Top PDF Climate Change and Extreme Events: an Assessment of Economic Implications

Climate Change and Extreme Events: an Assessment of Economic Implications

Climate Change and Extreme Events: an Assessment of Economic Implications

We use a general equilibrium model of the world economy, and a regional eco- nomic growth model, to assess the economic implications of vulnerability from extreme meteorological events, induced by the climate change. In particular, we first consider the impact of climate change on ENSO and NAO oceanic oscillations and, subsequently, the implied variation on regional expected damages. We found that expected damages from extreme events are increasing in the United States, Europe and Russia, and decreasing in energy exporting countries. Two economic implications are taken into account: (1) short-term impacts, due to changes in the demand structure, generated by higher/lower precautionary saving, and (2) varia- tions in regional economic growth paths. We found that indirect stort-term effects (variations in savings due to higher or lower likelihood of natural distasters) can have an impact on regional economies, whose order of magnitude is comparable to the one of direct damages. On the other hand, we highlight that higher vulnera- bility from extreme events translates into higher volatility in the economic growth path, and vice versa.
Show more

30 Read more

CLIMATE CHANGE AND EXTREME EVENTS IN SIDS

CLIMATE CHANGE AND EXTREME EVENTS IN SIDS

Various reports including IPCC’s fifth assessment reports suggests that climate change possess existential threat for some SIDS and their partial inundation due to sea level rise and other extreme events. On the whole, impact of climate change will have severe adverse influence on SIDS socio-economic conditions and bio-physical resources (IPCC, 2014b: 3). A lack of long-term monitoring of baseline conditions is also a constraint when trying to understand risks from saline intrusion, invasive species, biodiversity or large ocean waves. Thus, while change is occurring, it is not easy to quantify the probability, speed, scale or distribution of future climate risks (IPCC, 2014a: 16). Also, differences in exposure to climate change induced extreme events vary among islands, depending on their physical form. The culture, ecosystems, populations and hence vulnerabilities are different for each island. It is therefore critical to understand the context-specific conditions for each island when considering risks (ibid).
Show more

23 Read more

climate change and extreme events in Brazil

climate change and extreme events in Brazil

.; MAZZAFERA, P.; ZULLO JR, J.; ASSAD, E. D. 2003. Avaliação da Ocorrência de Florescimento Anormal e Formação de Flores Estrelas Associadas à Deficiências Hídricas e Recuperação do Potencial Hídrico Foliar em Cafeeiros em Garça, SP. IX Congresso Brasileiro de Fisiolo- gia Vegetal. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2003. v. 15. pp. 325-325. // IPCC. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Working Group II. TAR: Summary for Policymakers. http://www.meto.gov.uk/sec5/CR_div/ipcc/wg1/WG1-SPM.pdf. // IPCC. Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change 2007a: the physical science basis summary for policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assess- ment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. // IPCC. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability summary for policymakers. 2007b. Working Group II Contribution to the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report Climate Change. // LANGLEY, S. P. 1890. The Temperature of the Moon. Mem. of the Nat. Academy of Sciences, vol. IV, pp: 193. // LE TREUT, H. et KANDEL, R. 1992. Que nous apprennernt les modéles de climats? La recherche, vol 23, 243, pp: 572-583. // MACHADO, M. A. de M. e MARENGO, J. A. 2006. Global climate changes and its effects on Brazilian agricul- ture. NewsLetter, Project GOF-UK-CPTEC, Year 1, No.2. http://www6.cptec.inpe.br/ mudancas_climaticas/pdfs/Newsletter2_Eng.pdf. Downloaded 11 July 2008. // MA- RENGO, J.A. e AMBRIZZI, T. 2006. Use of regional climate models in impacts assess¬ments and adaptations studies from continental to regional and local sca- les. The CREAS (Regional Climate Change Scenarios for South America) initiative in South America. Proceedings of 8 ICSHMO, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, April 24-28, 2006, INPE, pp. 291-296. // NASA. 2002a. John Tyndall (1820-1893). On the Shoulders of Giants. Earth Observatory. 2 pp. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Lybrary/Giants/ Tyndall. // NASA. 2002b. Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927). On the Shoulders of Giants. Earth Observatory. 2 pp. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Lybrary/Giants/Arrhe- nius // NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY. 1978. Climate Change to the Year 2000. 109 pp. Fort Lesley J. McNair. Washington, USA. // NOBRE, C. A.; SAMPAIO, G. e SALAZAR, L.
Show more

