The National Council of Educational Research and Training acknowledges the valuable contributions of the individuals and organisations involved in the development of Chemistry textbook for ClassXI. It also acknowledges that some useful material from the reprint editions (2005) of Chemistry textbooks has been utilised in the development of the present textbook. The following academics contributed very effectively for editing, reviewing, refining and finalisation of the manuscript of this book: G.T. Bhandage, Professor, RIE, Mysore; N. Ram, Professor, IIT, New Delhi; R. Sindhu, Reader, RIE (NCERT), Bhopal; Sanjeev Kumar, Reader, Desh Bandhu College, Kalkaji, New Delhi; Shampa Bhattacharya, Reader, Hans Raj College, Delhi; Vijay Sarda, Reader, Zakir Husain College, New Delhi. K.K. Arora, Reader, Zakir Husain College, New Delhi; Shashi Saxena, Reader, Hans Raj College, Delhi; Anuradha Sen, Apeejay School, Sheikh Sarai, New Delhi; C.Shrinivas, PGT, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi; D.L. Bharti, PGT, Ramjas School, Sector IV, R.K. Puram, New Delhi; Ila Sharma, PGT, Delhi Public School, Dwarka, Sector-B, New Delhi; Raj Lakshmi Karthikeyan, Head (Science), Mothers’ International School, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi; Sushma Kiran Setia, Principal, Sarvodaya Kanya Vidyalaya, Hari Nagar (CT), New Delhi; Nidhi Chaudray, PGT, CRPF Public School, Rohini, Delhi; and Veena Suri, PGT, Bluebells School, Kailash, New Delhi. We are thankful to them.
(ii) Bohr’s theory has no explanation for the splitting of spectral lines into a number of closely spaced lines under the influence of magnetic field (Zeeman effect) and electric field (Stark effect).
(iii) There was no justification for the use of principle of quantisation of angular momentum.
(iv) According to de-Broglie, electron has a dual nature, but Bohr considered electron having particle nature only.
! Sufficient number of solved examples in Physics, Chemistry & Mathematics in all the chapters to motivate the students attempt all the questions.
! All the chapters are followed by various types of exercises (Level-I, Level-II, Level-III and Questions asked in AIEEE and other Engineering Exams).
The research shows how mobile-based transactions have gained popularity in India and has become an integral part of the Indian youth's life.. More than half of the youths in India indulge in maximum mobile purchases for entertainment service like cinema, theatre shows, DVDs, sport games (53 percent) followed by music downloads (48 percent). The other key purchases via mobile are clothes/footware/other attires (47 percent) and books or e-books (40 percent).While embracing the appetite for mobile purchase adoption, it is vital that organizations looking to develop products and services for India are able to balance the desire for ease and convenience with security requirements. In the study, 57 percent of the users in the country believe that once they gain confidence in mobile security, they will increase their mobile payment activity. consumers in India are driven to buy goods using their mobile phone by exclusive offers (33 percent) and (26 percent).
16. State the merits of a Co-operative Society. 
17. Write short notes on (i) B2 C commerce (ii) C2C Commerce  18. “Business enterprises need to take suitable measure for pollution control.” Give
any three reasons in favour of the statement. 
are manufactured by people without training in microbiology or chemistry in unhygienic, contaminated environments. They are consumed by hundreds of millions of people every day in both the developed and the developing world. And they have an excellent safety record.
17. An electric heater consists of a nichrome coil and runs under 220 V, consuming 1 kW power. Part of its coil burned out and it was reconnected after cutting off the burnt portion. The power it will consume now is : (A) more than 1 kW. (B) less that 1 kW, but not zero.
(C) 1 kW. (D) 0 kW.
