Top PDF Climate change and its impact on coastal cities: A case study from Alexandria

Climate change and its impact on coastal cities: A case study from Alexandria

Climate change and its impact on coastal cities: A case study from Alexandria

3 The substantial lack of relevant technical knowledge required in building design, material and processes, are the major reasons (Lami, 2014). Addressing the impacts of climate change in the country, it is important to mention that Egypt is ranked third on the list of countries that may have the worst effect of climate change (World Bank, 2009). The effects will include; higher temperature, change in rain patterns, rise of sea level, and increase in catastrophic weather events. The impact on Egyptian cities will be affecting human health, infrastructure and services, economic activities and social systems. The extent of these impacts will depend on the level of the city’s preparation, as well as on its ability to adopt both anticipated and unanticipated effects. As for many projected climatic studies, the major natural threats that are facing Egypt are; floods resulted from SLR and heat stress resulted from the greenhouse gases and other emissions. It has been mentioned in recent report by the UNDP that 3.3% of total land area of the Nile Delta, approximately 16 km 2 of valuable cultivated land will be lost in the absence of adaptive action (UNDP, 2014). Alexandria, one of the most significant Egyptian coastal cities, is listed among the 15 of the world’s 20 coastal megacities that are at risk from SLR and coastal surges (World Bank, 2009).
Show more

224 Read more

A Methodology for Assessing Dynamic Resilience of Coastal Cities to Climate Change Influenced Hydrometeorological Disasters

A Methodology for Assessing Dynamic Resilience of Coastal Cities to Climate Change Influenced Hydrometeorological Disasters

integrated disaster resilience assessment. Socially resilient populations demonstrate the ability to adapt to a disturbance to better prepare for, respond to, and recover from disaster circumstances. These populations may recover and emerge more resilient than they initially were before the event occurred. Norris et al. (2008) suggested the following factors influence social resilience: citizen involvement in mitigation efforts, ongoing psychosocial support, strong civic leadership, and effective horizontal and vertical organizational linkages. O’Neill et al. (2016) substantiate these claims through a review of available social resilience literature, interviews with citizens, and through the author’s personal experiences. They determined that the social resilience factors proposed by Norris et al. (2008) were consistent with their findings in a case study following the 2009 flooding in Fargo, North Dakota. They also propose that the community’s “identity” (in this case a “floodplain identity”) heavily influences its social resilience in the event of a disturbance (in this case a flood). These “identities” reflect a community’s attitudes, responsibilities, and expectations of the government, relief organizations and individuals in the event of a disturbance. It’s also been proposed that resilience of disaster management systems also relies heavily on interorganizational and social networks, effective communication, trust, and social capital (Kapucu and Demiroz, 2017). However, traditional disaster management approaches, such as performance measurement tools, have faced challenges in evaluating the relationships in – and between – these networks.
Show more

285 Read more

Coastal Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study of Char Montaz in Patuakhali District of Bangladesh

Coastal Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study of Char Montaz in Patuakhali District of Bangladesh

Abstract: This study was conducted at coastal Char Montaz in Rangabali Upazila at Patuakhali district of Bangladesh. Char Montaz is vulnerable to different types of destructive disasters due to its geographic location. Disasters such as floods, river bank erosion, cyclone, tornado, hail storm, water logging, salinity intrusion etc. are gradually intensifying by climate change and composing risks for the coastal people in Char Montaz. The study is concerned with climate change related risks and hazards that affects the inhabitant’s livelihood of the study area. The study findings demonstrated that the climate change has affected the 70% people’s agricultural livelihood in many ways. It has also created a state of unemployment among the people of coastal communities. As a result, the affected people are losing their means of livelihoods and forced to take several alternative means of livelihoods to cope with the adverse impact of climate change related disasters. The study identifies the livelihood adaptation strategies adapted by the affected communities in Char Montaz area. The present paper exhibits that the coastal community people try to solve their problems through adopting and exploring alternative employments.
Show more

