Top PDF Children and Young People’s Mental Health: time to deliver

Children and Young People’s Mental Health: time to deliver

Children and Young People’s Mental Health: time to deliver

The Education Policy Institute would also like to thank the following people and organisations who have helped with the research for this report: The Association of State Girls’ Schools; Peter Hindley, Royal College of Psychiatry; Max Davie, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health; Steve Mallen, MindED Trust; Helen Pye, South West Yorkshire NHS Partnership Foundation Trust; Paul Jenkins, Chief Executive, and Paul Burstow, Chair, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust; Professor Jim McManus, Director of Public Health, Hertfordshire County Council; Revd Dr Brendan McCarthy, National Adviser: Medical Ethics and Health and Social Care Policy, The Archbishops’ Council, The Church of England; Dr Sam Royston, Director of Policy and Research, The Children’s Society; Fergus Crowe, Chief Executive, Winston’s Wish; Andy Bell and Lorraine Khan, Centre for Mental Health; Max Birchwood, Professor of Youth Mental Health, Warwick Medical School; Catherine Roche, Chief Executive, Place2Be; the Anna Freud Family School; Duncan Law, Anna Freud Centre; Zoe Mulliez, Healthwatch England; Liz Maudslay and Pirandeep Dhillon, Association of Colleges; Laurie Oliva, Young Minds; Professor Isobel Heyman, Great Ormond Street Hospital; Tony Childs, HSCIC; Alan Wardle, NSPCC; Sarah Woodhouse, Turning Point; Dr Ann York CQC; Nerys Anthony, Director, Young People Health and Wellbeing, Catch 22; Barbara Rayment, Youth Access; Neil Ralph, Health Education England; Jeff Halperin, Camden and Islington Foundation Trust; Emma Wilson, CRN Mental Health Young Person’s Advisory Group; Sinem Cakir, Chief Executive, MAC UK; Laura Abbott, Chilypep; Janet Johnson, Oxfordshire County Council; Brigid Reid and colleagues, Barnsley Clinical Commissioning Group; Barbara Herts and Claire Hardy and colleagues, Essex County Council; Becky Anderton, Elaine Kirwan, Dr Anupam Dharma, Chris Spence and colleagues from Forward Thinking Birmingham; Rob Willoughby, Children’s Society; Lajla Johansson and colleagues; Oxfordshire Clinical Commissioning Group; Lynn Smith, Oxfordshire County Council; Dr Mina Fazel, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford; Mental Health in Society Training, especially Dr Elizabeth Artingstall, Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist, Dr Sile McDaid, Consultant Child & Adolescent Psychiatrist and Mrs Karen Burns, Chief Executive of Academy Trust and Executive Principal.
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Future in mind. Promoting, protecting and improving our children and young people s mental health and wellbeing

Future in mind. Promoting, protecting and improving our children and young people s mental health and wellbeing

7.10 As well as drawing on the local plan, we consider that the local offer should be guided by a national ambition that clearly sets out the expectations and requirements for securing the best possible outcomes for children and young people’s mental wellbeing. This will avoid the dangers of a postcode lottery while still ensuring a high degree of local flexibility. Over time, Government should consider whether elements of the national ambition should be placed on a more formal footing to ensure consistency of practice across the country. 7.11 Developing an effective local system of care and support requires access to diverse and flexible services. In adult social care, there is a now a statutory duty on local authorities to shape the market to ensure adequacy of local provision. While the situation is not precisely analogous in children and young people’s mental health our assessment is that those local areas exhibiting best practice have access to a range of providers, and, in particular, have harnessed the strength of the voluntary and community sector.
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Improving children and young people’s mental health services