In Japan, the METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) conducts the annual survey of ICT in the workplace since the seventies. This is an investigation at the company surveyed about 9500 computer users in Japan. The survey questionnaire covers all aspects of this use, the cost of information processing of various types, such as the cost of hardware, software and data processing services, the penetration of computers in the workplace and the conditions for using networks of information processing, etc. As part of the project to increase the statistics on ICT in Japan, the survey was expanded and the 2001 version includes new questions on electronic commerce and electronic business processes. The investigation of electronic commerce is conducted using the definitions of ‘large’ and ‘restricted’ Electronic Commerce in the OECD. Data on the use of electronic commerce for each category of purchases and sales between companies and the retail market are collected according to the type of e-business process. The survey indicated that ‘placing and receiving orders’ is commercial application for the most typical business e-commerce and that ‘sales and inventory management’ followed. It should be stressed that the business e-commerce includes transactions through EDI networks usual, and that the rate of diffusion of electronic commerce over the Internet among Japanese companies is much lower. The survey shows that e-commerce on the retail market, by the way of the Internet, does not win so popular with companies Japanese. The survey of ICT in the workplace is not only on activities related to electronic commerce and electronic business processes, but also a wide variety of activities related to ICT at the company, such as investment in equipment and software, the use of ICT by employees and use of communication technologies by businesses. However, the survey had to be aligned with the baseline survey on the structure and business activities (EBSA) to study the productivity and use of computer networks. EBSA is the census survey at the company's business covers all enterprises with least 50 employees and a capital of at least 30 million yen. This Inquiry is central to various forms of investigations at the company METI, in the sense that those on specific issues, including the survey of ICT in the workplace, are based a list of survey companies in the EBSA. The latter, itself, to provide data on the performance of firms, the activities of globalisation, R&D and other variables related to innovation.
PROBLEMS ASKED IN IIT-JEE
1. A carpet of mass M made of inextensible material is rolled along its length in the form of a cylinder of radius R and is kept on a rough floor. The carpet starts unrolling without sliding on the floor when a negligibly small push is given to it. Calculate the horizontal velocity of the axis of the cylindrical part of the carpet when its radius reduces to R/2. [IIT –1990] 2. A uniform circular disc has radius R and mass m. A particle, also of mass m,
When n = 1, l = 0, i.e., its energy level contains one sub-shell which is called as a s-sub- shell. So for l = 0, the corresponding sub-shell is a s-sub-shell. Similarly when l = 1, 2, 3, the sub-shells are called p, d, f sub-shells respectively.
As you known for n = 1, l = 0, there is only one sub-shell. It is represented by 1s. Now for n = 2, l can take two values (the total number of values taken by l is equal to the value of n in a particular energy level). The possible values of l are 0, 1. The two sub-shell representing the II nd energy level are 2s, 2p. In the same manner, for n = 3, three sub-shells are designated as 3s, 3p, 3d corresponding to l = 0, 1, 2, and for n = 4, four sub-shells are designated as 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f corresponding to l = 0, 1, 2, 3.
Ref 1 Page-161 to 181, Ref. Page No. 212 to 217, Periods – 07
Historical development of quantum theory principal of quantum mechanics, wave particle duality, uncertainty principles, Schrödinger equation, operators simple system – free particle, Particle in a box, Two dimensional Three dimensional box, Hydrogen like atoms ( no derivation ) atomic orbital. Periods – 10 Reference Books -
My history of the modern class action’s second era proceeds as follows. Part I describes how an era of apparent tranquility began in the early 1980s. Antitrust and civil rights cases—the two main categories of class actions in the 1970s—withered, and the class action fell off the agendas of the Advisory Committee, Congress, and appellate courts. PartII sets up a discussion of how the class action grew deeply entangled in fundamental and increasingly polarized debates over litigation and legitimacy. To critics of American civil justice, the 1970s witnessed the rise of an imperial judiciary and the worsening of a litigation explosion. Defenders, in contrast, celebrated the emergence of public law litigation and courts’ involvement in a host of social, political, and economic problems that were previously routed to other branches of government. This debate over litigation’s proper use had clear relevance to arguments over whether the regulatory or adjectival conception better captured what the class action could legitimately accomplish.
It is said , albeit quite incorrectly , that coconut water is identical to human plasma and can be injected directly into the human bloodstream. The story has its origin from World War II where British and Japanese patients were given coconut water
(ii)In aqueous solution it is observed that tertiary amines are less basic than either primary or secondary amines. This can be explained on basis of
(a) Solvation effect: Greater is the stability of the substituted ammonium cation formed, stronger is the corresponding amine as a base. Tertiary ammonium ion is less hydrated than secondary ammonium ion which is less hydrated than primary amine. Thus tertiary amines have fewer tendencies to form ammonium ion and consequently are least basic.
a. Samples provide better results than surveys because of the following reasons:
i. Less costly: The sample method is less costly as only some items of the population are studied.
ii. Time saving: This method saves a lot of time and energy of the investigator as fewer items of the population are studied.