘notice less, remember less, confuse fantasy with reality and are far more suggestible than adults’ (Garbarino and Scott, 1992, p13). The theory of socialisation has added to this viewpoint (Mackay, 1991) with children seen as adults in training and as such not yet finished.
Show more

20 Read more

Guidelines for the Evaluation of Sexual Abuse of Children: Subject Review

Guidelines for the Evaluation of Sexual Abuse of Children: Subject Review

evaluating the child, and the courts must establish a level of certainty about whether a child has been sexually abused. Table 2 provides suggested guide- lines for making the decision to report sexual abuse of children based on currently available information. The presence of semen, sperm, or acid phosphatase; a positive culture for gonorrhea; or a positive sero- logic test for syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection makes the diagnosis of sexual abuse a medical certainty, even in the absence of a positive history, when congenital forms of gonor- rhea, syphilis, and congenital or transfusion-acquired HIV (as well as needle sharing) are excluded.
Show more

8 Read more

Risk of Ionizing Radiation Exposure to Children: A Subject Review

Risk of Ionizing Radiation Exposure to Children: A Subject Review

ABSTRACT. Exposure of children to ionizing radiation most commonly is from the environment, chiefly through cosmic rays and radon, or from medical technology. Med- ical radiation exposure occurs during diagnosis, therapy, and dental radiography. More is known about the bio- logical effects of exposure to ionizing radiation than to nonionizing radiation from microwaves, radiowaves, and the electrical fields of other electrical appliances. This review applies only to sources of ionizing radiation and does not include the potential risks of indoor radon. The effects on children of ionizing radiation have been stud- ied from war activities and environmental accidents. Pro- jections are made from that data to help pediatricians evaluate risk from radiation when ordering radiographs.
Show more

5 Read more

A systematic review of wellbeing in children: a comparison of military and civilian families

A systematic review of wellbeing in children: a comparison of military and civilian families

This review was limited by several factors. First, no included study collected retrospective data on the child’s mental health. Second, most studies were cross-sectional (n = 8), school-based and reliant on child self-report. As a result, no data was collected regarding sample socio-eco- nomic status, deployment features (e.g. length of deploy- ment, date of deployment) or family characteristics (e.g. family history of mental health problems). Therefore, it is unclear whether child wellbeing worsened immedi- ately following parental deployment but later stabilised, if the elevated rates of child internalising and externalising problems are due to parental deployment or a compara- tively challenging environment. Moreover, the collection of data regarding parental military status and wellbeing outcomes via child self-report may be subject to bias and future studies should include parent and/or teacher report. Third, several studies used data from the same large-scale public-school surveys and must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings. Finally, all included studies were conducted in the US. Rates of mental health difficulties for civilian and military per- sonnel children differ between the US and other nations, and the duration of deployment of US. AF is often longer than in other countries [13, 50, 51]. Therefore, the impact of parent or sibling military service on child wellbeing may be greater compared to non-US contexts, although this relationship requires further exploration.
Show more

11 Read more

Being children : children’s voices on childhood

Being children : children’s voices on childhood

perceive of adults as being the ones who point out the limits of the children’s world and give care to children, both aspects indicate a protective stance towards children. Of course, adults work to protect children but given the dilemma outlined above, it is this protective stance, predominant in Western society (Stoecklin, 2013), that risks posing something of a threat for children in terms of their opportunities for participation. At this stage of our research, the dilemma presents itself related to the adults’ power to negate children’s participation in the family and to indicate to them the limits and borders of their world at different moments in their life. Under such a regime, children will not be able to see themselves as part of wider society, a society that ultimately reflects adults’ needs and interests. In order to overcome this dilemma it seems necessary to abandon the protective stance on children and approach them from an emancipatory and liberationist view. This is not, of course, to deny children their right to protection or provision as outlined in the UNCRC. Very clearly, they are not in positions that allow them to protect themselves from certain ills or to provide for themselves. The protective stance that is problematic in this context is the one that limits children’s participation in decision-making and other forms of social and political activity. It is worth noting, though, that they do not speak much about adults’ participation in society in the wider political sense. They accept, wittingly or otherwise, that adults have control and that they – children – can do little to alter the situation. It is stronger than this; in some cases they seem not to be aware that they might participate and contribute more fully than at present. This can only limit children’s status.
Show more

26 Read more

Children as Pawns of US Immigration Policy

Children as Pawns of US Immigration Policy

this manner, the separation of migrant children from their parents under the Trump administration’s zero tolerance policy likely aggravated existing childhood trauma and resulted in more severe physical and mental health consequences for separated children than family separations occurring under other circumstances. After visiting the detention facilities, the presi- dent of the American Academy of Pediatrics called the family separations child abuse. 43

