The author wishes to express deep appreciation to the fabulous Brazilians who generously agreed to be filmed for the ClicaBrasil website; the University of Texas Spanish and Portuguese Department; the Tereza Lozano Long Institute for Latin American Studies (LLILAS); Carl Blyth; Paola Bueche; Patricia Burrowes; Heliana DeWeese; Marianne and Roberto Eliasquevici; Virginia Garrard; Orlando Kelm; Dale Koike; Steven Miller; Suloni Robertson; Megan Scarborough; Sarah Sweeney; Ana and Jean Somers; Nathalie Steinfeld Childre; Almeida Jacqueline Toribio; Flanzer family; Seth, Marina and Ana Clara Garfield.
Additionally, the supportive role of literature in cultural development is worthy of concern. Literature includes universal themes and global topics that are common to many people and cultures; for that reason, it is an ideal tool to portray culture and its people and it introduces to learners human experiences, thoughts and feelings. Learners, through reading literature, promote understanding of the target culture and develop tolerance towards it (Weber-Feve, 2009). In the process of reading literature, language learners engage in interpreting the meaning that provides them a medium through which they develop their critical thinking (Weist, 2004). Lasagabaster (1999) states that literature is an enormous source for the development of interpretative and critical thinking skills. Learners try to form meaning and draw inferences from the text; hence they not only deepen their understanding, but also develop their imagination. Literary texts are useful sources to learn language from the viewpoint of rich and beautiful language, depth of thought, creative approach, critical thinking, stimulating debate and discussions, etc.
Pakistan is a country where Urdu is her national language and besides Urdu there are numerous regional lan- guages that are being used to communicate. The role of these languages is more significant. Pakistan was a part of sub-continent that has been ruled by the various nations and before partition it has been ruled by the British; and for these reasons, the people of Pakistan look to be influenced by different languages and cultures . The 10.53% of population of the place of this study, uses Seraiki as shown in . To some extent it is presumed these contextual fact hindrances in way of learning English. The people of this context do not like to avoid their own language and they prefer to use it in their daily life. Their attachment to their own language is naturally ac- knowledged fact. Then these groups are divided among so many other groups and each group culturally, linguis- tically and traditionally vary from one another. Each region has its own language. Urdu is having a national po- sition while English is also enjoying a medium of instruction in these regions . In our context of study, the learners are the Intermediatestudents. It means that they already have learnt their mother tongue and their na- tional language. But the obstacle arises in learning English at their colleges. The children and adults face same obstacles but the logical problem that adult learners face at this level is different, quoting  (nd) as cited in . Many scholars agree that there is difference between native speakers and non-native speakers of second lan- guage learning. The learners of our context are the students with the background of many other languages and these learners face the obstacles in learning English in the way as the immigrant children of diverse language background face in their school setting in Australia Pauline Gibbons (1993). These students face obstacles as referred “comprehensible input” as advanced by . The obstacles arise
listening to what students have to say and sometimes their voices are totally left out. Students’ responses in the questionnaire show that this pedagogical intervention opened a very valuable space for self- expression and freedom. Students’ journals were planned, thought and rethought by the students themselves; this made the classroom a laboratory grounded in the lives of the students where they explored the ways in which their lives connect to the broader society and how they are limited by that society. Under the heading: “Multicultural education is important to all students”, Nieto (2002) addresses the issue of invisibility when she argues that the primary victims of biased education are those who are invisible in the curriculum. Our students become invisible when the only voice that is heard in the classroom is the teacher’s voice.
Many of these studies have been conducted on the relationship between vocabulary knowledge( depth and breadth) and the learners’ reading comprehension in the specific texts such as fictions, short stories, articles in newspapers, and the ESP texts in first language (L1) and second language (L2), and only on the ESP texts in foreign language context (FL). As in academic contexts English language is as a means for getting information from textbooks and online articles and papers, ESL/EFL learners need high proficiency in reading skill. However, EFL intermediatestudents even at universities have difficulties in reading and understanding English texts adequately. Regarding this problem, in a foreign context such as Iran where EFL learners at intermediate level particularly students with majors other than English language have problems in reading comprehension and complain about the unfamiliar vocabularies that impede their comprehension, the researcher of the present study attempts to measure the learners’ actual vocabulary knowledge concerning the lexical size (breadth) of the learners at intermediate level. In addition, with respect to the significant role of learners’ vocabulary size in reading comprehension, another variable , text coverage that is the percentage of words that a reader understands in a text, should be measured while focusing on the effect of vocabulary knowledge on learners’ reading comprehension performances (Laufer et.al, 2010).
