Top PDF Climate change impact on microclimate of work environment related to occupational health and productivity

Climate change impact on microclimate of work environment related to occupational health and productivity

Climate change impact on microclimate of work environment related to occupational health and productivity

THERMOREGULATION The temperature of the human body is an important indicator of its condition [17]. Body temperature is far from being homogeneous. Roughly, it is possible to sin- gle out three body temperature areas: the core, the shell and the skin. The core is composed by sensitive organs: thoracic organs, abdominal organs and the brain; it has a temperature of 37 ± 1 °C. The shell is 2 °C to 4 °C cooler than the core and is made up of arms and legs. Lastly there is the skin which is the interface with the environment and is even cooler than the shell. Unlike core temperature, which is tightly regulated, skin tem- perature varies markedly as a function of environmental exposure; temperature of peripheral tissues depends on current exposure, exposure history, core temperature, and thermoregulatory vasomotion. Core temperature, while by no means completely influencing body heat content and distribution, nevertheless is the best single quantity that is used as an indicator of thermal status in humans [18]. Humans can survive a core temperature decrease of 10 °C, but only an increase of 5 °C [19]. In order to perform a more accurate preservation of core temperature a two-step regulation occurs. The core ex- change heat with blood vessels that split into capillaries that, in turn, interface with the environment. The ther- moregulation occurs when receptors, sensitive to tem- perature change send messages via the Central Nervous System to the hypothalamus where the regulation oc- curs. The mechanism of the heat exchange of the body is convection, conduction, irradiation and sweating. All these processes are mediated by the blood circulatory system that transports heat from the core to the skin, or vice versa, depending on the temperature change in the regulatory system. Thermal radiation emitted by the body is rather constant. Conduction and convection, which depend on temperature gradient of the environ- ment, are bootstrapped by sweating evaporation. But even evaporation can be weakened if the surroundings have a high percentage of relative humidity.
Show more

5 Read more

The Direct Impact of Climate Change on Regional Labour Productivity  ESRI WP260, October 2008

The Direct Impact of Climate Change on Regional Labour Productivity ESRI WP260, October 2008

“Too hot” working environments are not just a question of comfort, but a concern for health protection and the ability to perform work tasks. This occupational health problem has been known for considerable time and protective methods have been developed. Still, many workers are exposed to unacceptably high temperatures and humidity in work situations that cannot be modified and heat strain and heat stroke are important issues not only for health but also for labour productivity 1-4 . In outdoor, and many indoor, jobs, particularly in low and middle income countries, air conditioning of the workplace is not, and will possibly never be, an option. Global climate change will increase average temperatures, as well as shift the distribution of daily peak temperature and relative humidity – so that heat episodes will become more frequent and more extreme 5, 6 . In order to cope with heat, an instinctive adaptive action by a worker is to reduce work intensity or increase the frequency of short breaks. One direct effect of a higher number of very hot days is therefore likely to be the “slowing down” of work and other daily activities 7 . Whether it occurs through “self-pacing” (which reduces output) or occupational health management interventions (which increases costs), the end result is lower labour productivity (which is defined as the value of output over labour costs) 3 .
Show more

27 Read more

Management of safety climate and the psychosocial work environment – new challenges for occupational health and safety professionals?

Management of safety climate and the psychosocial work environment – new challenges for occupational health and safety professionals?

HP programmes in the workplace are designed to enable workers to cope more effectively with psychosocial risk factors contributing to work-related, personal or family problems that may impact on their wellbeing and work performance, such as stress, violence or the abuse of alcohol and drugs (International Labour Organization (ILO), 2012). Nevertheless, most of these initiatives tackle the problems only from an individual perspective without taking into account the contribution of organisational or labour relations factors. Individual oriented activities usually aim to reduce the effects of poor psychosocial work conditions on workers by improving their ability to adjust and manage those circumstances. These interventions are often included in an Employment Assistance Programme (EAP) which might involve counselling on specific challenges, learning of coping strategies or actions to encourage healthy habits (Vezina et al., 2004). Vezina et al. (2004) established an interesting parallel between these type of individual focused measures for psychosocial hazards and the use of personal protective equipment for physical risks: they are secondary prevention measures but insufficient to address the root of the problem.
Show more

