cultivatable area in Ghana is irrigated. The Northern region of Ghana in particular, it is one of the most vulnerable and exposed regions to climatechange and variability in Ghana (Etwire et al., 2013, Stanturf et al., 2011). Particularly exposed to the impacts of climatechange are the millions of poor smallholder farmers with minimal livelihood alternatives who are already marginalized, poor and largely rely on nature for food and income (Frank and Penrose Buckley, 2012, Morton, 2007). Their rain-fed agriculture, forming the dominant economic activity in the region (Antwi-Agyei et al., 2012), relies heavily on a single and already modified rainy season. Climatechange is likely to intensify seasonal and inter-annual rainfall variation (for example, drought in one year and floods the next), as long-term changes and trends take place (for example, rising annual mean temperatures) (Challinnor et al, 2007). Climatechange may create water and heat stress, the outbreak of pests and diseases, the loss of productive lands through the deterioration of ecosystems, and additional burdens to supply chains such as increased postharvest losses during storage and distribution. The likely consequences of such stresses include yield reductions, decreased livestock values, post-harvest losses, and reduced food accessibility and consumption
The most preferred channel by all groups for receiving weather information is through the radio in the local dialect, through church announcements on Sundays, and through the agricultural extension agents responsible for the area. All groups also suggested the weather information could be passed through the assemblyman for the electoral area. Men and the youth agreed that it would not make sense if weather information were given through the TV, mobile phone and newspapers as most of them do not have these gadgets or cannot read newspapers. Even though the daily forecast is presented on the radio and in the local dialect, which is the preferred method, the women still expressed interest in the use of the television so that they can hear as well as see. The male youth in particular asked for training on weather predications and reading of weather information.
Farmers interviewed comprised 50.2% women and 49.8% men. Most of the respondents (61%) were outside of the youth category (18–35) according to the definition in Ghana (Ghana statistical service 2014), with comparable male and female distribution (Table 1). Although the sampling procedure may have been biased towards the normal adults, this sample reflects the demographics in the region, since a decline in youth involvement in agriculture has been reported for the study location and its environs (Ghana statistical service 2014). This is also similar to general observations in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (Swarts and Aliber 2013) where low youth participation in agriculture has been recorded. Meanwhile, the majority of farmers interviewed in the study owned their own lands although most were males (68% as against 32% women). This finding confirms reports on gender inequalities in land ownership in Africa (Doss et al. 2015; Njoh and Ananga 2016). In the focus groups, respondents confirmed most women farm on land of less than 1 ha, with land sizes for both men and women not exceeding 5 ha. Such land sizes are characteristic of Africa’ s subsistence farmers which adds to the growing evidence that agriculture production systems in Africa need to be intensified and diversified to meet the food security requirements of the region (Tittonell and Giller 2013; Palm et al. 2017). The study also revealed about 72% of farmers were generally resource-poor with monthly incomes below the national minimum monthly wage of Ghana (264 Ghana Cedis) (National Tripartite Committee 2017). Within this bracket, women made up the largest proportion (Table 1). Income disparities between men and women are highly documented in the literature (e.g. Seguino and Were 2014; Pérez et al. 2015). Compar- atively, women also had low access to farm inputs such as fertilizers, improved seeds, and irrigation, as revealed by the study. Low-income levels and multiple factors such as limited access to land and farm inputs are considered a threat to women ’ s ability to adapt to climatechange risks compared to men (Posel et al. 2016). While education levels were similar between men and women; the 70% illiteracy level recorded may have implications on behavioral changes towards acceptance and adoption of new technologies.
Funds flow into the District Assemblies from the District Assembly Common Fund (DACF). However, the districts are supposed to mobilize resources through levies they impose on commercial activities in the districts, property rates and in a few cases, projects that are implemented by government institutions and NGOs. CCAFS for example is using donor support to implement programmes that will enhance response to climatechange in the Lawra District. There are wide differences in the extent to which districts can have resources as it depends a great deal the natural resources in the districts, and the innovativeness of the district leadership in resource mobilization. Therefore the situation in which no operational funding has been extended to the districts has created serious challenges.
