environmental legislation has been predicated on the basis of scientic evidence and ethical values (Turner and Daily, 2008). However, it is now widely acknowledged that the range of economic services that ecological systems provide, including river ecosystems, contribute signicantly to human welfare and should form a ma- terial consideration in policy making (Gopal, 2016). Thus, given the legislative requirements to protect the environment, environmental agencies have sought methodologies that can eectively and eciently maximize ecological returns given associated costs and benets. In response, various studies have been undertaken to devise more eective policy responses (MEA, 2005; TEEB, 2008; NEA, 2011; Rounsevell et al., 2018). A key feature of these studies has been the development of frameworks in which economic valuation of ecosystem services is undertaken so as to identify specic ecosystem services contributing to human well-being (Bateman et al., 2011). In principal, what this means is that information about ecosystem services needs to be col- lected and analyzed so that cost benets analysis (CBA) of policy options can be carried out by government agencies when formulating and administering environmental policy (Johnston and Rosenberger, 2010). For instance, the WFD specically requires CBA in catchment management plans in order to direct an ecient allocation of resources for environmental protection (Hanley et al., 2006). However, as noted by Logar et al. (2019) actual examples of CBA for river restoration projects, such as barrier removal, are limited. The lack of actual CBA studies is not due to any lack of benet estimates for river restoration. Instead, Logar et al. (2019), who cite only a handful of existing CBA studies published in the literature, argue it is the lack of cost data for river restoration that is the limiting factor. We add to this literature by focusing on a study site for which economic cost and benet information as well as detailed sh population data are available. Specically, in this paper, we investigate how to use ecosystem service information about a river to eciently target barriermitigationactions in order to optimize the delivery of river ecosystem services. To identify an ecient allocation of resources, we develop a bioeconomicmodel that simultaneously identies how to max- imize increases in sh species richness and abundance given available funds as well as estimate the economic benets derived from improvements in these two biophysical attributes. 2 By subsequently combining costs
significant method of reproduction in undisturbed pasture and was therefore the weed biology modelled here. A more complex model could include reproduction from root buds and seeds, and then include tillage or pasture renovation as part of the farming activities. The resulting model would provide a more complete picture of the possible impacts of Californian thistle. One of the judgements made in developing this model was the variables for representing farmers’ decisions. As indicated above, some modelling has represented weed management decisions as a menu of choices from which the farmer selects. In such cases, farmers may choose to spray herbicide at one or two different rates per hectare, rather than choosing any rate deemed sufficient to do the job. In the present model, the decision variable was the amount of herbicide to be sprayed per hectare. This amount was then translated into the amount of herbicide applied per 1000 shoots to calculate the dose that shoots received. This method allowed the decision variable to be realistic from a farmer perspective – how much herbicide should be sprayed on this area? – while also accurate from a toxicology perspective – how will weeds respond to this dose of herbicide? The other decision variable in the model was the proportion of defoliation undertaken. Again, this variable was judged to be a relatively realistic analogue for a farmer’s decision. Early work with the model treated the defoliation decision as the amount of biomass removed. While proportion of defoliation and amount of biomass removed are directly related to each other, the former is more intuitively and descriptively appealing. These were judgements made in designing this model, and future work could consider other ways of representing these same control methods.
Structurally O’Hanley (2011), Kuby et al. (2005), Zheng et al. (2009) and Zheng and Hobbs (2013) formulate their optimization models as mixed integer linear programs (MILPs), in which the primary decision variables are binary to indicate whether any particular barrier should be repaired/removed or not. In order to maintain linearity of the models, these studies all assume that passability is also binary (i.e., barriers are either completely impassable or passable, 0 and 1, respectively), thus directly equating to decisions about barrier repair/removal. In contrast, O’Hanley and Tomberlin (2005) adopt the more general view, as done in Cote et al. (2009), Diebel et al. (2014) and McKay et al. (2013), that barriers may be partially passable (i.e., anywhere in the range 0 to 1). In the context of diadromous fish, access to river habitat above a barrier is taken (assuming barriers are independent) as the product of all downstream barrier passability values. Unfortunately, multiplying barrier passabilities introduces nonlinear interactions among the decision variables. This normally makes such optimization models hard to solve. O’Hanley and Tomberlin (2005) resort to the use of dynamic programming (DP) and heuristic methods. This chapter presents an efficient linear model for optimizingriverbarrier repair and removal decisions in order to maximize upstream habitat gains for migratory fish. Specifically, the Fish Passage Barrier Removal Problem (FPBRP) model proposed by O’Hanley and Tomberlin (2005) is reformulated as a MILP based on the newly proposed technique of forming probability chains to evaluate cumulative passability terms (O’Hanley et al., 2013a). The benefits of a linear model are twofold. First, it allows FPBRP to be coded using high-level algebraic modeling languages such as OPL, AMPL or GAMS and subsequently be solved using off-the-shelf optimization software solvers like CPLEX and GUROBI. Second, the increased efficiency and scalability of the model, in comparison to DP, allows far larger problems to be solved optimally.
A mathematical understanding of actions and time is crucial to designing and an- alyzing intelligent agents. We sought to generalize the formalization of actions, so that several important properties are obtained. These include (a) the actions be- ing of dierent durations, (b) the actions being performed concurrently by dierent agents, (c) the underlying notion of time being variously continuous or discrete, and (d) the underlying notion of time allowing branching into the future. We began with essentially uninterpreted moments and actions, dened the core notion of intension, and then stated coherence constraints that capture the intuitive properties of actions in dierent cases of interest. Our framework can thus serve as an underpinning for further research on notions such as intentions and know-how. Previous research on these concepts has been shackled by poor models of time and action, thereby leading to unnecessarily restricted or spurious results.