382 Read more

Climate change: the potential impact on occupational exposure to pesticides

Climate change: the potential impact on occupational exposure to pesticides

accelerate pesticide absorption in humans [80-82]. Epidemiological studies on the impact of simultane- ous exposure to heat stress and air pollution also have revealed a significant effect on mortality rate. Extrapo- lating these population data to workplace gives cause to believe that concomitant exposure to heat stress and chemicals is likely to increase the potential risk for work- ers’ health. Meuling et al. (1997) studied the dermal ab- sorption of the propoxur, a carbamate insecticide, at 30 °C under various humidities (50, 70 or 90%). A linear relationship between the environmental relative humid- ity and the level of skin moisture was observed, indicat- ing that skin moisture is important in dermal absorption of propoxur. The study concluded that, by assessing health risks of workers in agriculture exposed dermally to pesticides and e.g. in testing the efficiency of protec- tive clothing under realistic conditions, the influence of the level of skin moisture on absorption of substances may be considerable and has to be taken into account [83]. To summarize, as meteorological conditions such as high ambient temperature and humidity can promote the absorption of chemicals, more workers may experi- ence chemical intolerance or toxicity in the context of global warming. Because of varying individual suscepti- bility (such as age, physical fitness, acclimatization) and environmental factors (such as air movement, radiant heat, etc.), it is currently difficult to accurately predict the impact of climate change on workers’ health. How- ever, individuals working in hot environment and ex-
Show more

12 Read more

The 'Hothaps' programme for assessing climate change impacts on occupational health and productivity: an invitation to carry out field studies.

The 'Hothaps' programme for assessing climate change impacts on occupational health and productivity: an invitation to carry out field studies.

Health and productivity impact assessment of local climate change on occupational health With the exposure-response relationships identified with the quantitative studies and local heat exposure estimates, it will be possible to calculate the future impact not only on individuals, but also at population level based on the estimated climate change at a particular place. Additional input data required are the estimated future age distribu- tion and occupation distribution of the population of interest, and the extent to which they are working outdoors and/or indoors, with or without air condition- ing or other effective cooling technologies. The results are estimates of the current and future health risks, the lost work hours due to reduced work capacity (a ‘trade-off’ between health risk and work productivity), and potential economic impacts as a function of the degree of climate change at the locality.
Show more

8 Read more

Impact of global climate change on the health, welfare and productivity of intensively housed livestock

Impact of global climate change on the health, welfare and productivity of intensively housed livestock

Abstract: Major scientific studies have shown that global warming (i.e. increasing average temperature of the Earth) is now a reality. The aims of this paper are to broadly review the underlining causes of global warming, the general effects of global warming on social and environmental systems and the specific effects of resulting from global warming phenomena severe fluctuations in weather patterns, particularly heat waves on livestock health, welfare and productivity. Finally this article aims to summarise some common sense climate control methods and more importantly to highlight the required future research and development (R&D) work that is necessary to achieve a new level of building environment control capability, and thus ensure that the intensive livestock industries will be able to cope with the changed external climate. With the increasing temperatures on a global scale, the most direct effect of the high temperature on the animals is heat stress, which has been proven to have a variety of negative effects on animal health, welfare and productivity. Different potential measures could be taken in future to alleviate the increased heat stress. Some of these measures are mere adaptations or improvements of current engineering solutions. However, facing the complex challenges of global warming and particularly resulting from it the rapid increase of the number of consecutive days with significantly higher than average temperatures will probably require novel solutions, including new designs based on solid engineering judgment, development of new engineering standards and codes to guide designs, the exploration of new and superior building materials, the need for better energy management, and the development of substantially more “intelligent”control systems that will balance changing exterior disturbances, interior building loads and demands to the biological needs of the occupants of the structures.
Show more

