them to maintain their origins while assimilating into American culture. The various cultures and traditions of the East and the West have tested the capability and flexibility of the doctrines of Buddhism. Traditional Asian Buddhists still emphasize the need to follow Buddha’s original principles and rules as the key to establish and to protect Buddhist practice. In the UnitedStates, Buddhism has evolved into a popular practice for Americans. Western teachers have taken liberally from different Buddhist traditions including gender equality, simple rituals, and focusing on daily life. In other words, American Buddhists have utilized and perceived Buddhism as a living culture with practical methods that can be applied to solve actual problems in many fields of human life, including psychology, philosophy, morality, science, and art. To adopt local culture in order to transform itself into a model to fit in with a new environment enabled Buddhism to become the fourth greatest religion in the world. Today, regarding Buddhism as solely being something solely for Asian immigrants is long gone. Instead, continually evolving Buddhist practices that contain American culture serve the needs of Americans. Buddhist centers have been founded by American-convert Buddhists. Lectures are given in English. Buddhist literature blossoms in the academic community. And, more and more Americans have sought to develop their Buddhist identities. Studying Buddhism is a part of learning Asian culture and traditions.
This study uses Q methodology to examine what are the mainland Chinese student’s personal perspectives toward the value of getting a degree in the UnitedStates. Ten mainland Chinese students, who have studied in the UnitedStates at a land grant university in South for at least one year, were invited as volunteers for this research. These volunteers each sorted 73 statements based on their perception of what is most important to most not important for them to get a degree in the UnitedStates. These volunteers were asked to sort the statements using a ranking system of (+6) most impacted my decision through (-6) least impacted my decision. In addition to the sort, a Q-sort interview protocol and a post Q-sort questionnaire for students were also used to collect demographic data from the volunteers. All (100 %) of the ten volunteers completed the Q-sort interview protocol and the post Q-sort questionnaire for students. However, two (20%) of the volunteers skipped several questions in their Q-sort questionnaires. As a result of this study, three groups of the mainland Chinese students were recognized and these three groups were described as: job & education group, education group and migration group.
From this section one can see that, if the CCP stresses the importance o f China’s territorial integrity, its strategy to call for victim complex and crisis consciousness will be successful, yet not all Chinese IR scholars equally share the concerns about the strengthening o f the US-Japan alliance. There is an ongoing debate among Chinese IR scholars about how worried China should be and what countermeasures are required to cope with adjustments in the alliance.304 Different groups o f IR scholars defend China’s security in different degrees o f nationalist tone. Once again one could see the different interpretation approaches o f Chinese IR scholars to the CCP’s party line. On the Japan- US security co-operation, personal advisers’ views are the most radical and emotional yet ambiguous and inconsistent, which shows that the CCP has not found a clear strategy towards the Japan-US security alliance. Institutional advisers voice their support for the party line and denounce Japanese jingoism and the US conspiracy as well, though their views are not as emotional and radical as that o f personal advisers. Official intellectuals try to address this issue in a balanced way from theoretical perspectives, are willing to understand the Japan-US security alliance from a Japanese perspective and even try to call on the Chinese to put history behind them and acknowledge Japan’s aspiration for more international responsibilities. To some degree they even appreciate the positive role o f the US in checking Japanese jingoism. Liberals propose to regard Japan-China relations in a new way yet they are also firm defenders o f China’s territory.
second were those whose parents initiated the idea. The latter type suggests Confucian cultural roles of child and parent are largely followed. Sixty-five percent of students in this study acknowledged that their college decision was ultimately made by their parents (Bodycott & Lai, 2011). The degree to which Chinese parents influence their child’s decision to study in Hong Kong is related to their wealth, personal education, and Confucian culture (Bodycott & Lai, 2011). Parents who were more supportive of their child’s choices were more often from wealthier cities or had personal experience studying internationally themselves. Although some parents initiated or took subtle control of the decision-making process, others overtly shaped and manipulated the aspirations of their child according to gender stereotypes and the longer-term needs and values of the family (Bodycott & Lai, 2011). Such practices are consistent with Confucian traditions and the values associated with filial piety (Deutsch, 2006). “Filial piety," a key element of Confucianism is defined as "honoring of ancestors and obedience to, respect for, and financial support of parents" (Hofstede & Bond, 1988, p. 15). Although students may disagree with their parents’ decision-making factors related to study abroad, in many mainland families it may ultimately be the parents’ decision that will be upheld.