In this paper we present a free, open source platform, that translates in real time (written) European Portuguese into Por- tuguese Sign Language, being the signs produced by an avatar. We discuss basic needs of such a system in terms of Nat- ural Language Processing and Animation Synthesis, and propose an architecture for it. Moreover, we have selected a set of existing tools that couple with our free, open-source philosophy, and implemented a prototype with them. Several case stud- ies were conducted. A preliminary evalu- ation was done and, although the transla- tion possibilities are still scarce and some adjustments still need to be done, our plat- form was already much welcomed by the deaf community.
Diogo de Teive, another humanist from the Sanches circle, in his AD IOANNEM / Alemcastrum sere - / nissimu Auerij / Ducem / Mortis meditatio in fu / nudes Theodosij Brigã / tiae Ducis, recalls a reflection on death, written by Erasmo in 1510; the Commentary de rebus ad Dium gestis recalls the love of justice, peace, the worship of the Letters, despite the praise of war - just because it was fought for the sake of faith and not against other Christians. Teive lives the ideological division of the College of Arts, especially after the death of André de Gouveia, the succession of Diogo de Gouveia the Younger, and the conflict with João da Costa until 1549, when he is appointed Rector. On August 10, 1550, he is enmeshed in the Holy Office process against the lens of Lutheran sympathy. It retreats to the monastery of Belém in 1551, to be released in 1552 by Cardinal D. Henrique. He returns to the College of Arts until 1555 from where he will go to his canonical at Miranda Cathedral, away from the learned light of conversation with men of culture. In Miranda, in an ode, defends the war of conquest, "collides" with the Querella Pacis of Erasmus, eventually extolling D. John III, neutral in conflicts between Christians.
As more international students begin to attend higher education systems, it is likely that they will face challenges that will have influence their emotions, which will affect them academically. Learning a foreign or second language includes learning the culture that goes along with that language  However, many international students still face various cultural problems, regardless of their English proficiency. In the influential study by Kwon , they randomly selected 165 international students and pointed out that regardless of language proficiency, all students from different ethnic groups experienced overwhelming feelings of loneliness, stress, and homesickness. A major part of homesickness results from culture shock. Even though international students are exposed to American movies and Internet material back in their home country, they still experience culture shock, which can be defined as helplessness and depression when adapting to a new cultural environment . Thus, it is necessary for international students to have social interaction with local students, which will help them blend into the culture easier.
Related to the culture in host country, participants expressed that they developed their intercultural understanding, broke prejudices. Furthermore, participants also stated that they developed their international perspective, widened their horizon and social relations. The finding is coherent with the previous studies that the program provides students intercultural dimension, expands their horizon contributes culturally diverse communities (Janson, Schomburg and Teichler 2009; Stronkhorst 2005; Aktan and Sarı 2010) [14, 48, 21]. In addition to that, study carried out by Zimmermann, Neyer (2013)  proved that mobility contributes extraversion of the students. Furthermore, it is clear that students’ mobility also stamp out the prejudices (Mutlu, Alacahan and Erdil, 2010) . However, according to the content analysis of 502 Erasmus students, it is crystal clear that “Erasmus Mobility experience contributed to students’ individual development rather than academic development” (Mutlu 2011, p.87) .
results of this study indicated that peer corrective recast does not have a significant effect on the grammar knowledge progression of the students, but it still seems that using CALL programs in writing classes has its benefits like reducing the anxiety of the students, making them feel more comfortable so that they can concentrate even more on their achievement. This will also help students to promote the sense of independence in language learning and group work among their peers and overcome their fears in writing since they are not forced to do their assignments in the classroom in a conventional manner which would bring them some anxieties and inconvenience. Finally as the last implication, integration of technology in education requires significant investments in hardware, software, man power, support, training, etc. and all this demands huge budgets, hence recognizing the effect of this integration might even be of some help to justify these kinds of investments.
Theoretically, the results of the current study can be considered a contribution in the latest theories and models of teaching L2 reading comprehension to the speakers of other languages. Such a contribution includes the enhancement of a sort of input named ‘Pre-Teaching New Vocabulary via Audio-Visuals’ in classroom which is supposed to result in a more dynamic way of teaching English reading comprehension. In addition, the present study has a prominent contribution in employing Pre-Teaching New vocabulary task as teaching tasks as well as their evaluating nature. Pedagogically, the results of the study seem to be more practical and compatible to an Iranian situation of foreign language learning particularly for those who encounter problems regarding their English reading comprehension. First, the results of the current study are applicable to Iranian EFL learners who have made their minds to promote their L2 reading ability through strengthening their knowledge of English vocabulary. These learners can range from low- intermediate institute learners to freshmen university students at the B.A. level and senior M.A. candidates who feel a need for the knowledge.