Improving children and young people’s mental health services

health services. The Department believes that the ambitions set out in the Forward View and the Green Paper will help deliver a step-change in improvement in support to children and young people. The latter introduces a new approach in schools, including the creation of new mental health support teams. However, the balance between pace, funding and need to test approaches means that the Green Paper will only be rolled out to 20–25% of the country by 2023 (paragraphs 1.10, 1.12, 1.16 and 2.23, and Figure 4). 7 The government has not set out and costed what it must do to achieve Future in Mind in full. Future in Mind identified 49 proposals on themes such as resilience and early intervention, access and workforce development. However, the current programmes to take this forward will not deliver its proposals in full. Our analysis highlighted that the programmes do not have explicit objectives for some proposals, particularly those related to vulnerable groups. The government has not yet identified what actions and budget it will need to implement each proposal in Future in Mind, what progress it has made so far, and what further work is required to deliver it in full (paragraphs 1.11 to 1.13 and 2.2, Figures 4 and 5).
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Occupational practice in children and young people's mental health

Occupational practice in children and young people's mental health

If having appropriate leisure occupations could contribute towards good mental health, then the lack of something to do could be seen as a risk factor for poor mental health. The idea of leisure boredom as being a risk factor for adolescent risk behaviours was explored in a systematic review by the occupational therapists Wegner and Flisher (2009). Twenty-five studies were included in this systematic review; the majority of the studies were the results of self-report questionnaires. This could perhaps limit the depth of the data, but did enable large participant numbers to be considered. There were a number of findings; these included the idea that social control (such as parental restriction), gender and age influence potential leisure boredom. Young people whose parents took a greater interest in what they were doing had lower levels of boredom, whist those with greater parental monitoring were more likely to be bored. Overall, gender was not found to be a predictor of leisure boredom; it was found that gay youth who were more bored were less likely to engage in exercise and more likely to rebel. The context of leisure did impact on levels of leisure boredom including access to leisure resources and the availability of free time from school, homework or other chores. A number of personal factors also influenced leisure boredom such as personality, motivation and mood. Wegner and Flisher (2009) went on to evaluate whether there was a relationship between leisure boredom and risk behaviours. The most significant result was a positive correlation between boredom and substance use. The authors identified a number of limitations to their study, most notably the systematic review by only two people having the potential for selection bias. Nevertheless, this paper does offer some tentative support for the development of leisure occupations as a preventative intervention for alleviating boredom and mitigating for the risks of mental health and risk behaviours. What such a preventative leisure intervention could look like has yet to be developed, trialled and evaluated.
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Checking it out : a consultation with children and young people on a draft framework for children and young people’s mental health indicators : July 2010

Checking it out : a consultation with children and young people on a draft framework for children and young people’s mental health indicators : July 2010

provided some additional information on areas which were especially important to children and young people. It allowed for statements which were sometimes made by individuals to be endorsed by the wider group. The lively nature of this activity at the end of a busy session meant that data were produced which were not consistently reliable in terms of analysis. However, this prioritisation is referred to in the report where the number of stickers placed by children and young people make a point particularly relevant. It also enabled ideas to be shared and referred back to in a more participative way which is not possible when a researcher conducts a traditional interview. In addition, all the constructs from the draft framework such as ‘violence’ and ‘family members’ health’ were put on pre-prepared laminated ‘clouds’ and were used as flash cards towards the end of the session so that children and young people could add comments on areas which had not been discussed during the session. This approach was used in a limited numbers of groups and depended on the age group and the time available for further discussion. There were adaptations made for different groups. The large laminated poster was not used in sessions with groups of one or two young people or with the older participants. Straightforward discussion around the themes was used in these groups with the summary handout as a visual guide. For the very young children aged 3 to 4 years, a doll (‘Polly’) was used to help discussion (‘what does Polly like doing for fun?’) along with the laminated poster and clouds as in other sessions.
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Children and Young People s Mental Health Services Workforce Report for Local Authorities

Children and Young People s Mental Health Services Workforce Report for Local Authorities