The study focused on the application of Flood Routing Models for Flood Mi- tigation in Orashi River, South-East Nigeria. Flood data were collected for the study area and subjected to statistical analysis. Three flood Routingmodels were comparatively applied including Muskingum model, Level Pool model and Modified Pul’s model. Assumed routing period of 2.3 hours which helped to check excessive flood at the downstream section of the river was used. Also a dimensionless weighting factor of 0.15 was also adopted. Muskingum model and Level Pool model which represent linear relationship between measured outflow and predicted outflow for specified inflow and time change of one hour gave high and positive values of coefficients of correlations of 0.9769 and 0.9732 respectively. The Modified Pul’s model which also represents a linear relationship between measured outflow and predicted outflow for specified inflow and a time change for one hour showed the highest coefficient of corre- lation of 0.9984 and lowest standard error of 0.1749. Though, flood models of the Muskingum method and Level Pool method exhibited good correlation, their prediction differed significantly with the corresponding models of original data sets because of high standard error and thus not adequate for field application in similar rivers. A design application was carried out using the Modified Pul’s model. The values obtained for routed storage capacity was 348 m 3 while the designed capacity was 354 m 3 . It is recommended that
Our language captures the essential properties of actions and time that are of interest. This paper focuses on the model-theoretic aspects of actions. As explained above, we would like to be able to study some of the interesting properties of actions in a branching-time framework where the agents act concurrently. We, of course, need a formal language in order to articulate the key properties of our framework. The language CTL* is one of the most well-known of the branching-time temporal logic languages. For many applications in traditional logics of programs, sublanguages of CTL* are used because they are computationally more tractable. The design of appropriate sublanguages is indeed very important, but cannot precede a clear understanding of the underlying semantics. Here we select CTL* because it is general and well-known, and therefore a good starting point. To simplify or language, we do not include past-directed operators, although they can be added if necessary.
companies may have servers that only support one or two languages, and without guidance, it can be easy to choose the wrong one. The benefit to having a web design team that also hosts sites is that they’re already setup for their specific programming language, eliminating the client’s need for guesswork. The website is designed and tested on the same software that will host the finished live site.
q How much room do you have? References come in a wide variety of packages, including metal cans, plastic packages (DIP, SOIC, SOT) and very small packages, including the LT6660 in a 2mm × 2mm DFN. There is a widely held view that references in larger package sizes have less error due to mechanical stress than smaller packages. While it is true that some references may give better performance in larger packages, there is evidence that suggests performance difference has little to do directly with the package size. It is more likely that because smaller dice are used for products that are offered in smaller packages, some performance tradeoffs must be made to fit the circuit on the die. Usually, the package’s mounting method makes a more significant performance difference than the actual package—careful attention to mounting methods and locations can maximize performance. Also, devices with smaller footprints can show reduced stress when a PCB bends compared to devices with larger footprints. This is discussed in detail in application note AN82, “Understanding and Applying Voltage References,” available from Linear Technology.
Public Rehabilitation Agencies are currently struggling with how to provide vocational rehabilitation services in a in a manner that promotes and requires participant self-determination and control of both the decision making process and the use service dollars. At the root of the struggle are the frequently held assumptions or a facsimile of the following: That responsible stewardship of public funds demands funds are controlled by the public agency. If participants are going to receive quality services then those services need to be directed and controlled by individual(s) with professional expertise. The recipients of services require scrutiny prior to being trusted by professionals. This is manifested by how few states allow self reporting to be the sole source required for eligibility determination. These assumptions create a dichotomy for many public rehabilitation agencies. When current policies and procedures reflect the above underlying assumptions then implementing a service that facilitates participant self-
For companies with unique needs, our InfiniTime line allows data to be stored locally and securely. Some businesses with high sensitivity to breaches or intrusion are less inclined to store their information in the cloud, so installed systems provides the benefits of our software as service model while meeting the needs of companies with additional regulatory and security needs.
While the terms defined above may vary from publisher to publisher and from library to library, they are the terms are used to catalog and organize ESL books at the NCPDC. In addition to those types defined, the NCPDC collection includes a great number of teacher reference books that describe Second Language Acquisition research, explain theory, suggest learning strategies or activities and provide information on how to adapt textbooks.
technological enhancements that provide clients with more efficient processes and a number of product offerings to choose from. As a client of a national company, you are less likely to have outdated software that doesn’t talk to other systems. Companies like Paychex and ADP offer products that integrate easily with each other, limiting the need for redundant data entry and complicated re-configurations when new versions of software are made available.
The reasons students choose a certain college and the ways in which they search for the institution where they will start their studies have changed throughout the time (Kinzie, 2004). Easy access to information through the internet and the possibility for colleges to move from the traditional media to the internet based communication channels has changed the marketing and recruitment strategies. Web sites play the role of the brochures and e-mail became a substitute for sending letters. With the development of the social media platforms, we are again facing a change in how students communicate and where they search for information. Burdett (2013) found that there was a shift between where students were looking for information in 2009 vs. 2011. While in 2009 students were primarily using college search websites, in 2011 social media websites were internet resource that they used more (Burdett, 2013, p. 111) . However, in the qualitative phase of his mixed method research Burdett (2013) found that students were still more influenced by the traditional information sources and external factors than internet resources (p. 113).