22 Read more

Health Impact of Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Summary

Health Impact of Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Summary

Mitigation strategies need to be developed to reduce the impact of climate change through new policies, in- novative technologies and a new life style. Introduction and use of renewable energy for industry and household use should be considered. Solar energy is a viable option for Bangladesh as the country is blessed with plenty of sunlight. Conservation of water sources and rainwater harvesting will benefit many sectors. River-encroachment and river-grabbing should be stopped by enforcing strict policies. Urban zoning laws can help reduce over- crowded pockets in larger cities, especially in Dhaka. Building and developing better facilities in rural areas will help prevent human migration to cities. Community-based solutions should be developed and implemented to make sure that people have a say in decisions affecting their well-being. Such approaches should also include various stakeholders and development partners from different sectors such as health, agriculture, environment, water resources and urban planning. It should also encourage public-private partnerships to monitor change, as- sess impact, facilitate adaptation and develop programs in order to face the challenge of climate change and de- velop holistic solutions. Climate change is not only an economic issue but also essentially a health issue. It has profound implications for public health. Health must be at the centre-stage of any climate change related adapta- tion plans. Moreover extensive and vigorous research is needed to better understand the link between climate change and health. Unless steps are taken and put in place immediately to mitigate and adapt to climate change, Bangladesh will have to pay a heavy toll in terms of productivity and human lives.
Show more

8 Read more

Impact of global climate change on the health, welfare and productivity of intensively housed livestock

Impact of global climate change on the health, welfare and productivity of intensively housed livestock

Abstract: Major scientific studies have shown that global warming (i.e. increasing average temperature of the Earth) is now a reality. The aims of this paper are to broadly review the underlining causes of global warming, the general effects of global warming on social and environmental systems and the specific effects of resulting from global warming phenomena severe fluctuations in weather patterns, particularly heat waves on livestock health, welfare and productivity. Finally this article aims to summarise some common sense climate control methods and more importantly to highlight the required future research and development (R&D) work that is necessary to achieve a new level of building environment control capability, and thus ensure that the intensive livestock industries will be able to cope with the changed external climate. With the increasing temperatures on a global scale, the most direct effect of the high temperature on the animals is heat stress, which has been proven to have a variety of negative effects on animal health, welfare and productivity. Different potential measures could be taken in future to alleviate the increased heat stress. Some of these measures are mere adaptations or improvements of current engineering solutions. However, facing the complex challenges of global warming and particularly resulting from it the rapid increase of the number of consecutive days with significantly higher than average temperatures will probably require novel solutions, including new designs based on solid engineering judgment, development of new engineering standards and codes to guide designs, the exploration of new and superior building materials, the need for better energy management, and the development of substantially more “intelligent”control systems that will balance changing exterior disturbances, interior building loads and demands to the biological needs of the occupants of the structures.
Show more

23 Read more

Analyzing and visualizing the synergistic impact mechanisms of climate change related costs

Analyzing and visualizing the synergistic impact mechanisms of climate change related costs

Our computer codes aim to derive indicative estimates of the potential costs, assuming any possible direct cost scenario. The direct cost scenario is defined using sliding bars that assign values to each cost from a predefined interval (e.g. [0, 10000]). In Figures 11 and 12, we examine how similar direct cost distributions end=up differently in urban and resource dependent settlements, due to the synergistic impact mechanisms. In the output produced the user has also the option to perform sensitivity analysis: moving the sliding bars, the primary cost distribution is perturbed and one can observe the variations of the costs computed in the list on the right part of the window.
Show more

19 Read more

The Climate Change Dynamics and its Impact on the Wheat Productivity in Pakistan: A VAR Approach

The Climate Change Dynamics and its Impact on the Wheat Productivity in Pakistan: A VAR Approach

Indian metrological department presented a study on climate change and food security in India in an international symposium on climate change and food security in South Asia (2008), held in Dhaka. The results depict the fact that as temperature goes on increasing in different parts of India; the yields of different crops will go on decreasing i.e. a 2°C increase in mean air temperature, rice yields could decrease by about 0.75 tons / hectare in high yield areas and by 0.6 tons / hectare in low yield coastal regions. The study concludes that the temperature hype from 2 to 3.5°C would result in the loss of farm level net revenue between 9 percent to 25 percent.
Show more

13 Read more

Assessment of public health impact of work-related asthma

Assessment of public health impact of work-related asthma

The other example was an attempt by WHO to assess the global burden of non-malignant respiratory disease due to occupational airborne exposures [32]. One of the diseases included in this assessment was asthma. Esti- mates of relative risk were obtained from two studies looking at the risk of asthma in relation to a variety of occupations [1,33] and the decision on which occupa- tions were classified as at risk were based on these same two studies. It was assumed that persons currently employed in occupations with potential exposure to asthmagens estimate well persons ever exposed to potential asthmagens at work. Estimates of exposures were obtained from the workforce data from the Inter- national Labour Organisation for 2002 [34]. The results on PAFs used for calculating excess mortality are pre- sented in Table 3. The largest PAFs were observed in Africa (18-20%), Europe (apart from west) (18%), South- East Asia (18%) and Western Pacific (19%), while the lowest PAFs were observed in North America (11%) and Western Europe (11%). This study estimated that in 2000 a total of 38 200 excess deaths occurred in the world due to occupational asthma, and it contributed to a vast amount of DALYs, altogether 1,6 million (Table 3). The region with the largest DALYs lost due to
Show more