• This bespoke report for Local Authorities outlines details of the second comprehensive national stocktake of the CYP MH workforce, which builds on a previous data collection performed by the NHS Benchmarking Network in 2016. Children and Young People’s mental health services are a high profile service area that has been identified for investment and development in a number of recent national strategies including the NHS Five Year Forward View (2014) and NHS Long Term Plan (2019). CYP MH was also discussed in a recent Government green paper “Transforming Children and Young People’s Mental Health” (2017) which outlined aspirations for an inclusive multi-agency portfolio of CYP MH services that would form the backbone of an expanded delivery model in future years. Much of this vision is articulated in the NHS Long Term Plan with workforce growth central to plans to expand CYP MH services in future.
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Improving the mental health of Looked After Young People: An exploration of mental health stigma.

Improving the mental health of Looked After Young People: An exploration of mental health stigma.

• To improve Looked After Young People’s mental health and wellbeing they need more information before moving into placements. This includes understanding what a foster placement or residential child care or a secure unit might be like. • Young people must have an opportunity to visit placements prior to moving in and spend time with potential carers. • All foster carers and residential workers must have training in supporting the mental health needs of young people.

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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

We would now like to ask for your consent to us contacting a teacher of your or your child’s choice who knows your child the best. We’ll send them an email with a secure link to a short online questionnaire that we’ll ask them to fill out and we’ll also send them a paper copy in the post. Their participation is invaluable and helps create a fuller picture of <child name>’s health and wellbeing. All information will remain confidential…

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Alternatives to inpatient mental health care for children and young people (Review)

Alternatives to inpatient mental health care for children and young people (Review)

A range of mental health services, in the community or in an outpatient setting, have been developed to manage young people with serious mental health problems who are at high risk of being admitted to an inpatient unit (DOH 2004; NSF 2004). These alternative services may prevent young people from developing a dependency on the hospital environment or from being stig- matised. In addition, they may facilitate the transfer of any ther- apeutic gains to the young person’s everyday environment, thus maximising the potential for sustaining improved health outcomes (Katz 2004) and for educational attainments to be less severely af- fected (Milin 2000). Examples include early intervention services in the community for young people with first episode psychosis (McGorry 2002), assertive outreach (McGorry 2002), dialectical behaviour therapy (Miller 2002), family therapy (Lock 2005) and multi-family therapy for anorexia nervosa (Scholz 2001). The way services are organised also differs. Service configurations include the provision of multi-agency integrated home care (DOH 2004), therapeutic units based in a day unit, or multi-agency services providing intensive specialist outpatient therapy for young people with severe mental health problems (Street 2003).
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

This approach has quality implications for other survey aims. For example, a survey of the resident population excludes those who were living in a care home (for example mental health units and young offender institutions). As discussed in this publication, people living in such settings are likely to have worse mental health than those living in private households, which may have an effect on the quality of the prevalence estimates produced by this survey. However, the proportion of the overall population not living in private households is so small that this would have little (or no significant) impact on the prevalence estimates for the disorders examined, as such the decision was made that the improvement in the survey’s ability to provide an estimate of the treatment gap justified this trade-off between these two survey outcomes. Details of the strengths and limitations of the results of this survey are detailed in full in the Survey Design and Methods Report.
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A systematic review of reviews of interventions to promote mental health and prevent mental health problems in children and young people

A systematic review of reviews of interventions to promote mental health and prevent mental health problems in children and young people

The search yielded seven systematic reviews of parenting programmes (Barlow et al., 2004; Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2003; Barlow & Parsons, 2003; Barnes & Freude-Lagevardi, 2003; Barlow & Stewart-Brown, 2000; Serketich & Dumas, 1996; Cedar & Levant, 1990). Five of these reviews examined the effectiveness of behavioural and other types of structured parenting programmes for all ages of children. Two reviews focused on early preventive interventions; one covered programmes aiming to enhance positive parental behaviours across four categories (sensitivity; support; representation; and two or more of these combined) (Bakermans- Kranenburg et al., 2003); the second covered programmes aiming to improve parenting, family functioning and young children’s mental health more generally (Barnes & Freude-Lagevardi, 2003). Two reviews were excluded: one summarising the literature on parenting support programmes because it
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Young people s help-seeking for mental health problems