yet due to cost and technical reasons, and hence are not discussed. The LPG required to substitute for fuelwood in a LCD scenario will be 750 000–1.9 million tonnes by 2012–2015; and 950 000–2.8 million tonnes by 2020 (Ghana Energy Commission 2006). This additional LPG demand is likely to put a lot of pressure on the crude oil refining capacity of the country, unless the LPG shortfall is imported. This can create an opportunity to increase the refinery capacity of the country and boost gas cylinder manufacturing in the country. Introducing LPG to rural users will, however, require an efficient distribution network and back-up support to control potential gas accidents associated with it and occasional shortages due to distances from retailing centers. Mobile LPG retailers exist but have higher premium than stationary retailers. For rural areas (where the effect may be greatest), it will be a significant extra payment to make, unless rural supplies are targeted and subsidised. The switch from fuelwood use to LPG for residential cooking and heating has probably been the boldest step taken so far to mitigate climatechange in the energy sector of Ghana. Such a policy had the capacity to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. It also led to the creative and increased use of LPG as fuel in the road sector. Many commercial drivers rapidly converted their gasoline-based commercial passenger vehicles to LPG, realising it was more cost effective. However, the adoption of LPG for commercial vehicle use has of late created some shortages for household users and has tended to defeat the purpose of promoting LPG use. Net benefit comparisons are made for the switch from fuelwood to LPG as a demonstration of the net welfare effect of an energy poverty-based LCD initiative in Ghana, in the next section.
Gurung et al. 2011). The misunderstanding of local gender relations by those from outside communities can also harm local men through distortions in how scarce labor and other resources are allocated, thereby reducing the capacity of families for social reproduction, or favoring large-scale land acquisition by wealthier men from poorer women and men. The instrumental argument is that genderanalysis and improving women’s participation can further the goals of emission reduction, poverty alleviation, and increased food security. This argument is drawn from the limited early literature on mitigation outcomes and the growing literature on adaptation outcomes. In general, early mitigation and adaptation programs have had or are expected to have limited impacts to reduce emissions or increase resilience because technologies have been socially or environmentally inappropriate and rejected (CAPRi 2012); organizational forms—such as carbon markets—have been slow to attract the rural poor (Shames and Scherr 2011, Wollenberg et al. 2012); information has been communicated ineffectively (Harvey et al. 2012); or institutional barriers such as resource tenure, marketing infrastructure, or resource-use policies increase risk or otherwise prevent action (CAPRi 2012). When programs have not fully understood the relationships among actors in an agricultural system, or how actors relate to the soils, water, plants and animals in their agricultural systems, they do not achieve either their emissions reductions or social goals (Agrawal, Orlove and Ribot 2012).
ABSTRACT: East Africa, one of the most volatile regions in Africa, has been suffering from enormous problems caused by population growth, weak governance, war, and famine. Recently, the advent of climatechange has exacerbated these pre-existing problems. These impacts are not felt equally across populations, and, according to various studies, disproportionately affect women. Despite reforms, rural East African women still struggle to access resources or participate in decision-making processes. As a result, they have a weaker ability to adapt to climatechange than men. This weaker adaptive capacity influences migration patterns between the genders, and creates its own set of problems. Indeed, migration influenced by climatechange forces women to take greater roles at home and confront increased violence. While not fully understood, there is growing evidence of the connection between climatechange, migration, and gender disparities. Addressing these issues in isolation cannot bring a sustainable solution, but this article will explore the legal and policy measures needed to solve the complex societal and ecological problems facing the region. Through international collaboration, East Africa can take action to improve the lives of women, limit violence, and fight back against the rapidly changing climate.
A stream of research seeks to understand how board gender composition affects organizational outcomes, including disclosure. These studies commonly use agency theory , which argues that women are better monitors because they are more independent, and resource dependence theory , which theorizes that female directors are likely to add diversity to boards’ human capital which leads to improved decision making [34,35]. The economic argument for diversity, on the other hand, focuses on discrimination. If low levels of female directors are a result of gender discrimination, female director appointments are likely to be drawn from the higher end of the ability/productivity distribution of potential female directors . Accordingly, a more gender diverse board may be associated with better decision making, more efficient monitoring, as well as the replacement of less able male directors . Another argument borrows from psychology research and emphasizes the differences in values and traits based on the assumption that women on boards are similar to the general population of women and therefore they are more ethical, risk-averse and long-term oriented . A study by Nielsen and Huse  suggested that women may be particularly sensitive to—and may exercise influence on—decisions such as environmental politics.
are calculated by a non-parametric Mann-Kendall analysis instead of linear regression; (2) Spatial gradients in long-term median instead of average quantities were used to be consistent with the approach to temporal trends; (3) A novel approach was used to constrain occurrences of near-zero values of spatial gradients. The benefit of these adaptations is an increased robustness in dealing with data distributions potentially skewed by extremes to which an average based approach is more sensitive. In this study we use Germany as an example, because it has excellent availability of long-term weather records, including one of the world’s longest precipitation records. Furthermore, we assess that the response of species to seasonal climate variability and velocity could be more eas- ily detected, rather than to coarser metrics such as annual changes in temperature and precipitation, as changes in species distribution are rarely controlled by the mean annual temperatures 27 .