7 Read more

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A CASE STUDY OF VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A CASE STUDY OF VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION IN COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

economic, and political factors that expose people to climatic hazards and also limit their capacity to cope with it (Cutter, 1996; Adger, 2006; Wisner et al., 2006). This approach concedes to the claim that climate change will affect various human rights including the rights to life, food, housing, shelter, and culture. However, greater weight is placed on issues of marginalisation and other forms of pre-existing injustices that serve to heighten the vulnerability of people under a climate change scenario. The central thesis of this approach is that there is a multiplication of human rights infringements, not caused by the physical events of climate change, but by the social, economic, and political processes that make people vulnerable or unable to cope with the impacts of those events (Barnett, 2010). In some countries, for example, poor neighbourhoods are targeted as potential locations for toxic waste which could worsen the already poor standard of living and human rights conditions in those communities, thus making them even more vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Under human rights law, states are legally bound to address such vulnerability in accordance with the principle of equality and non-discrimination (OHCHR, 2009 para. 42). The vulnerability approach also recognizes that measures to mitigate or adapt to climate change may infringe on human rights (Humphrey, 2010). For instance, the reliance of some nations on maize as bio-fuel could potentially increase some people’s vulnerability to food insecurity. Also, certain flood mitigation measures in coastal areas may create new vulnerabilities or lead to outright displacement of poor communities, thereby affecting their rights to housing and social security. This understanding has led a number of authors to suggest a human rights-based approach to reducing vulnerability to climate change impacts (Boyce, 2000; Sarewitz et al., 2003; Yamin et al., 2005; Barnett, 2010).
Show more

272 Read more

Households’ Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change and Climate Variability: A Case Study of the Coastal Zone, The Gambia

Households’ Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change and Climate Variability: A Case Study of the Coastal Zone, The Gambia

The major component Livelihood Strategies comprises three sub-components. This component reveals a greater vulnerability for Lower Niumi (0.501) than Kombo South (0.495). The households in Kombo South reported a larger proportion, 90% of people who depend on Agriculture as the major source of income than Lower Niumi, 76%. This agrees with MOA (2015) report that the agriculture sector is responsible for over 70% of direct and indirect jobs. Of this number, over 75% of households depend on the crop sub-sector for household income in The Gambia (MOA, 2015). A similar response was observed in the average agricultural livelihood diversification of the respondents as Kombo South reported 0.003 while Lower Niumi reported 0.002. The diversification of crops and fisheries helps in reducing risks from total crop failures, this is an approach to building resilience to cope with and better adapt to varied climatic stress (Pingali & Rosegrant, 1995). Most households were involved in other livelihood activities like collecting and sale of natural resources like wood, raising animals, processing of fish, and keeping a grocery shop. Increase in livelihood strategies helps to increase people’s level of income to build more resilience to the impacts of climate change and its variability. The respondent’s in Lower Niumi, 74% reported a larger number of people travelling to other communities to work compared to the 57.6% reported in Kombo South. Most people travelling from the provinces migrate to the capital cities to seek greener pastures of which some return with societal ills that may serve as a disincentive to engage the active working population on farming and fishing activities. This notwithstanding, some people send remittances to relatives, which helps in building their resilience to climate change impacts (UNDP, 2012; WFP, 2016).
Show more

12 Read more

Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture Sector of Coastal Odisha

Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture Sector of Coastal Odisha

study on US agriculture, by using economic data on the value of land. Instead of studying yields of specific crops, the method examines how climate in different places affects the net rent or value of farm land. By directly estimating the net farm revenues, the method account for the direct impacts of climate on yields of different crops as well as the indirect substitution of different inputs and other potential adaptation to different climates (which gets reflected in costs). Besides being applied to developed countries the method has also been used recently in the developing countries to measure the economic impact of climate change on the agriculture sector [8-11]. In case of India, Kumar and Parikh (2001) [12] have tried to measure the climate sensitivity of Indian agriculture by adopting the Ricardian approach. Though the approach was first used in US taking the land values into consideration, in case of developing countries farm level net revenue is being used because of absence of organized land market. However, the outcomes of all these studies imply that climate change would be slightly beneficial to US agriculture, but it is likely to be harmful to tropical and semi tropical countries.
Show more

5 Read more

Vulnerability of Coastal Fisher Households to Climate Change: A Case Study from Gujarat, India

Vulnerability of Coastal Fisher Households to Climate Change: A Case Study from Gujarat, India