Young people s help-seeking for mental health problems

Related to past experience is knowledge of what professional help-seeking is likely to involve. Many comments from the focus groups (Studies 11 & 12) were about not knowing what would happen in a professional help-seeking encounter; for example, ‘I wouldn’t know what to expect’ and ‘I don’t want people messing in my head’. In contrast, one girl reported her experience as, ‘The first time was scary. I was freaked because I didn’t know what would happen and what I would have to do, but it ended up ok. My counsellor was cool and it wasn’t weird like I thought’. Teachers also noted that, ‘You get loopy psychiatrists in films and television’ (Study 8), which encourages inaccurate stereotypes of mental health care. Accurate knowledge of what to expect from a help-seeking encounter is, therefore, important. It is also necessary for young people to have knowledge of available services, as well as what to expect from different types of services. This knowledge is part of what has been termed ‘mental health literacy’, which includes knowledge of symptoms and when it is necessary to seek help (Jorm et al., 1997). Not knowing where to seek professional help, the services available or how to contact them were barriers to help-seeking reported in Study 3. The converse of this, noted by students in Study 7, is that knowing where and how to go about seeking professional help facilitates help-seeking.
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Inpatient provision for children and young people with mental health problems. July 2017

Inpatient provision for children and young people with mental health problems. July 2017

demand on beds and provide care closer to young people's homes and communities. As the process of transforming child and adolescent mental health services continues, data on the consistent provision of these services should be collected and monitored at a national level. In addition, further training is needed for staff outside of specialist CAMHS, such as GPs, ambulance and A&E staff and the police who are likely to be first respondents to young people in crisis. New models of supporting young people in crisis such as street triage and crisis cafes should be replicated across the country.
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Are the Children Well? A Model and Recommendations for Promoting the Mental Wellness of the Nation s Young People

Are the Children Well? A Model and Recommendations for Promoting the Mental Wellness of the Nation s Young People

Health providers, such as pediatricians and nurses, have a unique relationship with young people and their families—one that often develops over time through well-child visits and annual check-ups. Because these professionals are perceived as authoritative and impartial, youth and parents may be more willing to share concerns about mood or behavior with them. Regular visits also allow doctors and nurses to assess and discuss risk factors for toxic stress, such as parental depression, or exposure to family violence. Given the right resources, pediatricians can also be leaders in promoting knowledge about trauma, children’s mental health, and the importance of early prevention. 196 Pediatricians are already trained to provide parents with ―anticipatory guidance,‖ information about particular behaviors that children are likely to exhibit as they get older. In many (particularly, smaller) communities which lack evidence-based parenting programs, pediatricians are often the only source of professional parenting advice that is available to caregivers. The American Academy of Pediatricians (AAP) has detailed curricula to guide pediatricians in their interactions with parents. 197 They emphasize positive, age-appropriate parenting, to create a safe and caring home environment and minimize children’s exposure to harmful experiences. As children grow older, the AAP recommends that pediatricians continue to provide young people and their caregivers with information about common challenges, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, bullying, and dating violence, as well as drug and alcohol refusal skills. 198
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Care in mind : improving the mental health of children and young people in state care in Scotland

Care in mind : improving the mental health of children and young people in state care in Scotland

