Top PDF Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture in Vietnam

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture in Vietnam

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture in Vietnam

1 The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.
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Climate change impacts on agriculture: A panel cointegration approach and application to Tunisia

Climate change impacts on agriculture: A panel cointegration approach and application to Tunisia

The Ricardian method has been applied to various countries, including the United States, Brazil, and Germany, and to the African continent. Schlenker et al. (2005) derived the effects of climate change on U.S agriculture. Using the hedonic approach, they found that changes in long-run weather patterns might have a smaller effect on commodity prices, especially on crops produced in California and Florida. The hedonic approach was used as a theoretical background by Lang (2007), who found that land prices are determined by climatic factors. Lang also showed that German farmers are winners of climate change in the short run, with maximum gains occurring at a temperature increase of +0.6°C against current levels. In the long run, there may be losses from global warming. Seo et al. (2009) applied the Ricardian approach to analyze the distribution of climate change impacts on agriculture across agro- ecological zones in Africa and found that the effects of climate change will be quite different across Africa and the humid forests will become more productive in the future.
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Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa

The confidence in projected impacts of climate change on agricultural systems has increased substantially since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. In Africa, much work has gone into downscaling global climate models to understand regional impacts, but there remains a dearth of local level understanding of impacts and communities’ capacity to adapt. It is well understood that Africa is vulnerable to climate change, not only due to high exposure to climate change, but also because many African communities lack capacity to respond or adapt to the impacts of climate change. Warming trends have already become evident across the continent and it is likely that the continents’ 2000 mean annual temperature change will exceed +2C by 2100. Added to this warming trend, changes in precipitation patterns are also of concern: Even if rainfall remains constant, due to increasing temperatures, existing water stress will be amplified, putting even more pressure on agricultural systems, especially in semi-arid areas. In general, high temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns are very likely to reduce cereal crop productivity and new evidence is emerging that high- value perennial crops will also be negatively impacted by rising temperatures. Pressures from pests, weeds and diseases are also expected to increase with detrimental effects on crops and livestock.
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Climate change impacts on agriculture and internal migrations in Brazil

Climate change impacts on agriculture and internal migrations in Brazil

Figure 11. Migration by occupation and destination (accumulated, 2070, % change from baseline). We should now p oint o ut th at t he migration co ncept used in this stud y in volves o nly the personal (worker) dimension. Migration, however, is a complex phenomenon, and frequently involves the whole family, which may sooner or later follow the migrant worker. Indeed, Oliveira and Jannuzzi (2004) analy zed t he reaso ns of migration in Brazil. According to those authors, b ased on a sp ecial supplementary su rvey in the PNAD 2001, the “s earch for jo bs” is the most common reason for migration, especially among men: 34% of men and 11.8% of women have selected that as the main reason f or migration. Altogether 23% of t he s urveyed persons dec lared that their m ain re ason for migration w as th e search f or jobs 11 . T he a nswer “ accompanying t he f amily”, on t he other hand,
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Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam

Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam

Dinamica EGO needs at least two historical land use maps, ideally well spaced in time (so that there is a significant level of land use change occurring from first to the second), in or- der to calculate the past land use transition patterns of a spe- cific city. For this study, we used Landsat data to derive land use maps for the years 1989 and 2005. Two land cover maps at 30 m spatial resolution for two different years were pro- cessed. The various land cover classes are then derived from these remotely sensed satellite images by maximum likeli- hood classification (supervised). For Can Tho, the following categories are identified from the training of RS images: open water; developed areas: low-intensity, medium-intensity and high-intensity; infrastructure; shrub and grassland. Land use simulation was done from 1989 to 2100 at time steps of 5 yr. The resulting urban extent and land cover distribution pre- dictions of the Can Tho city are used as input for the atmo- spheric model for further analysis of increases in precipita- tion and increment imperviousness to investigate the associ-
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Land use and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: results of a modeling study to support better resource management

Land use and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: results of a modeling study to support better resource management

The results of this study provide new insights about model- ing runoff in data-scarce African river basins and also sug- gest differing responses of land-use and climate change that will be helpful for water resource managers. Regional rain- fall estimates from the FEWS Network were found to im- prove model performance compared to rainfall taken from the few local measuring stations in the vicinity of the catch- ment. This finding has ramifications for improved model- ing of runoff over large areas of Africa where precipitation stations are lacking but estimated rainfall data are available. Use of the calibrated model to explore the potential impacts of continued land use change and future climate change in- dicates that any additional conversion of forest to agriculture or grassland will adversely affect runoff at critical low-water times of the year and during droughts, increase peak flows and associated hillslope erosion, and increase the vulnera- bility of the basin to future climate change. Simulations of runoff responses to projected increases in precipitation and temperature during this century indicate nonlinear responses
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Modelling the impact of climate change on cereal yield in Morocco