16 Read more

Are Immigrants in Favour of Immigration? Evidence from England and Wales

Are Immigrants in Favour of Immigration? Evidence from England and Wales

The literature generally points towards the following reasons why immigrants (and natives) might be op- posed to future immigration. Firstly, immigration may be perceived to have a detrimental effect on the labour market prospects of natives and immigrants who are already in the host country. 5 This opposition might also differ between earlier and more recent immigrants, as well as natives, due to differences in their (perceived) substitutability in the labour market. If, for example, new immigrants are closer substitutes for recent immi- grants than for earlier immigrants or natives, opposition in this group might well be more substantial. 6 On the other hand, pro-immigration views may arise because respondents consider immigration to be beneficial for the host country’s economy or for their businesses (see, for example, Dustmann, Frattini & Preston, 2013; Hainmueller & Hiscox, 2007; Manacorda, Manning & Wadsworth, 2012; Ottaviano & Peri, 2012).
Show more

17 Read more

Age at Immigration and the Education Outcomes of Children

Age at Immigration and the Education Outcomes of Children

Their policy recommendations rest on the claim that the returns to social investments in children during the early years exceed those offered to school-age children, which in turn are greater than remedial training offered to adults: ―the most cost-effective strategy for strengthening the future American workforce,‖ the authors state, ―is to invest greater human and financial resources in the social and cognitive environments of children who are disadvantaged, beginning as early as possible. The greatest return derives from investing in disadvantaged children because their home environments are impoverished.‖ (Knudsen et al. 2006, p. 10161) Early experiences influence social, emotional, and cognitive capacities in a way that impacts upon adulthood because learning is hierarchical and because it progresses through a series of so-called ―sensitive‖ periods. The early development of skills influences the ability to master related skills and other skills, and ultimately determines competencies at later stages in life. ―Skills beget skills‖: capabilities at a particular point in life are based upon foundations set at earlier points. Learning is subject to sensitive periods during which specific skills can be mastered with greatest ease and productivity. Knudsen et al. (2006) make a point of citing language acquisition as illustrating this hierarchical process, subject to sensitive periods, highlighting second-language acquisition. ―Learning a second language as an adult requires far greater effort than learning it as a child, and the result is never as complete‖ (Knudsen et al. 2006, p. 10158). Knudsen et al. make note of Johnson and Newport (1989), a study of 46 Chinese and Korean immigrants who came to the United States as children and whose English proficiency was tested in adulthood after at least 10 years after arrival. In this study, Knudsen et al. claim that proficiency does not vary with age at arrival up to the age of 7 and deteriorates further with each subsequent year. By late adolescence, language proficiency is no better than for those who arrived as adults in their 20s and 30s.
Show more

28 Read more

Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales

Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales

The main immigration variable is country of birth, which is available in all the Census and the APS in the period that we study. However, the availability of data in terms of disaggregation by countries of origin varies within and across sources. We split the im- migrant population in groups that could be tracked both for the Census and APS over time. We grouped the immigrants in the following countries/regions of origin: Ireland, European Union member countries as of 2001, A8 accession countries, Rest of Europe, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Rest of Asia, Kenya, South Africa, Ghana, Rest of Africa, Jamaica, North America, Rest of America and Oceania. The A8 countries who gained accession in May 2004 are: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. We include the A2 countries (Bulgaria and Romania) and Cyprus and Malta in the Rest of Europe category.
Show more

23 Read more

The best interests of children in immigration law

The best interests of children in immigration law

In his judgment, HH Judge Anthony Sultan QC was very critical of the lack of evidence before the court regarding the child’s circumstances. He set out guidance on what a decision maker considering a case involving a child should expect to obtain from the parties involved to ensure the outcome is compliant with s55. He held: ‘it is not sufficient for the decision-maker to rely solely on information volunteered by a child’s parent, particularly if it is clear that that information is either incomplete or potentially slanted. In such cases, further information must be sought by the decision-maker including, in appropriate cases, interviews of the applicant and separate interviews of the child, questionnaires and seeking or soliciting the views, assessments and reports of other agencies such as local authority social services, CAFCAS or local children’s welfare groups. (para 24)
Show more

10 Read more

It’s Not All about the Economy Stupid! Immigration and Subjective Well-Being in England

It’s Not All about the Economy Stupid! Immigration and Subjective Well-Being in England

Notwithstanding the longitudinal nature of our analysis it is still perhaps instructive to discuss the potential for selection bias due to residential sorting on the part of natives or migrants to affect our estimates. When it comes to migrants, one could reasonably conjecture that settlement patterns of migrants and the subjective well-being of natives could both be partly driven by the overall prosperity of an area. Our main specification should mitigate against this possibility in that the effect of inflows of foreign-born individuals on subjective well-being is identified only when it changes for the same individual, and after controlling for a rich-set of time-varying factors at both the individual and at the neighbourhood level (e.g. English indices of deprivation are added as controls to our specification). A further possibility is if natives who are relatively more adversely affected by inflows of foreign-born individuals move to a residential area with less migrants, then this would undermine our ability to precisely estimate the effect of foreign-born individuals. As a means to gauge the likely importance of this factor, we can look at what factors are related with the probability of individuals moving in our sample. To facilitate this, using a special licence application we obtained the specific neighbourhood each individual in our sample resides in 6 at each interview date. We then derived a simple binary
Show more

36 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...

Related subjects