The type of study carried out was action research because it involved “taking a self-reflective, critical, and systematic approach to exploring your own teaching contexts” (Burns, 2010, p. 2). Burns also states that the main aim of action research is to identify a problematic situation and intervene, whose intention is to bring about changes and improvements. Kemmis and McTaggart (1988) described four broad phases in a cycle research: the first one is planning, where the researcher identifies a problem and thinks of an action plan to bring about improvements. For the present study, a needs analysis took place through teacher’s observations, the analy- sis of recorded samples from students, and a survey which participants completed. Also, I discovered that while students had acquired a great level of fluency, their accuracy was being affected by different fossil- ized errors in their speech. The second is action; here the plan is revised throughout the intervention. For the present study, the use of self-monitoring strategies like visual input and self-evaluation strategies such as charts took place. The third is observation; here the researcher observes the effects of the intervention on the participants and context. In my case, I observed participants’ performance and collected data through
The theoretical claim on which the development of corrective feedback and uptake have occurred is the output hypothesis proposed by Swain (1985). In her research in French immersion classrooms, she observed that students’ production was inaccurate. Therefore, Swain’s output hypothesis stated that by providing input alone, students do not improve their language acquisition and that the production of output in response to input is important for language development. However, input needs to be of quality in order to positively affect change in the output. Swain (1985) further mentioned that in order for modified output to occur, providing useful and consistent feedback is necessary. She further suggested that modified output is the description of “the leading edge of a learner’s interlanguage” (p. 248). In the context of teacher-learner interaction, modified output can be presented in the form of learner uptake, which is the student’s reaction to the teacher’s corrective feedback. Since students’ output can be influenced by the type of teacher feedback, it can therefore be considered a pedagogical tool which may pave the way for effective English learning.
The principles of much language teacher education – and especially programmes for international students who intend to return to their home countries to teach English – are grounded in a relatively homogenous set of ‘western’ cultural values, despite students coming from a wide range of different cultural backgrounds. This paper addresses some of the issues surrounding the role of culture in language teacher education and discusses the variety of ways in which cultural phenomena are defined and recognized on such programmes. It argues that language teacher education should acknowledge difference on the part of both language teacher educators and participants on language education programmes. For above all, language teachers need to develop the competence to function in a range of cultural contexts and to be critically aware of the relationship between culture, context and pedagogic practice.
This study aims to investigate the relationship between EFL learners’ learning style and students’ preference for English language learning software (Tell Me More) exercises. The purpose of the study is to find out the IEC students’ preference for the activities in the “Tell Me More” software and the relation with their learning styles. A potential outcome of the study is the contribution of information that will prove useful in the process of developing teaching methodologies, curricula and software’s materials reflective of the learning style of UTM international students.
and that is what causes the diversity that exists in Indonesia. As in the following seloko quote: the heart of a same elephant is in the field, the heart of the same mite is broken, like aur with a cliff, a cliff collapses aur tebawo. Seloko means that if you get pleasure (sustenance) large and small are both enjoyed, the fabric of affection will grow and be maintained because of it. Listeners or seloko connoisseurs become entertained while getting the knowledge of family and household arrangements. Pronunciation is one part of speaking skills . Speaking ability is determined from the vocabulary pronunciation that is good and right. Based on the results of interviews that have been conducted students have no difficulty in reciting existing cello because they often hear and are taught in the school environment.
talk with our friends. We spend time with them. I just feel like we are coming from a warmer culture, and here people are just busy with their own business. ” He went on to say, “ In my country friends are very close to each other, but here I feel like friendships are just based on purpose and I ’ m alone here and I don't have many good friends. ” Tess also agreed by saying, “ Here everyone is friendly, but only to some extent. In our place, we take too much freedom. We get too deep in our relationships. ” As a result, the participants attested that Americans are not interested in getting to know them or where they are from. “ It ’ s not difficult to be sociable here, but the problem is that I can make a lot of friends from different countries, but in terms of the native speakers, some of them are not interested to [get to know us or where we are from.] ” Another focus group participant agreed and said, “ I think international students are more [willing] to talk with [internationals] than the native American students. ”
Our preliminary results of evaluating Jspell (Almeida and Pinto, 1994) as far as type and token spelling is concerned are as follows: Among the 942,980 types of CETEMPúblico, 574,199 were not recognized by the current version of Jspell (60.4%), amounting to 3.07% of the size of the corpus. A superficial comparison showed that CETEMPúblico contains a higher percentage of unrecognized words, both types and tokens, than other Portuguese newspaper corpora. Numbers for a 1.5-million word corpus of Diário do Minho (a regional newspaper) and for a 4-million word corpus of a political party newspaper are respectively 26.5% and 25.41% unrecognized types and 2.26% and 1.67% unrecognized tokens. These numbers may be partially explained by Público’s higher coverage of international affairs, together with its cinema and music sections, both bringing an increase in foreign proper names 15 .