11 Read more

Heat-related mortality risk model for climate change impact projection

Heat-related mortality risk model for climate change impact projection

Hemisphere. Their model used a different method from ours; For example, they used daily mean temperature instead of daily maximum temperature, and they averaged out lag effect for lag 0–1 day and for lag 0–13 days. Still, the relation of the 0–1 averaged lag model was V-shaped for the majority of the cities. Considering that the 84th percentile value is roughly equal to the summer mean temperature, we tried to identify summer average temper- ature and optimum temperature from the graphs they pro- vided. Among the cities with a V-shaped relation, most of the cities, including a tropical city (Bangkok, Thailand), had optimum temperature similar to their respective sum- mer average temperature. Although this procedure is not accurate, at least use of the 84th percentile value in pre- dicting OT cannot be falsified even by observations of cities in tropical zones or in the Southern Hemisphere. Another supporting report is the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [16]; temperature rise in tropical areas is expected to be less prominent compared with temperate areas and high-lati- tude areas. Hence, our projection would not be wide of the mark.
Show more

8 Read more

Impact of Climate variability and change on agricultural productivity in the three northern regions of Ghana

Impact of Climate variability and change on agricultural productivity in the three northern regions of Ghana

Ivy Union Publishing | http: //www.ivyunion.org September 8, 2019 | Volume 3 | Issue 1 Amankwah E, American Journal of Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 3:30-41 Page 10 of 12 trigger floods and droughts. Such situations will threaten sustainable agriculture and eventually lead to food shortages with its attendant hunger, malnutrition and poverty among farmers. Unfortunately, agriculture in Ghana is mainly subsistence and rain-fed dependence thus changes in the climate will affect farming activities from planting, harvesting, processing and storage of farm produce. It is therefore very important that an integrated water resource management approach including water harvesting methods is adopted to warrant continuous crop production all year round. Appropriate measures to mitigate the impact of climate change and strategies for climate change adaptation should be employed to help the farmers cope with the changing climate otherwise such stresses will push small scale farmers into abject poverty. The following measures are further recommended:
Show more

12 Read more

Climate Change and the Historic Environment

Climate Change and the Historic Environment

buried or exposed archaeological sites. Parks, gardens and historic landscapes will be faced not only with changed climates, but very possibly with shortages of water and other resources that could make maintenance increasingly troublesome. It may become difficult to propagate even endemic species. For old buildings and their preserved contents the problems are also likely to prove acute; it has long been understood that fluctuations in the local microclimate present the main danger to continued survival. Historic building materials are extremely permeable to the environment of air and soil; changes in moisture content can occur rapidly, and these can activate damaging cycles of salt crystallisation. Old rainwater goods may be unable to cope with changed patterns of rainfall, and acute events such as flooding have much worse and longer-term effects on historic than on modern buildings.
Show more

104 Read more

Effect of Climate Change on Apple Productivity

Effect of Climate Change on Apple Productivity

Plant genetic resources are the backbone of crop improvement and some limited work on selection and cultivation of low chill apple, peach, plum and pear has been initiated in hill areas by Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Regional Station Shimla, (HP) and Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, India. The work to a larger extent has been confined to sub temperate and subtropical areas. The successful cultivation of low chill cultivars especially in marginal areas where insufficient chilling hours prevail and normal cultivars were failing to produce sufficient crop regularly has opened new vistas to try and cultivate these low chill cultivars due to weather vagaries major being fluctuating temperature during winter months. In India, better soil and weather conditions prevail in Himalayan foot hill that are conducive for growing low chilling varieties of fruits like pear, plum, peach etc. Researchers over more than two decades have evolved and tested number of low chill cultivars of apple fruit was reported by Sharma and Karkara[28]; Kuden and Kuden[17]; Bal [4]; Sharma et al.,[29] in India.
Show more