Diversity as a subject has received increased interest in modern times and all and sundry appears to be speaking about it, there doesn’t appear to be much actual progress. Contemporary studies confirm that more novel problem-solving and superior decision-making arises when diverse views and perceptions are incorporated in a shared pool of knowledge. Consequently, ineffectiveness in diversifying work teams especially with respect to gender portends the risk of losing the war on talent. Nigeria’s population of about some 170.5 million people constitutes the largest population of any African country. Of the vast population, females constitute 49%; about 82.2 million females. Consequently, all discourses on Nigeria’s prospect should inevitably involve contemplation of females, their position and those obstacles they face in making the future. Generating a gender sensitive nation obliges deliberate, continuous effort. To sustain inclusion initiatives, gender diversity must be embedded into the fabric of the country. Progressive management is now more than a “one size fits all” approach; it demands a grasp and endorsement of the characteristic values and point of views individuals bring to the table. Women and men bring diverse, but homogeneously vital benefits to the national development. Subsequently, discerning leaders must promote their consciousness of the disparities and build an atmosphere where both are embraced and respected. Gender stereotyping is so entrenched in the Nigerian culture, it is frequently imperceptible. Discrimination commonly happens arising from ignorance rather than premeditated or malicious intent but knowledge obliterates ignorance and reduces stereotyping. Undoubtedly women are Nigeria’s unseen resource and advancing their cause increases productivity, encourage sustainable growth, peace and improved health. This study presents a situationanalysis and examines the significant issues that require tackling in order to exploit the prospects of females. It emphasises the serious issues and depicts the seriousness and importance of the situation. It therefore calls attention to analysed behaviours and with a new awareness of gender differences with the aim of educating stakeholders, and training individual team members for inclusion and excellence.
a major role in phloem K + loading and unloading ( Marten et al., 1999 ; Lacombe et al., 2000 ; Ache et al., 2001 ; Hafke et al., 2007 ). In grapevine, VvK3.1 channel mediates K + unloading in the berries and is also involved in the maintenance of transmembrane K + gradients of phloem cells, which refers to the concept of K + battery ( Gajdanowicz et al., 2011 ; Dreyer et al., 2017 ; Nieves-Cordones et al., 2019 ). The K + battery explains how an open AKT2-like channel can compensate for the reduced pH gradient present under energy limitation and can provide additional energy stored in the K + gradient between the phloem cytosol and the berry apoplast for transmembrane transport processes ( Dreyer et al., 2017 ). This plays a major role in driving sugar, amino acid, and water transport across plant cell membranes during phloem unloading and allows the phloem stream ﬂux toward the berry may persist over a long period of time. Finally, four K + outward Shaker subunits have been identiﬁed in grapevine whereas only two outward subunits exist in A. thaliana. Among them, the VvK5.1 Shaker exhibits an expression territory strongly enlarged in comparison with SKOR, its most related A. thaliana gene ( Villette et al., 2019 ). As SKOR, this grapevine Shaker is also involved in K + root to shoot translocation but its larger expression pro ﬁle reveals new roles not described so far, e.g. the involvement of a K + Shaker in the process of lateral root primordium development ( Villette et al., 2019 ). In response to climatechange, K + transporters and particularly K + Shaker channels identi ﬁed in grapevine appear to be key molecular actors to sustain a suitable K + uptake and distribution.