39 Read more

Large scale extreme risk assessment using copulas: an application to drought events under climate change for Austria

Large scale extreme risk assessment using copulas: an application to drought events under climate change for Austria

approach which, for the first time, is able to estimate drought risk on the country level and can account for current as well as future climate conditions. Our suggested methodology is built around four major challenges which need to be addressed for a probabilistic assessment of drought risk on the country scale including non-stationarity aspects which were, up till now, not tackled simultaneously. Firstly, extreme events such as droughts are rare and therefore difficult to be empirically estimated in a proba- bilistic way (Reiss and Thomas 2007). Secondly, even if enough past data is available changes of extreme risks often need to be considered from a non-stationarity point of view (IPCC 2012). For example, climate change impacts cannot be included via past observations in a risk based approach for future events. Thirdly, as already indicated, drought impacts are usually happening across regions and there need to be regional dependencies assumed to avoid underestimation of risk, e.g. due to atmospheric con- ditions droughts are usually not local phenomena and therefore not spatially limited but affect large regions at once (Jongman et al. 2014). Fourthly, even if probabilis- tic estimates on local levels are available, current approaches upscale these losses to larger geographical areas by focusing on averages which do not give any information on extreme risks and therefore are of limited value for risk management approaches (Hochrainer et al. 2013; Kassie et al. 2015).
Show more

19 Read more

Economic assessment of farm level climate change adaptation options

Economic assessment of farm level climate change adaptation options

This section sets out the economic implications of farm-level climate change impacts and farmers’ motivation toward adaptation. Economic rationality implies assessing the cost of climate change impacts, the cost-effectiveness of coping mechanisms, and the cost of GHG emission in farm activities. All of these effects are important for the successful adaptation of farms from an economic viewpoint. Only a few studies have been conducted to analyze farm- level performance focusing on the global climate change perspective. This study tries to identify merits of coping mechanisms among the available options using traditional farm management analytical tools and descriptive statistics. It is based on the survey of three hundred farms prone to the effects of climate change in Bangladesh. An effective way of reviving the farm income to the threshold level is to reduce the cost and increase productivity, widening the scope of agricultural adaptation. It is shown that a combination of several farming practices of crop management, fertilizer application, and rainwater harvesting and irrigation achieves three benefits. These are low-resource use to ensure productivity, earn high farm net income and at the same time reduce GHG in production, and farm operation under adaptation to changing climatic conditions. The results suggest that farmers’ pathway to low-carbon farming under different adaptation practices may reverse the negative climate change impacts for future generations.
Show more

140 Read more

Improving predictions of the effects of extreme events, land use, and climate change on the hydrology of watersheds in the Philippines

Improving predictions of the effects of extreme events, land use, and climate change on the hydrology of watersheds in the Philippines

An overview of the methodology is shown in Fig. 2. First, thematic datasets of land cover, soil, and topography were gathered from various sources and at different scales (local, national, global). Next, land cover and soil parameterisation for the LUCI model was carried out through correlating local soil names with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil taxonomy, and using the Soil Water Character- istics (SWC) model to estimate the soils’ hydraulic charac- teristics (Saxton and Rawls, 2006). The watershed and flood- plain model in HMS and RAS were made and parameterised by the Disaster Risk and Exposure Assessment for Mitiga- tion Program (DREAM) (2015).
Show more

5 Read more

Potential impacts of climate change on extreme weather events in the Niger Delta part of Nigeria