Based on the analysis of five parameters across four selected villages, economy was found to be most impacted parameter due to the climate change. Since economy of the fishery sector in the area is an important parameter used to calculate the adaptive capacity of the sector, it indicates that the system is very much susceptible to the possible impacts of climate change. The economy was followed by social parameter, which determines the sensitivity of the area. The degree of exposure of the system to the climate change, that was measured by environment parameter in the present study ranked third among the impacted parameters (Figure 4). However, little variation can be seen at individual village level, thus pointing the fact that each village was susceptible to climatic changes at different degree. The study highlights that the most significant impact of climate change at Old light house, Rajpara and Navabunder was found to be on the economic factor which comprised of attributes like increase in the cost of fuel, crafts and gears and loss due to spoilage and expansion in fishing area. On the other hand, environment formed the most impacted parameter as a result of climate change at Bhidiya, which could be attributed to the high level of pollution caused by factories in the Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Veraval and transport vessels ferrying goods. The second most important attribute impacted by the climate change in all the villages of study was ‘Social parameter’ as about 37% of the population was found to be living in areas which are prone to disaster and with minimal healthcare and sanitation facilities
Show more

11 Read more

Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Management. Case study on Kura basin

Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Management. Case study on Kura basin

Abstract- The effects of climate change on freshwater systems and their management occurs mainly due to the observed and projected increase in temperature, increase in precipitation, rise in sea level and precipitation variability. By this, climate warming accelerates the global water cycle on the planet, making arid regions even drier and leading to flooding in the wet ones. According to the findings of scientists, made on the basis of 13 years satellite observations, the warming of the Earth's climate leads to increased evaporation of water from the surface of the oceans, which causes more rainfall than before, that riverbeds return to the ocean. The volume of water circulating in this cycle, increasing annually by 1.5%. For the period from 1994 to 2006, the volume of fresh water annually entering the oceans has increased by 18%. Since more than a sixth of the world's population lives in river basins supplied by meltwater of glaciers and snow, those people will affect the reduction of the water volume stored in glaciers and snow cover, raising the ratio of volume of winter to annual flows, and possibly a reduction in minimum flows. Sea level rise will expand the area of salinization of groundwater and estuaries that will reduce water availability for people and ecosystems in coastal areas. The increased intensity and variability of precipitation, according to forecasts, will increase the risk of flooding and drought in many areas. Up to 20% of the world population lives in river basins that are to 2080 years is likely to face increased flooding risks in the course of global warming. Thus, increasing of water temperature, precipitation increase and the increase of periods of minimum runoff is likely to exacerbate many forms of water pollution that will have consequences for ecosystems, human health, reliability of water supply and operating costs for these systems.
Show more

6 Read more

CLIMATE-FRIENDLY CITIES A Handbook on the Tasks and Possibilities of European Cities in Relation to Climate Change

CLIMATE-FRIENDLY CITIES A Handbook on the Tasks and Possibilities of European Cities in Relation to Climate Change

concomitant of the climate change. A favourable impact is the decrease of the heating demand because of the expectably rising average temperature and shortening, warming winters. The direct impacts of the climate change firstly appear in the field of economy. The impacts outlined so far are primarily of technological and technical nature and their effect upon the economy clearly manifest themselves in the expenditures of production and services becoming more costly, since the effects of technical nature, even if less harmful, entail utilisations different from the usual loads and specifications, which requires either new (even if not necessarily more expensive) solutions or the strengthening and transformation of the existing technology. Depending on the climatic exposure, sometimes these expenses are quite high in certain partial fields in terms of national economy, e.g. in case of flood protection. The nowadays characteristic large supply systems, which are exposed to the environmental changes through transport and infrastructure, are more sensitive and vulnerable to these impacts. At the same time, the impacts of the climate change can be beneficial in many fields for the economy. The changing possibilities of agriculture appear in an indirect manner, in the strengthening or weakening of the situation of the neighbourhood of the cities. The generally decreasing heating demands are, theoretically, also beneficial but, due to the more variable weather, the costs can develop even reversely. With the exception of the Mediterranean region, the extension of the touristic season is a favourable effect but in the South the more and more serious heat waves may diminish the summer guest turnover. In the mountains the drastic rearrangement of ski tourism is already a currently existing process. The favourable ice conditions will have a beneficial effect on maritime trade in the coastal areas of the Northern, Baltic and Black seas.
Show more