Whatever the exact year, Francisca remembers that the farmers were not able to harvest enough. Saamε did not harvest much either but according to Francisca he was able to buy food with the money he earned by off-loading the trucks. They were not rearing smallstock that time, not even poultry, so they had no small animals to sell. Saamε may have sold one cow of his first wife’s bridewealth to buy food. Francisca does not clearly remember whether or not he did that. She thinks he did. Saamε had several brothers who were working down south; did they send money or food to Saamε? “No, they never sent anything at all. They never helped us.” That year, there was often no food to eat. “Some days we would get something, other days not.” She also had to go to the bush near Tanyaga to look for vegetables and leaves. In this respect, she had an advantage over many other women in town; she grew up in the village and knew where to find edible wild foods. If you compare that year with your food situation this year (2000), which year was better? “That year was a bit better. We are suffering a lot now.” If this is true (and it is not unlikely; see below), it is illustrative of the dramatic decline in Francisca’s food and livelihood security. In the early 1980s, an area-wide trigger event (drought, partial crop failures and sky-rocketing food prices) caused a less severe food shortage than last year without such an event. Let’s assume that this did happen in 1981. What happened in the following years? “That was the only year we were suffering for food in Pataal. It was only after my husband died that we started suffering again. The difference is that this time if you have the money, you can buy the food in the market. That time, even with money, there was not much you could buy. My problem now is that it is difficult to get the money to buy food.”
The debate on the interaction between climatechange and gender is gaining momentum. Scholars and practitioners make the argument that building adaptive capacity is about recognising differential vulnerabilities in different social groups. Through existing power relations between social groups, climatechange tends to push weaker groups at the very edge of the development ‘abyss’. Scientists and practitioners alike need to deepen their knowledge and understanding on risks. Women and men experience vulnerability differently and have different strategies to adapt to environmental stress. Asymmetrical relationships within the household unit play out in the control, use, and distribution of environmental resources. As environmental resources become scarce and workloads increase, what capacities do women, men and social groups enjoy in insulating themselves or recovering from climate shocks, surprises and extreme weather perturbation? What roles do institutions play?
Depending on the speed of transition and the energy choices made, we will have opportunities to mitigate the impacts on the value of our portfolio through selectively investing in the commodities that will benefit from structural market changes. Over our long history, we have continually demonstrated our ability to reposition ourselves for future growth, by divesting those parts of our business that do not align with our strategy, like the recent demerger, or by investing in new commodities where we see a strong long-term growth story, like potash. We believe our analysis demonstrates that BHP Billiton will continue to create substantial value for shareholders under both an orderly and a more rapid transition to a 2°C world. As a leading global resources company, we also have a broader role to play in supporting this transition, including the development of low-emissions technology, and sharing our market experience to support governments in delivering the changes in policy and regulation required to successfully address climatechange.
Groundwater pumping wells are expected to be inef- fective in areas where the palaeochannel is absent and lateral groundwater transmission is poor. In this situation, low bore yields limit the amount of groundwater that can be pumped and restrict the area of water table drawdown to a small radius around the bores. If present, local oc- currences of more conductive sediments (e.g., discon- tinuous “lenses” and “stringers” of gravel and sand) may provide a suitable target for a local groundwater pump- ing strategy.
Considering farm size and land ownership status, FHHs were also more vulnerable than their male counterparts. In fact, the bulk of the discussions and major theme emanating from the Participatory Rural Appraisals centred on the inability of the women to access larger farming plots to increase production. Most of the women who have large farm size only acquire these plots on rents and must pay a lot out of their harvest proceeds to keep them and are therefore left with very little income at the end. This finding agrees with the report in  that “women in Nigeria rarely claim ownership on land despite their heavy involvement in agriculture”. Similarly, in terms of access to loan and farm credit, the high V. I of the FHHs indicates they are more constrained in increasing their financial base which consequently reduces their adaptation capacity. A study conducted in Ghana, West Africa by  showed that increase in farmers’ access to credit facilities increases their possibility of purchasing improved varieties of seeds and fertilisers and adopting new adaptation technology. This also has a connection with the inability of the FHHs to employ adequate labour force on their farms. Study by  showed that access to farm credit facilitates the number of labourers employed by a household. The high farm labour vulnerability score of FHHs in the area suggests that they have lower labour force to effect climatechange adaptation strategies. However, it was observed that most female heads with many persons in their households usually employ them as labourers in the farm. This was particularly the case in Agwu zone where most of the household members were employed as farm labourers. This explains the low vulnerability score of the FHHs in the zone as regards to farm labour, unlike the case in Enugu and Nsukka zones. Using access to cooperative societies as vulnerability indicator, it was observed that most of the farmers belong to one form of cooperative society or another. In fact, in Nsukka zone, all the farmers surveyed belonged to farmers’ cooperative societies. The farmers mentioned that through cooperatives societies, it was easy for them to access subsidised inputs such as improved seeds and fertilisers. Additionally, it was observed that most of the cooperatives were gender based, with the female farmers forming their own cooperatives. This shows the importance of gender-based farmers’ cooperatives. A gender-based farmers’ cooperatives helped the farmers contribute freely to farming decisions as well as directly accessing available resources themselves.