Potential impacts of climate change on extreme weather events in the Niger Delta part of Nigeria

Received: 16 February 2020; Accepted: 19 March 2020; Published: 21 March 2020    Abstract: The Niger Delta is the most climate-vulnerable region in Nigeria. Flooding events are recorded annually in settlements along the River Niger and its tributaries, inundating many towns and displacing people from their homes. In this study, climate change impacts from extreme meteorological events over the period 2010–2099 are predicted and analyzed. Four coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) under respectively concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) emission scenarios were used for climate change predictions. Standardized precipitation indices (SPI) of 1-month and 12-month time steps were used for extreme event assessment. Results from the climate change scenarios predict an increase in rainfall across all future periods and under both emission scenarios, with the highest projected increase during the last three decades of the century. Under the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the rainfall at Port Harcourt and Yenagoa Stations is predicted to increase by about 2.47% and 2.62% while the rainfall at Warri Station is predicted to increase by about 1.39% toward the end of the century. The 12-month SPI under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios predict an exceedance in the extreme wet threshold (i.e., SPI > 2) during all future periods and across all study locations. These findings suggest an increasing risk of flooding within the projected periods. The finding can be useful to policymakers for the formulation and planning of flood mitigation and adaptation measures.
Show more

15 Read more

Assessment of extreme flood events in a changing  climate for a long term planning of socio economic  infrastructure in the Russian Arctic

Assessment of extreme flood events in a changing climate for a long term planning of socio economic infrastructure in the Russian Arctic

The idea of the method used in this study is (i) to simulate the future PDF parameters of the multi-year peak runoff us- ing the projected mean values for precipitation and air tem- perature, (ii) to construct the PDF with simulated parame- ters and a previously defined theoretical distribution (Pearson type III), and finally (iii) to calculate the maximal runoff with the required exceedance probability. This idea was used to perform the regional-scale assessment of the maximal runoff for the northern territories of Russia, where the peaks oc- cur during the spring. On these territories, the peak runoff is usually formed by seasonal snow melting and may be ex- pressed as the spring flood depth of runoff (h, mm/(time period)), which is the volume of spring flood runoff (m 3 ) from a drainage basin divided by its area (m 2 ). The spring flood depth of runoff was chosen instead of the maximal dis- charge because this allows for mapping the spatial distribu- tion of maximal runoff. Thus, the spring flood depth of runoff can be used to define regions for which the design maximal discharges should be corrected according to climate change scenarios. After such regions were delineated, the correc- tion of the maximal discharge with the required probability of exceedance can be done using climate projections. From the spring flood depth of runoff, the river discharge with a required exceedance probability (Q p , m 3 s −1 ) is calculated
Show more

20 Read more

Characterising climate change discourse on social media during extreme weather events

Characterising climate change discourse on social media during extreme weather events

Economic (E) Emphasis on the economic implications of climate change or climate change action. E1: The economic case for acting is made. Reference may be made to the cost of climate change exacerbated extreme weather. E2: Climate change mitigation and adaptation will be hugely expensive. Other issues should take priority.

20 Read more

Impact of extreme weather events and climate change for health and social care systems

Impact of extreme weather events and climate change for health and social care systems

Reviews of climate change risk assessment for the UK health sector [7, 12] suggest future trends in hospital ac- tivity associated with extreme weather and associated with population growth and aging, and predict increases in hospitalisation rates and rising costs of hospitalisa- tions to 2030 due to increased ozone concentrations and heatwave events. However, it is acknowledged that these predictions are not certain, and methods do not account for local heat island effects in major cities, or possible future health system adaptations which might alter med- ical care models and service use during extreme weather events. For example, given the development of real time syndromic surveillance systems we might speculate whether health services might in future aim to reduce emergency call outs and hospital or care home admis- sions, for example by proactively mitigating excess heat related- cardiovascular mortality among the populations most at risk or expanding online health advice systems. Also we have relatively little information on how pri- mary and ambulatory care services may be impacted by
Show more