On appeal, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit added to the ambiguity surrounding U.S. courts’ jurisdiction over China-based entities. It ruled the lower court did not have general jurisdiction over the banks, including the BOC, because the banks’ primary operations were based in China. However, it upheld the judge’s authority to issue a prejudgment asset freeze on the accounts involved in the case, despite a lack of jurisdiction. The decision prompted a strong reaction from the Chinese government, whose embassy in Washington, DC, submitted a letter to the State Department on May 15, 2013, complaining about U.S. courts serving subpoenas and issuing asset freezes on U.S. branches of Chinese banks. In the letter, the Chinese government said it “firmly objects to such wrongful acts that disrespect China’s sovereignty and laws, and reserves the right to take equivalent actions.” 24
Since China releases few details on its foreign assistance, observers must carefully watch public announcements. For instance, the New York Times reported that China doubled its sub-Saharan African foreign aid lending based on President Hu Jintao’s 2012 speech, where he pledged $20 billion in funds to be distributed over the following three years for infrastructural and agricultural needs. In that speech, Jintao also announced that his country would mount programs to increase training and education opportunities for aspiring sub-Saharan Africa leaders, improve drinking water, and protect forests—all of which is an interesting foreign aid twist for China. Of course, the normal trade concessions are attached to any recipient country. All Chinese aid monies
this small number of commercial mariners for the support of our armed forces and our economic security. By comparison, China now has an active workforce of 500,000 commercial mariners, nearly fifty times as many as the UnitedStates. (See page 5, China’s Merchant Marine.) In the absence of a sufficiently large fleet and a sufficient labor pool of qualified mariners, our defense needs will not be met. A potential shortage of senior level ship’s officers would hit operational preparedness particularly hard. Shortage in personnel at all levels, but particularly at the Master’s and Chief Engineer’s level, could be disastrous if a national emergency required full crewing of the existing vessels that are in commercial service. The same scenario applies to the fleet of merchant vessels that are held in reserve by the U.S. Maritime Administration and the Department of the Navy. The Jones Act states that:
The author carried out a literature review on the organization of resources donated by Hanban to the Confucius Institutes in the UnitedStates and found no scholarly communications on this subject. It is simple because the research subject is new and it has no established scholarly communications yet. This pioneering research on Confucius Institute book donation is a contribution of empirical and original research to the literature of the concerned subject.
In order to obtain an adequate sample of Chinese female international students, varied sampling techniques were used. Most participants were recruited via email list serves of various Chinese student unions, international student offices, or directly via the Quatrics survey link posted on social network websites. Thus, some of the participants were obtained via “snowball sampling”, and participated in the study when their friends invited them or shared the link on the social network websites. Thus, the sample was not random and it is difficult to know under what circumstances the participants decided to complete the online survey. Also, during the data collection process, about 48% of the participants dropped out before completing the survey. It is possible that some of the participants might not have had enough time to complete the entire survey, and the online survey site would have shut down if participants took too long to respond. It is also possible that some participants might have felt distressed when responding to the Acculturation scale (especially the items in the Marginalization subscale) given that a significant number dropped out of the study as they were responding to these items. None of these methodological considerations are measurable. Consequently, unknowable sample biases may have influenced the outcome of the current study.
2012:817). And this conclusion serves to show that the differences in regional economies and societies cannot be assumed based on the overarching tendencies in the nation’s economy. In contrast, the Bean Site (as shown in Image 3) had a much lower porcelain percentage than any of the others, including the Lake Innes sites which were the locations of various labourers. And the spread of porcelain between the Lake Innes sites shows differentiation even between the labourers. As mentioned in the Methods portion of this paper, the Bean Site was host to the Bean Parsonage, which holds another type of status in and of itself. In summation, “a minister of the Anglican Church, whatever the circumstances of his personal finances, would have been perceived to have had a respectable status wholly removed” from the status of his or any other state owner’s servants (Lawrence et al. 2009:74). The Beans were an influential household in their society, but their status as a parsonage lead to displays of wealth being showcased in ways not reflected in physical goods, specifically Chinese porcelain.