56 Read more

Climate Change and Its Impact on Sustainable Development in Bangladesh

Climate Change and Its Impact on Sustainable Development in Bangladesh

(2007), an increase in the average global temperature will lead to changes in precipitation and atmospheric moisture due to the changes in atmospheric circulation and increases in evaporation and water vapor. Expected population growth and migration mean that urban expansion will be the most universal development challenge. Rapid urbanization and climate change have given it a new sense of urgency. When urban expansion can take the form of urban sprawl then it is costly, wasteful, and ecologically destructive [2]. By 2050, the urban population of the developing world will be 5.3 billion; Asia will host 63% of the world’s urban population, or 3.3 billion people and The United Nation predicts that here will be millions of environmental migrants by 2020, and climate change is one of the major drivers. Climate change is taking measure not only on the ecology of nations around the world but also their political, economic and social stability with the poorest nations and the poorest of the rich nations being the worst sufferers [8]. A one meter rise in sea level could for instance flood 17% of Bangladesh's land area and that could threaten large parts of coastal cities such as Lagos, Cape Town, small island Maldives. A World Bank study has estimated that a one-meter sea-level rise would affect 84 developing countries alone. Recent studies have found that up to 12% of the world GDP is already at risk from existing climate patterns. For example the value of GDP exposed to tropical cyclones alone more than tripled from US$526 billion in the 1970s to US$1.6 trillion in the first decade of the 2000s [9]. Ultimately if climate change is not being solved, then poverty eradication, food security and other major related problem cannot be solved either [10]. Secretary-General of UN, Ban Ki-moon affirmed that climate change was an "unholy brew" that could create perilous security vacuums, and that we must address a clear danger that not only exacerbated the threats but was itself a threat to international peace and security [9].
Show more

6 Read more

Cities and Climate Change Mitigation: Case Study on Tokyo s Emissions Trading System

Cities and Climate Change Mitigation: Case Study on Tokyo s Emissions Trading System

Simple Reporting System: Many companies had complained that they do not have the technical capacity to develop an emissions report each year. The development of a simple reporting system that relied on existing data from electricity, gas, and fuel bills and equipment inventory lists was one of the most important elements for gaining acceptance for the ETS while also obtaining reliable data. That said, reporting in such a way limits the target gases to energy-based CO 2 . In the case of Tokyo, this was considered appropriate, since the dominant emitter of GHGs is the commercial building sector. Appropriate ETS Design: Designing an ETS appropriate to the conditions in a city and responsive to the goal of the BOE—i.e. the reduction of the gross total (not the per capita amount) of GHGs from the City—was essential for effective reductions of emissions. While the exact details of the ETS may be specific to Tokyo, there are several lessons with wide applicability for effective emissions reduction. The first is establishing an absolute cap on the emissions of each individual facility instead of an intensity-based cap. An intensity-based cap can lead to energy efficiency, which is necessary but not sufficient to achieve reduced emissions, but the goal of TMG is a general reduction in the total amount of GHGs from a city. Given the structure of TMG’s emissions portfolio, an absolute cap was considered the only way to reach this goal. Secondly, the TMG initially focused on those facilities under its jurisdictional purview that will have the greatest impact on total emissions. By doing so, the city will avoid the mire of managing several tens of thousands of facilities that only have a marginal effect on emissions reductions and target those facilities that have the largest potential impact.
Show more

28 Read more

A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts

A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts

Abstract Worldwide, there is a need to enhance our understanding of vulnerability and to develop methodologies and tools to assess vulnerability. One of the most important goals of assessing coastal flood vulnerability, in particular, is to create a readily under- standable link between the theoretical concepts of flood vulnerability and the day-to-day decision-making process and to encapsulate this link in an easily accessible tool. This article focuses on developing a Coastal City Flood Vulnerability Index (CCFVI) based on exposure, susceptibility and resilience to coastal flooding. It is applied to nine cities around the world, each with different kinds of exposure. With the aid of this index, it is dem- onstrated which cities are most vulnerable to coastal flooding with regard to the system’s components, that is, hydro-geological, socio-economic and politico-administrative. The index gives a number from 0 to 1, indicating comparatively low or high coastal flood vulnerability, which shows which cities are most in need of further, more detailed investigation for decision-makers. Once its use to compare the vulnerability of a range of cities under current conditions has been demonstrated, it is used to study the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of these cities over a longer timescale. The results show that CCFVI provides a means of obtaining a broad overview of flood vulnerability and the effect of possible adaptation options. This, in turn, will allow for the direction of resources to more in-depth investigation of the most promising strategies.
Show more