11 Read more

Characterising climate change discourse on social media during extreme weather events

Characterising climate change discourse on social media during extreme weather events

When the growth of the Twitter user base is accounted for, it is clear that Sandy garnered by far the greatest attention, followed at a distance by Irene and then Jonas. This sequence relects the relative socio-economic impact each storm had in the Northeastern region of the United States. However, the magnitude of the diference between Irene and Sandy in terms of climate change posts is more than would be expected based on impact alone. Instead, it seems that the socio- political context in which the Sandy occurred helped draw particularly substantial attention to the topic. That said, factors such as the storms exceptional size (57) and its ranking as the second-costliest cyclone to hit the United States since 1990 (17) will likely also have contributed to the tweet tally. The role the mainstream media played in focusing attention on the subject during Sandy appears to have been important as well. Several news outlets posted tweets that were widely shared, and content that news outlets posted elsewhere on the internet was also frequently cited – something which points to the continued importance of the legacy media. During Irene and Jonas, few mainstream news outlets posted on the subject. While this may help explain the smaller number of climate change posts the events generated in both relative and absolute terms, it is notable that thousands of tweets were still posted on the topic in each case. This shows how non-traditional actors are still able to give the issue voice through posting on the platform.
Show more

24 Read more

Projecting future climate change effects on the extreme hydrological drought events in the Weihe River basin, China

Projecting future climate change effects on the extreme hydrological drought events in the Weihe River basin, China

Currently droughts are the most severe disasters leading to the greatest economic losses in China. Climate change in the past few decades has altered drought frequency and char- acteristics such as duration and severity in many regions of China. Even in humid Southern China where droughts used to be less frequent, several long-duration, severe and expan- sive drought events occurred in the 2000s and 2010s, causing serious water shortage problems. Therefore it is very neces- sary to project the possible climate change impacts on fu- ture drought occurrence so as to provide effective guidelines for climate change adaptions. This study presents a frame- work to project future climate change impacts on extreme hydrological droughts in the Weihe River basin in China. As streamflow is an important index to characterize hydrolog- ical droughts, a large-scale hydrological model was driven by climate outputs from a region climate model for histor- ical streamflow simulations and future streamflow projec-
Show more

6 Read more

The Impact of Climate Change Induced Extreme Events on Agriculture and Food Security:  A Review on Nigeria

The Impact of Climate Change Induced Extreme Events on Agriculture and Food Security: A Review on Nigeria

The study of the climate change and the effects of climate change induced ex- treme events on food security are fundamental for the sustainable develop- ment of agriculture globally. Climatic factors are the primary important fac- tors affecting agricultural production. Furthermore, the world is now expe- riencing more frequent and intense droughts and floods in many agricultural regions which damage and at times destroy crops. The effects of climatic change on agriculture have triggered significant trend of research during the last decade globally in order to unfold the solutions to climate change induced extreme events on agriculture. Several studies have been conducted on effects of extreme events such as droughts and flooding induced by cli- mate change on agriculture and food security. These effects include changes in crop and livestock yields as well as the economic consequences of these potential yield changes globally. Therefore, this study reviews the effects of extreme events, including floods and drought, caused by climate change on agriculture and food security with focus on Nigeria in particular. For the study, literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases to identify researches con- ducted on effects on climate change and extreme events on agricultural productivity. From the review, it shows that extreme events such as droughts and floods impact agriculture and food security. In order to mitigate the ef- fects of climate change especially droughts and floods, on agricultural prod- uctivity, there is an urgent need to intensity efforts and researches on climate change to mitigate and adapt to the occurrences of these extreme events when necessary in Nigeria. Several mitigation and adaptation measures need to be implemented to mitigate the effects of extreme events on agricultural produc- tivity and food security. These measures include practicing climate-smart How to cite this paper: Durodola, O.S.
Show more