However, one needs to be cautious about the extent to which CLT is comparable to Mandarin teachers ’ cultural scripts of teaching. In fact, some studies have provided evidence that people from regions with a strong influence of Confucius philosophy often have different views toward language learning and teaching or schooling in general, in comparison to people in the West (Li, 2002, 2006; Hu, 2002; Moloney & Hu, 2015). For example, Confucian philosophy to schooling prioritizes the concept of benevolence, which “ consists of control over oneself in conformity with the rules of propriety ” (Zhao & Guo, 1990, cited in Li, 2002, p. 157). Schools are viewed as places for knowledge and discipline, and classroom pedagogies are more teacher-centered and text-bounded as teachers and texts are viewed as the authority of knowledge. In a study examining the pedagogical import of CLT-based English education reform in China in the late 1980s, Hu (2002) argues that the different ways in which literacy teaching, or education in general is perceived in the East and the West might account for the poten- tial cultural resistance of local English teachers and students during the reform. To be more specific, learning and teaching in Chinese culture has long been seen as a serious undertaking because in the Confucian tradition, education is the means through which one can achieve upward mobility regardless of one ’ s socioeconomic status. The idea of learning as an entertaining experience as emphasized in CLT is antithetical to Chinese view of education. In addition, Chinese education puts much emphasis on the moral aspects of learning, which encourage collective learning from the socially approved figures (i.e., teachers) but discourage individual self-expression or needs, which are prioritized in CLT. Since teachers are the models for their students to imitate, both teachers and students might not be comfortable with pedagogical practices that down- play teachers’ roles and responsibilities and elevate students’ status in class. Finally, Chinese emphasis on accurate interpretation and learning of texts is also in contrast with CLT ’ s emphasis on effectiveness of communication. To sum up, Hu (2002) argues that CLT and traditional Chinese education value different teaching and learning qualities and it is dangerous for policy-makers to assume that a successful pedagogy in one context will also be successful in another context.
represents a new epoch of Chinese immigration to the UnitedStates after a nearly 80 year ban or near ban. Second, since the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949, China closed the door to Western Countries for more than 30 years. During the period between 1949 and 1978, Chinese international migration policy was one-sided towards socialist countries at the core of the former Soviet Union and was carried out on a small scale. The prohibition of exiting from China acted as a negative determinant of Chinese American migration. In 1978, China launched the new policy on social and economic reforms and opened the door to all countries. The year of 1978 can be regarded as the dividing line of Chinese international policy from “closed” to “open”. Therefore, the dramatic increase of Chinese immigration is not only caused by the Amendments of the U.S. immigration laws, but also by the policy reforms in China. The period between 1980 and 2002 is relatively stable for studying the effect of the U.S. immigration laws without the interruption of policy changes in the origin country.
Although the field of music therapy in China continues to grow, a major conflict exists within the profession between the Chinese perspective and the U.S. model. Some music therapy professionals have attempted to establish a Chinese model of music therapy, including those practitioners who have incorporated music with TCM treatment methods and invented the YZJ machine. Another treatment model that has emerged in response to the desire to establish a Chinese model of music therapy is vibro-acoustic therapy, which is defined as a treatment method that uses auditory stimuli and physical vibration to improve perception of music and subsequently, the patient will achieve physiological and psychological outcomes. In this type of intervention, pre-recorded music and massage chairs are used as the primary therapeutic tools (Chinese Music Therapy Net, 2008; Chinese Vibro-acoustic Music Therapy Center, 2014). Vibro-acoustic therapy appears to be a continuum of the YZJ machine, with some commonalities existing between these treatment models. On a theoretical level, Vibro-acoustic therapy
Our results decomposed by time period (Table 3) show that prior to the financial crisis (2003- 2007) for the full sample Chinese FDI was not attracted by strategic asset rich states (but rather by low tax, less unionization, and higher wages in US states) whereas after the crisis strategic assets (as well as market size, unemployment and trade links), were important (Table 3). The composite SAS variable is statistically significant (5% level) for the full sample in the 2008-2011 period alone. We take this as support for Hypothesis 2, namely that aggressive strategic asset seeking acquisitions have intensified in the wake of the global financial crisis. Furthermore, it has been argued (stable) host economy economic conditions increase investment propensity (Brouthers, 2002). We also note the impact of state fiscal health (through estimation of GSP growth and unemployment levels) shows Chinese investment is driven to locate in economically distressed locations. This behavior intensified in the post-crisis period. These findings are also generally consistent with the idea that aggressive strategic asset seeking is becoming a more important motivation in response to lower priced assets.