36 Read more

A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts

A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts

Abstract Worldwide, there is a need to enhance our understanding of vulnerability and to develop methodologies and tools to assess vulnerability. One of the most important goals of assessing coastal flood vulnerability, in particular, is to create a readily under- standable link between the theoretical concepts of flood vulnerability and the day-to-day decision-making process and to encapsulate this link in an easily accessible tool. This article focuses on developing a Coastal City Flood Vulnerability Index (CCFVI) based on exposure, susceptibility and resilience to coastal flooding. It is applied to nine cities around the world, each with different kinds of exposure. With the aid of this index, it is dem- onstrated which cities are most vulnerable to coastal flooding with regard to the system’s components, that is, hydro-geological, socio-economic and politico-administrative. The index gives a number from 0 to 1, indicating comparatively low or high coastal flood vulnerability, which shows which cities are most in need of further, more detailed investigation for decision-makers. Once its use to compare the vulnerability of a range of cities under current conditions has been demonstrated, it is used to study the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of these cities over a longer timescale. The results show that CCFVI provides a means of obtaining a broad overview of flood vulnerability and the effect of possible adaptation options. This, in turn, will allow for the direction of resources to more in-depth investigation of the most promising strategies.
Show more

36 Read more

Climate change and its impact on structural safety

Climate change and its impact on structural safety

Changes in climate do not occur from one day to another. The current safety philosophy is based on an accepted risk during the lifetime of the structure. If e.g. the wind loading is the leading effect, an increase of 8% in 100 years may be relevant. The uncertainties involved however are large. Structural safety deals with extreme effects which may last only seconds (e.g for wind loads) or minutes (e.g. ponding). The climate effects are described in the scenarios in terms of days or longer. We now assume that the trends for the short terms are similar to the trends in the longer time scales; however we do not know whether this is right. Besides, we are sometimes interested in combinations of climate effects. Extreme snowfall is related to precipitation extremes and temperature. These combinations require combined statistics. We need more, and more reliable, information on the climate effects, before we can definitively changes building standards or guidelines.
Show more

34 Read more

The Localization of Actions for Climate Change Adaptation: A Case Study of Post Morakot Reconstruction in Coastal Taiwan

The Localization of Actions for Climate Change Adaptation: A Case Study of Post Morakot Reconstruction in Coastal Taiwan

The emergence of Technology Actant: The Research and Development of Floating PV Devices The Pingtung County Government arranged visits to many SMEs developing floating piers for this PV company and local villagers. After research and evaluation, based on the characteristics of the local natural environment and costing, the choice of materials and structures was different from the referenced cases in that time. In addition, considering the salt spray corrosion problem, Linbian villagers finally applied local life experience and practical mechanical and electrical expertise accumulated over time: the fixing principle of fishpond pumps and PVC rafts to develop small-scale PV modules to fix solar generators on the water surface. This technology actant was developed through seven generations. Finally, after recruiting a specialist PE exporter to the project, solar generators could float on the fishpond.
Show more

7 Read more

Cities: the core of climate change mitigation

Cities: the core of climate change mitigation

studies on climate changing impacts on energy systems are still limited. However, it is clear that urban energy sector can be influenced by the changing climate at all parts of the processes including supply, demand, operations, and assets. Wei et al. (2017) calculated the carbon emissions of urban power grid in one of the most populous and economically dynamic regions in China, namely Jing-Jin-Ji region. Wang et al. (2018a) undertook the IPCC bottom-up inventory indicator to estimate the GHG emissions from biomass combustion in China and used GIS to reveal the temporal and spatial characteristics of biomass combustion emissions. To and Lee (2017) used a life cycle approach and fuel mix data from power companies’ sustainability reports to analyze GHG emissions from electricity consumption in Hong Kong. Rocha et al. (2017) analysed the influence on the circulation of goods and services by tax exemptions together with the returns and risks of photovoltaic (PV) micro-generation projects in four cities in different regions of Brazil. Dou et al. (2018) evaluated land use influence on indicators of economy and environment by establishing a comprehensive model for the feasibility evaluation of heat exchange networks between city-scale incineration facilities and industries. Waheed et al. (2018) investigated the effects of renewable energy consumption on carbon emission in Pakistan. Gupta and Gregg (2018) presented a localised Geographical Information System (GIS) based approach that utilized publicly-available national and local datasets on housing and energy to provide targeted low carbon measures across UK cities. Roelich et al. (2018) conducted a longitudinal analysis from 2013 to 2017 including five British cities which try to form new institutional arrangements for the participation of the national energy system and contribution to the climate change mitigation. Ramadan (2017) developed an optimization model to assess the wind energy farm sizing for an optimal energy yield in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.
Show more