9 Read more

Geographic dimensions of a health network dedicated to occupational and work related diseases

Geographic dimensions of a health network dedicated to occupational and work related diseases

The main limitation of our study is the loss of infor- mation on observations due to the fact that the “entre- prise responsible of the disease” is often a missing data. Indeed, only 59 % of observations were geolocated. There are two main reasons for this. First of all, the “entreprise responsible” could not be recorded when it was not the current one (limitation due to the rnv3p application in its previous version). This affects mainly long latency dis- eases. Indeed, the percentage of successfully geocoded observations related to a subset of short latency diseases (rhinitis, asthma, contact dermatitis) is 77  %, whereas it is only 24  % for diseases with long latency diseases (cancers, pneumoconioses including asbestosis related pleural plaques). Secondly, the “entreprise address” infor- mation was not mandatory, and was filled differently by OD clinics. Even for short latency diseases, there remain differences in the percentages of addresses recorded (Additional File 2: Table  S1). From now on, these limi- tations have been addressed. First of all the new rnv3p information system allows to record previous enterprises, and secondly OD clinics were given the information of the importance to record enterprises addresses, as well as their unique national identifier in order to cross with other databases.
Show more

23 Read more

Estimating the health impact of climate change with calibrated climate model output

Estimating the health impact of climate change with calibrated climate model output

Uncertainty in climate projections can arise from various sources. We described a statistical cali- bration approach that models the distributional discrepancy between model outputs and historical observations. This allows us to calibrate future projections, as well as propagating its uncertainty in a health impact analysis. This differs from previous studies where future exposures from cli- mate model outputs are assumed to be deterministic. We chose daily maximum temperature as the motivating example; however the proposed approach can be applied to other weather variables such as precipitation, solar radiation, or cloud cover that may be associated with adverse health outcomes through various pathways. In our study region of Alabama, we found the disagreement between observed and modeled temperatures to be the greatest at the lower tail of the distribution. Consequently, the estimated health impacts due to future extreme temperatures were similar be- tween the calibrated and the original model projections. This result may to vary across locations, especially if other weather variables or climate models are examined, and should be systematically explored in future analysis.
Show more

28 Read more

A multi-method investigation of the psychosocial work environment and nature of work-related stress of NHS physiotherapists and occupational therapists

A multi-method investigation of the psychosocial work environment and nature of work-related stress of NHS physiotherapists and occupational therapists

Background: There is strong and consistent evidence that the experience of work-related stress is related to a common set of psychosocial work-related factors. These [r]

282 Read more

Increasing community health worker productivity and effectiveness: a review of the influence of the work environment

Increasing community health worker productivity and effectiveness: a review of the influence of the work environment

do everything—their limited educational background and training mean that they can only be expected to per- form a limited number of tasks that complement the work of health professionals” [21]. When there are too many tasks to perform, CHWs may not perform them all but instead select a few that they prefer to do, ones that they do best, or those that are most feasible [19]. In particular “unpaid volunteers must have a limited set of tasks and not be expected to work more than a few hours a week; otherwise they tend to abandon their re- sponsibilities” [22]. A study on the role of health surveil- lance assistants (HSA) in the Republic of Malawi showed that they do not perform all the tasks in their job description, which include a plethora of activities such as vaccination, growth monitoring, disease surveil- lance, health education, tuberculosis follow-up, family planning provision, treatment for common diseases, and supervision of traditional birth attendants [23]. An as- sessment in Pakistan showed that Lady Health Workers become stressed in their job because they have little say regarding their increasingly expanding job scope and are seldom consulted when their job description changes [24].
Show more

9 Read more

Simulating the impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on farm productivity and income: A bioeconomic analysis

Simulating the impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on farm productivity and income: A bioeconomic analysis

Climate change is expected to cause serious difficulties for agriculture, especially in developing countries. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report of 2007 (AR4), climate change can reduce rainfed agricultural yields by as much as 50 percent. Global losses in gross domestic product (GDP) range from 1 to 5 percent for a 4°C warming, and regional losses could be substantially higher. It is predicted that Africa is highly vulnerable to climate change since its economy relies largely on agriculture and uses low capital and inputs. Moreover, semiarid and arid regions are expected to be particularly affected, according to Mendelson, Nardhaus, and Shaw (1994) and Mendelson, Dinar, and Dalfelt (2000).
Show more

28 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...