Lack of land tenure is a significant problem for women subsistence farmers in Africa who work to feed their family. In Ghana, for example, when a women’s husband, i.e. the landowner, passes away, her brothers-in-law typically come to claim the land she has farmed for decades and still depends on. Women can take their case to the official, i.e. post-colonial, legal system, but typically they appeal to their local chief under the traditional justice system. It is not uncommon for the chief to decide that the woman has the right to farm the land until her natural death . This creates uncertainty, however, as it means that the woman’s fate depends on the vagaries of individual choice and how much the chief can be relied upon. It also leaves a daughter, typically the third, who according to traditional practice is kept in the family to assist the mother, in a difficult situation when the mother passes away in that the daughter no longer has access to the land, so can grow no food for herself and dependents, and has little life-choice options available. Her life has in effect been forfeit to unpaid labor ending in dependency on the goodwill of others. Her life is not her own; but in fact, her mother’s was not her own either, though she did have more autonomy than the daughter. Woman can also lose access to their farm if the land is sold by the owner, whether that is her husband, another family member, or the person she is renting it from. Development project personnel can import gender bias from their home context, and historically there have been cases in which land was bought from a husband, who may or may not have understood what he was agreeing to, with no consideration, either deliberately or based on bias, that the wife should be consulted because of the consequences to family food security of losing access to the land. Outside the growing season, even well-intentioned developers might simply overlook women’s land use because of the invisibility of their labor .
The task of the District Assembly is to perform deliberative, legislative and executive functions. It is within the domain of these functions as enshrined in the Local government Act 1993 Act 462 that District Assemblies may make by-laws for the purpose of a function conferred on them. In these bylaws shall be the specification as a penalty a fine and make provision for the payment of the fees or charges. The by-laws made by a District Assembly shall be read and construed subject to this Act and any other enactment. Approval of the bye-laws is by the Minister (Minister for Local government) and he shall submit them for publication in the Gazette. This role of the Minister can be delegated to the Regional Coordinating Council. The bye-laws shall not have effect until they have been published in the Gazette. A copy of the by-laws purporting to be made by a District Assembly on which is endorsed a certificate purporting to be signed by the presiding member and the secretary to the Assembly to the effect that they copy is a true copy of the by- laws, shall be prima facie evidence in a court of the due making and the contents of the bye-laws. All the four districts have bye-laws even though there are issues to be considered. These bye- laws cover a wider spectrum of environment and development. Peruse of the content of these bye-laws showed that each district has about 20 bye-laws. However, this research only selected those that have implications for groundwater adaptation to climatechange (Table 3).
The majority of the world’s rural poor people depend on rain fed crop and livestock systems for their food and incomes (Wallace, 2000). Rain-fed agriculture will continue to play a critical role in future food needs which is increasing according to the population pressure particularly in Africa (Rockström et al., 2003; Rockström et al., 2010). However, rain fed agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is highly variable and unpredictable due to erratic rainfall, structurally unstable soils leading to low overall productivity (Jat et al., 2012). Increasing WP is particularly appropriate where water is scarce and it is very important for increasing the productivity and sustainability of rain fed cropping systems of poor smallholder farmers (Sidhu, 2014). However, rainfall variability coupled with dry spells and droughts in between have been identified as main factor to lower yield and rainwater productivity in many rain-fed environments (Howden et al., 2007). Furthermore rainfall variability and the frequency of extreme events are likely to increase in the future as a result of climatechange (Cooper et al., 2009). In addition conventional farming system based on soil inversion using plough and hoe, contributes to soil erosion and soil desiccation thus reduce water productivity (Rockström et al., 2003). Fortunately, there is high potential to increase land and water productivity in smallholder rain-fed crop with CA (Su et al., 2007). Conservation farming based on non- inversion tillage systems from zero-tillage to reduced tillage have been recommended maximizing soil infiltration and reducing soil erosion while conserving energy and labor (Su et al., 2007). Moreover mulch cover provides benefits in improved water infiltration and reduced soil surface evaporation especially under dry or moisture‐limited conditions (Turmel et al., 2014).