25 Read more

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE IN VIETNAM

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE IN VIETNAM

Climate change, which includes increases in temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, sea level rise, salt-water intrusion and a higher probability of extreme weather events such as flooding and droughts, is recognised as a global issue (Bates et al. 2008). The negative effects of these changes are likely to be felt more strongly in the less developed world compared to developed countries, as a large share of the population live in exposed areas, depend directly on natural resources for their livelihood and have limited institutional capacities to take proactive measures (Adger, 1999). Climate change poses a serious impact on agriculture, environment and health over the world. It is predicted that by 2080 the cereal production could be reduced down as 2-4% meanwhile the price will increase up to 13-45%, and about 36-50% of population being affected by hunger.
Show more

5 Read more

STUDY THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURE OVER ALEXANDRIA, EGYPT USING STATISTICAL DOWNSCALING MODEL (SDSM)

STUDY THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURE OVER ALEXANDRIA, EGYPT USING STATISTICAL DOWNSCALING MODEL (SDSM)

Comparisons between the SDSM and other downscaling methods have shown that the SDSM performed well in reproducing observed climate variability (Dibike and Coulibaly, 2005; Diaz-Nieto and Wilby, 2005; Khan et al., 2006; Wetterhall et al., 2006; Gachon and Dibike, 2007; Prudhomme and Davies, 2009). For example, Khan et al. (2006) compared three downscaling methods, SDSM, Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model and an artificial neural network (ANN) for downscaling daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures in a watershed of Canada and found SDSM performed the best. Similar results were also reported by Dibike and Coulibaly (2005). Although both SDSM and LARS-WG were able to reproduce mean daily precipitation reasonable well, SDSM performed better in simulating variability of precipitation, and better than the perturbation method in the Thames Valley, UK (Diaz-Nieto and Wilby, 2005). Wetterhall et al. (2006) evaluated four SD methods for daily precipitation in three catchments located in southern, eastern and central China and northern Europe, and showed that SDSM performed best.
Show more

19 Read more

The importance of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in coastal cities: The case study of Cancun, Mexico

The importance of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in coastal cities: The case study of Cancun, Mexico

In the matter of levels and scales extent and coherence are the two quality criteria that are most easily recognisable. In the matter of extent, this governance dimension can be deemed as adequate if we talk only about the involvedness of different levels of authorities that Mexican laws and instruments try to accomplish. National ministries such as SEMARNAT or SECTUR must be involved in the process of designation of coastal zones for the development of different projects (conservation, urban development, etc.) while PROFEPA and SEMARNAT need to monitor the execution of the plans and assure that initial plans are followed properly. State and local ministries are involved in the matter of assuring that these projects follow their development plans while also assigning the areas that will be most suitable for these projects to be made. However, in the aspect of coherence problems are often seen when decisions are going to be taken (Segovia et al. 2007). Proper implementation of instruments such as OET’s and ANP’s is a problem because working together between levels is often a case that is not common in Mexico as a country. Different party affiliations and the conflict of interest between the decision-makers hinder greatly the implementation of these instruments. When a plan encompasses situations in which entities and political actors governing at municipality-municipality, municipality-state or federal government-state-municipality level belong to different political affiliations, negotiations and agreements are often hindered between them due to the belief that the proposals are made to satisfy their party´s interests. It is important to mention that in Mexico often private and other involved stakeholders reach agreements, but when it is time for the decision-makers to approve these actions, agreements and actions are not reached.
Show more

77 Read more

Climate change and its impact on building water damage

Climate change and its impact on building water damage

Point estimates of the predicted ratios in Equation (14) for the B2 emissions scenario are illustrated for some municipalities in the left panel of Figure 4. For reference, claim frequencies for the model period 1997 – 2006 for the same municipalities are also included (right panel). The outcome for each municipality will be a funtion of the local vulnerability as told by the claims model, as well as the future climate as predicted by the emissions scenario under study. As is evident from the maps in Figure 4, among the munic- ipalities with the lowest claim frequencies during the model period, there are municipalities whose claim frequency will stay low also in the future. In an opposite position are municipalities which have experienced high claim frequencies historically, and are still to expect a sizeable increase also in the future. In between, there are municipalities with low claim frequencies dur- ing the model period, that will gain noticeably more claims in the future. And also, we find municipalities that have faced high claim frequencies in the past, but will hardly have to fear any further growth.
Show more

15 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...

Related subjects