12 Read more

Flood hazard assessment for extreme flood events

Flood hazard assessment for extreme flood events

Abstract Climate change is expected to result in an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. In turn, this will result in more frequent occurrences of extreme flood events, such as flash flooding and large-scale river flooding. This being the case, there is a need for more accurate flood risk assessment schemes, particularly in areas prone to extreme flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by extreme flooding. Two flood hazard assessment criteria were tested, namely: a widely used, empirically derived method, and recently introduced, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. The two selected flood hazard assessment methods were: (1) validated against experi- mental data, and (2) used to assess flood hazard indices for two different extreme flood events, namely: the 2010 Kostanjevica na Krki extreme river flood and the 2007 Z ˇ elezniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas prone to extreme flooding, the flood hazard indices should be based on using the formulae derived for a mechanics-based analysis, as these formulations consider all of the physical forces acting on a human body in floodwaters, take into account the rapid changes in the flow regime, which often occur for extreme flood events, and enable a rapid assessment of the degree of flood hazard risk in a short time period, a feature particularly important when assessing flood hazard indices for high Froude numbers flows.
Show more

31 Read more

Essays on the economic implications of climate change uncertainties

Essays on the economic implications of climate change uncertainties

So far, the human impacts of climate change have been borne predominantly by developing countries: according to the World Health Organization, approximately 60 000 deaths occurred worldwide as a result of weather-related disasters in the 1990s, some 95% of which were in developing countries (World Health Organization, 2017). This is due to a combination of factors including greater exposure, the lack of early warning systems and the absence of available funds for emergency relief and recovery. Unfortunately the situation is likely to get worse in the future: not only will developing countries be the hardest hit by drought-induced food and freshwater shortages, but adverse health impacts, including heat stroke, malaria, dengue and diarrhoea, are also expected to be felt predominantly by low-income countries (UNFCCC, 2010). Similarly, the economic impacts of extreme weather in the recent past have been incurred predominantly by developing countries: according to a report from the United Nations, the greatest economic losses caused by all weather-related disasters that occurred during the period 1995-2015 were incurred in low-income countries and represented around 5% of GDP (United Nations, 2016). In the round, developing countries are expected to be most vulnerable to future climate change (IPCC, 2014). There are several reasons for this. First, developing countries tend to be geographically located in tropical zones close to the equator, where the effects of climate change will be more negative (IPCC, 2014). For instance, the reduction in the availability of renewable surface water and groundwater is projected to be more acute for dry subtropical
Show more

207 Read more

Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies In Italy. An Economic Assessment

Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies In Italy. An Economic Assessment

Coastal areas are important assets for Italy, with many economic activities such as tourism, agriculture, industries here localised. Coastal zones are also subjected to significant anthropic pressures, which make them more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise (SLR) and an increased incidence of extreme weather events. Loss of valuable land due to SLR is one of the major impacts of climate change, even though tectonic movements do, to some extent, mitigate the impacts 2 . Together with land, infrastructures and ecosystems may be lost to SLR, or damaged because of increased coastal erosion or extreme weather events. Extremely hot temperatures are likely to displace summer tourism away from coastal areas, and this trend is likely to be exacerbated by increasing shortage of water resources. The sea temperature is expected to increase, leading to northward shift of biodiversity and commercially valuable species (EEA, 2005), or invasion by alien species.
Show more

28 Read more

Beyond simple means: integrating extreme events and biotic interactions in species distribution models: conservation implications for the northern bettong (Bettongia tropica) under climate change

Beyond simple means: integrating extreme events and biotic interactions in species distribution models: conservation implications for the northern bettong (Bettongia tropica) under climate change

In order to adopt pertinent management strategies for a species, it is imperative to have an understanding of its distribution and requirements. Species distribution models (SDMs) are broadly applied in ecological studies to generate hypotheses on both current and future distributions of a species. These models utilise statistical approaches to link where a species occurs with environmental data from those locations to infer hypotheses about factors limiting the species’ distribution. SDMs have many applications in conservation biology, including being one of the few tools capable of predicting the impacts of climate change on a species. However,
Show more