A salient fact revealed by my interviews with parishioners at the Chinese Redeemer Church of Greater Boston is that a great many people go to church chiefly for the benefit of their children. More specifically, Chinese American parents encourage their children to go to Chinese church because they believe the message conveyed is family oriented, which conforms to Chinese values. “Going to a Christian church is good,” said a mother. “If they [children] accept the teachings in the Bible, they will know how to be loyal to their parents.” On the church’s side, the preacher carefully negotiates certain messages in the Bible that seem to conflict with Chinese values. For example, when in the course of his sermon given at Sunday worship the preacher of the Chinese Redeemer Church of Greater Boston came to Luke 14:26, “If anyone comes to me without hating his father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters, and even his own life, he cannot be my disciple,” he alluded to the Chinese idea of yi-shaio-tsuo-chung (meaning that at the highest level filial piety is transformed into devo- tion to one’s nation) to explain why Jesus had said this. “Jesus does not mean that we do not have to be filial to our parents. [He means] just like yi-shaio-tsuo-chung: only if you make Jesus the first priority in your life can you know how to be filial to your parents. Thus parents expect that church attendance will explicitly convey Christianity and implicitly pass on “Chineseness,” namely some selected traditional values, to their children. One of my informants put it this way: “If the children go to the church, they will learn more about renqing shihgu [interpersonal behavior], because church is a place full of reqingwei [human feeling].” The former term refers to “social norms and moral obligations” while the latter one means the “basic emotional responses of an individual” (Yan, 1996).
Identity-formation has long been a focus of interest for sociologists in the field of immigration studies. It often becomes an essential tool that immigrants/migrants almost desperately hold onto, as they combat the hardship as well as the discrimination that usually come their way. The students we are studying here are no exception in this regard, for whereas only a relatively few articles in this nominally Christian publication deal directly with matters of religious faith, the related issue of the search for identity crops up over and over again in the form of articles related to such topics as discrimination; the viability, or lack thereof, of a dual national allegiance; and the cultural duties that Chinese students in America must fulfill. For example in the April 1926 issue (vol. 1, no. 6), C. J. Ho analyzes the sense of inferiority he believes to be widespread among his fellow students studying abroad. In his view China was sending students out to study in America only because it had been defeated and indeed humiliated by the West in the course of modern history, and thus the students were in search of things their own culture couldn’t give them, from technological (and thereby military) advances to democratic forms of
One interviewee explained her experience. She said that she took a class with an American student last semester in which they often exchanged ideas about the project; they worked as a team. The next semester they selected the same class again. At the first day of the class she excitedly greeted him, as people normally do in China among classmates, but to her surprise, the American classmate reluctantly responded to her greeting and seems to have felt offended. It was so embarrassing because, as she described, “It seems to others that I am a silly girl who falls in love with him and is ignored!" She continued, "In the UnitedStates, even though you have been a classmate with an American for ten years, the relationship between you and him/her probably would stay in the level of 'Hi', or 'How are you' forever."
Accounting failures of Chinese companies have consequences. Ferguson indicated that, “In the U.S. alone, 67 of these China-based issuers have either been delisted from U.S. securities exchanges or „gone dark,‟ meaning they are no longer filing current reports with our SEC.” For China to open itself to foreign regulators would be against its nationalism and xenophobia. Gillis (2012) believes “…it is China‟s intent to end the use of overseas stock markets by Chinese companies.” China permitted companies to go overseas for capital but will be able to generate growth capital domestically in the future. The Chinese IPO market in the U.S. is already dead. If the SEC delists companies with Chinese auditors, then the companies likely will move to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange or go private. Gillis indicates that “many U.S. listed Chinese companies have already gone private, some with the financial backing of the State Council‟s China Development Bank.” Meanwhile, it will take some time for the SEC to remove practice rights from Chinese firms. The scrutiny by the SEC of reverse mergers also means that Chinese firms will look for funding domestically, especially in Chinese OTC markets (Myles 2011). The next section discusses directions for future research.