What is now emerging, however, is a much greater awareness of mental health needs, and an openness to a mental health approach, as opposed to a focus on mental illness, among social work personnel. The training of direct care workers (residential or foster care) has also been identified as a central issue in improving the mental health of children looked after in residential and foster care (Chetwynd 1999; Polnay & Ward 2000; Public Health Institute of Scotland, 2003; Robinson et. al., 1999). The openness to, and indeed ‘hunger’ for, training should give comfort to mental health staff that they themselves do not need to take on all the responsibility for improving the emotional well-being of looked after children (Hatfield et al. 1996). As one social services manager involved in a pilot service put it, ‘we are not suggesting that there is a need for a psychiatrist at the foot of every child’s bed’! What is required is training and support for direct care staff. Consultancy services which involve shared
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The Mental Health Needs of Homeless Young People Bright Futures:Working with Vulnerable Young People

The Mental Health Needs of Homeless Young People Bright Futures:Working with Vulnerable Young People

Youth homelessness should be seen as a ‘process’ rather than a specific ‘endpoint’ (Cauce et al., 2000).‘Housing pathways’ can illustrate this, by defining the progress over time of an individual or household through the housing system in generalised terms. A principal strength of this perspective is that homeless episodes can be related to each other and to housing circumstances before and after (Cauce et al., 2000). The incidence of institutional living tends to increase with the lengthening of homeless experience, probably because of the difficulties associated with sustaining ‘unofficial’ homelessness (Fitzpatrick and Clapham, 1999). When looking at ‘housing pathways’, questions are raised. For example, are looked after children more prone to homelessness and mental health problems because of their difficult personal histories or because of the structures not being in place to adequately support them when they leave care? Trends can also be identified, such as girls’ histories are more often marked by sexual abuse and victimisation, and boys’ histories by physical abuse and assault (Cauce et al., 2000). This gender-related trend follows through into street
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Mental Health Service Models for Young People

Mental Health Service Models for Young People

2016/17, Place2Be worked directly with 282 schools and provided training to a further 100 schools. Place2Be focuses on early intervention, providing a variety of MH support to help CYP deal with life challenges and build resilience. Place2Be has enlisted over 1000 volunteers on placement, most of whom are college/university students working towards a MH qualification. Volunteers of placement deliver counselling sessions for children in schools supervised by a Place2Be manager who oversees group counselling sessions and self-referral sessions for pupils along with support for teachers and parents. 32 These managers use tablets to collect data and feedback
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Young People s. Mental Health ServicesSe. RDaSH leading the way with care

Young People s. Mental Health ServicesSe. RDaSH leading the way with care

The playground problem explores the topic of anxiety. Ruby feels anxious about her show and tell presentation. But when she discovers that Joey is having a hard time at lunch, it’s up to Ruby to use her SEN Superpowers to cheer him up. Will it help ease her own anxiety too?

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School nurses' perspectives on managing mental health problems in children and young people

School nurses' perspectives on managing mental health problems in children and young people

opportunities for secondments between organisations, CAMHS staff spending time in schools (cf. a participant’s suggestion that school nurses shadow CAMHS staff) and informal meetings, networking and team building. By establishing joint training initiatives, the building of good relationships could easily be coupled with the earlier call to improve education and training. Pettitt (2003) notes that joint training involving CAMHS and school staff works especially well in relation to health promotion and early intervention. Moreover, to alleviate interprofessional mistrust, joint training can also focus on systemic issues such as the differing roles and expertise of staff members, lines of communication, the referral process, confidentiality and consent.
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Taking a positive, holistic approach to the mental and emotional health and well being of children and young people

Taking a positive, holistic approach to the mental and emotional health and well being of children and young people

Many involved with mental health work are starting to ‘unpack’ the idea of mental health using non-specialist, positive and inclusive terms and to focus on people’s positive capacities rather than their perceived deficits. Recent definitions of mental health have focused on positive characteristics such as: resilience and an inner sense of coherence; the ability to make relationships, to attach to others and to love; the ability to think clearly including about emotional matters; the ability to manage the emotions successfully and appropriately; the ability to be sensitive to one’s own and other’s emotions; and the capacity to have an accurate self concept and high self-esteem. 6 7 2 This is a useful way forward when working
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