27 Read more

Beyond simple means: integrating extreme events and biotic interactions in species distribution models: conservation implications for the northern bettong (Bettongia tropica) under climate change

Beyond simple means: integrating extreme events and biotic interactions in species distribution models: conservation implications for the northern bettong (Bettongia tropica) under climate change

Maxent (v. 3.3.1) (Phillips et al. 2006) was used to correlate occurrence of truffles with the eight selected climate variables to estimate probabilities of presence across the landscape. Probability of presence was used as a measure of productivity, as truffles are presumably ubiquitous throughout this region given appropriate conditions but some areas are more likely to be consistently productive and thus are more likely to provide occurrence records. Maxent is a presence-only modelling algorithm that has been shown to outperform other presence-only modelling techniques (Elith et al. 2006; Hernandez et al. 2006; Hijmans & Graham 2006; Guisan et al. 2007); see Appendix A for a more detailed review of Maxent and the technical underpinnings of this program. Maxent was parameterized with default settings (Phillips & Dudik 2008) with the exception of the removal of threshold and hinge features, because this produces more ecologically realistic response curves (Austin 2007). I have addressed any spatial bias in the data set accordance to the literature in using a spatial buffer and drawing the 10,000 background points from near locations where records are known (VanDerWal et al. 2009a). This approach provides better model discrimination and addresses spatial biases that are often inherent in data sets on species distributions. Maxent models were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the AUC (Area Under Curve), with values above 0.5 are better than random predictions, with those above 0.7 being considered useful (Elith et al. 2006) and those above 0.9 highly accurate (Guisan et al. 2007).
Show more

253 Read more

EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE

EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted in March 2015 during the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction. The agreement follows the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015 and, in continuity with it, its goal is to “prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience” (UNISDR, 2015). The instrument is voluntary and it is not binding. Following the HFA, the Sendai Framework promotes a new approach more oriented towards disaster risk management rather than towards disaster management, and it considers primary responsibility of central Governments to prevent and reduce disaster risk but, at the same time, it encourages cooperation between national bodies and different stakeholders. The agreement identifies four priorities of action that States have to take into consideration in their strategy for achieving the Framework’s outcomes (UNISDR, 2015): (1) understanding disaster risk; (2) strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk; (3) investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience; (4) enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Together with these four priorities, the Sendai Framework also identifies seven global targets to be reached at national level by the different States that participate to the agreement: reduce global disaster mortality by 2030; reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030; reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product by 2030; reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services by 2030; increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020; enhance international cooperation to developing countries; increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030. In the end, this Framework provides States a set of directions to guide their action to prevent and reduce disaster risk as well as a number of specific targets to be achieved.
Show more

28 Read more

The Effect of Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events on Tourism

The Effect of Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events on Tourism

Tourism demand forecasting continues to be a popular theme in the tourism literature. Reviews of this literature by Witt and Witt (1995) and Lim (1995) show that demand forecasting, in the majority of studies, is focused on economic factors. Morley (1992) criticises typical demand studies because they do not consider utility in the decision making process. Moreover, he suggests an alternative way to estimate demand based on the expected utility derived from the characteristics of the product. Lancaster (1966) originally developed the concept that the characteristics of a good are more important to the consumer than the actual good itself. How these characteristics are perceived will determine the expected utility from the consumption of the good. In the case of tourism, the product is the holiday at a certain destination and at a certain time, and this product will have certain characteristics. Most importantly, he argues that climate and landscape attributes of countries should be included in the characteristics set. Seddighi and Theocharous (2002) have applied this theory using a Logit analysis. Political stability was the focus of their study rather than environmental characteristics such as climate or landscape. Rather than just examining the demand for a single country, demand systems provide the opportunity to examine the pattern of flows of tourists to different destination countries. Recent studies, however, do not include natural resource characteristics (see Lyssiotou, 2000; Divisekera, 2003 and Lanza et al., 2003).
Show more

33 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...