Modelling the impact of climate change on cereal yield in Morocco

To assess the impact of climate change different studies were conducted in several regions of Morocco. It’s important to stress that Morocco is involved in climate change negotiations under the umbrella of the United Nation and has to present communication on the situation that occurs in Morocco, so the government is conducting several studies using macroeconomic analyses tools and others. Several studies have been conducted to explain and analyze the impact of climate change on agriculture based on the rainfall factor. Indeed, Barakat and Handoufe (1998) linked the decline in agricultural production to the accumulated rainfall deficit at the mid cropping season. Stour and Agoumi used a spatial and temporal analysis of temperature and precipitation variations to explain global warming. Ouraich and Tyner (2014) have developed a regionalized Morocco computable general equilibrium model to analyse the linkages of climate-induced productivity losses (gains) at the level of administrative and economic regions in Morocco. The World Bank in collaboration with national and international scientists have conducted a deep research on climate change impacts on crop yields in Morocco (2008). Most of these studies confirm that climate projections on Morocco show gradually
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Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change on Sea Level Rise Impacts on Some Economic Sectors in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam

Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change on Sea Level Rise Impacts on Some Economic Sectors in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam

DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2019.82017 316 American Journal of Climate Change standardized exposure, sensitivity and adaptability index calculated according to Research methods and results of standardization of impact indicators (E), sensi- tivity (S) and adaptative capacity (AC) for each industry. The study has selected 06 main sectors: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, industry, construction and ser- vices. In which, 06 sectors are divided into 03 groups: 1) agriculture, forestry and fishery; 2) Industry and construction; 3) Services to calculate and classify the vulnerability for different industry groups. After synthesis, the vulnerability in- dexes for economic sectors in Binh Dinh are presented in Tables 7-9. According to the survey for the adaptability to climate change in the local area, the educa- tion index in the province is relatively good. The total number of schools in- cluding schools from primary to high school is 447. In particular, Quy Nhon City has the largest number of 57 schools, the lowest is Van Canh with 16 schools. The percentage of high school graduates in affiliated districts and cities are 91% - 96.2%. In which, the highest percentage is Quy Nhon City with 96.2% and the lowest in Van Canh district with 91%. The process of interviewing local people shows that community awareness about climate change is positive. Ac- cordingly, 77.55% of respondents are aware of local climate change phenomena. Of which 97.96% of respondents know how to adapt to climate change. Of which 93.87% of people have measures to change crop pattern, 46.93% have solutions to change the pattern of livestock, and 95.91% know how to apply new cultiva- tion measures. Adaptive solutions of local officials as well as local people con- tribute to minimizing negative impacts of climate change, especially in the agri- culture, forestry and fishery sectors.
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Organic Farming, Climate Change Mitigation and Beyond  Reducing the environmental impacts of eu agriculture

Organic Farming, Climate Change Mitigation and Beyond Reducing the environmental impacts of eu agriculture

In 2015, two global policy developments stood out, which are highly relevant for agriculture. Firstly, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were agreed, which seek to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture (Goal 2) by 2030 (UN, 2016). Secondly, the UNFCCC Paris Agreement was adopted at COP 21, entering into force a year later on 4 November 2016. The Paris Agreement sets out the international pathway to combating climate change and accelerating the transition to a low carbon future. The overarching goal is to hold the global average temperature increase to a maximum of 2°C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, and to pursue efforts to limit temperature increase by 1.5 °C. To achieve this, the signatory countries should prepare “intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs) that describe the efforts to be taken by the countries to reduce their GHG emissions by 2030 and beyond (UNFCCC, 2016). The INDCs include mitigation plans to further reduce GHG emissions, as well as adaptation measures that prepare for inevitable climate change impacts (FAO, 2016). The European Union has developed a roadmap to make the European economy more climate-friendly and less energy- intensive by 2050. This roadmap proposes collective emissions cuts compared to 1990 levels of 40% by 2030 (implemented under the future 2030 climate and energy legal framework, currently being discussed by EU institutions), of 60% by 2040, and 80% by 2050. These reductions should be achieved by domestic emission cuts and not by relying on international emissions certificates from reduction activities outside the EU (European Commission, 2016b). The roadmap covers all economic sectors, including agriculture. The European Council conclusions from October 2014 endorsed a 40% reduction by
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Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security

Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security

Majority of African countries are already experiencing considerable water stress as a result of insufficient and unreliable rainfall, changing rainfall patterns or flooding. Climate change impacts including predicted increases in extremes are likely to add to this stress, leading to additional pressure on water availability, accessibility, supply and demand. For Africa, it is estimated that 25% of the population (approximately 200 million people) currently experience water stress, with more countries expected to face high risks in the future, hence food and water insecurity [1]. Thus, food security remains one of the greatest challenges as a result of water stress. In ad- dition, food security problem is also compounded by poor performance of the agriculture sector and low-value crop production due to re-current droughts and floods hence poverty in many parts of the country. Kenya, par- ticularly its agricultural sector is prone to climate change impacts because of heavy reliance on rain-fed agricul- ture. Climate change will therefore pose a major food security problem as normal weather patterns are affected. Droughts have severely affected food production over the past two decades. Furthermore, adverse weather con- ditions and patterns have resulted into reduced planting and crop failure leading to food shortages as well as un- dermining access to food [5].
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2. Impact of climate change on crop adaptation: current challenges and future perspectives

2. Impact of climate change on crop adaptation: current challenges and future perspectives

Agriculture is severally affected in these regions by drought, floods, hurricanes, freezes, and other forms of climatic changes [3]. Climate change in Pakistan is affecting the economy of country; more adversely affected sector is agriculture. Under rainfed agriculture, temperature and rainfall are serious threats to crop adaptation. Northern and Southern regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) have serious threat to crop production and livelihood [1]. It has both positive and negative impacts on crops productivity i.e., crop yield in some regions increased and in other regions decreased it depends on irrigation and cropping areas. Only temperature is not affecting crop adaptation but it has also been observed that in some areas crop adaptation is more threatened due to the change in precipitation [4]. In many disciplines, there is a gap between research and implementation, research-practice, and science-policy gap, causing serious threats to food security. Another problem is uncertainties and not knowing about the future climates. The major challenge now a day is reduction of the food security threats from climate change [5]. This paper focuses on impact of climate change on crop adaptation. The next sections provide an overview of the climate variability, causes of climate change, stresses produced due to climate change, impacts on agricultural crops, strategies to cope with climate change, its impact on some important major crops of Pakistan, and some recent genetic engineered approaches.
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Climate change and potential impacts on agriculture in Bhutan: a discussion of pertinent issues

Climate change and potential impacts on agriculture in Bhutan: a discussion of pertinent issues

in agriculture. The College of Natural Resources (CNR) under the Royal University of Bhutan, Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Conservation and Environmental Research (UWICE) under the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Department of Disaster Management (DDM) under the Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs and the National Center for Hydrology and Meteorology (NCHM) under the Ministry of Economic Affairs are some of the agen- cies that play increasingly important roles in the con- servation, management and research on environment and climate change. The CNR, as an academic institu- tion, provides a broad-based study programme in the management of natural resources through inclusion of environmental studies as a core subject in its curriculum and research [65]. The UWICE is another pioneer insti- tute that focuses on the training, education and capacity building matters related to forest science and technology, water resources, climate and conservation biology includ- ing socio-economic and policy sciences. The NCHM is mandated to provide all information on hydro-meteoro- logical and cryosphere information, such as climate and weather forecasting services. Climate change-related dis- aster mitigation and management services are also sup- ported by the DDM which is the coordinating agency for disaster and risk issues in the country [66]. While these agencies support environment protection and manage- ment to mitigate the impacts of climate change, the NEC is an independent apex body mandated to coordinate and regulate all matters related to conservation and protec- tion of the environment [67]. It reviews environmental policies and plays an important role in improving the food security, health and environmental well-being of the country.
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Trade Liberalisation and Climate Change: A CGE Analysis of the Impacts on Global Agriculture

Trade Liberalisation and Climate Change: A CGE Analysis of the Impacts on Global Agriculture

Abstract: Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the IPCC SRES A1B and A2 scenarios, this study assesses the potential impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on global agriculture, and its interactions with trade liberalisation as proposed for the Doha Development Round. The analysis uses the new version of the GTAP-W model, which distinguishes between rainfed and irrigated agriculture and implements water as an explicit factor of production for irrigated agriculture. Significant reductions in agricultural tariffs lead to modest changes in regional water use. Patterns are non-linear. On the regional level water use may go up for partial liberalization, and down for more complete liberalization. This is because different crops respond differently to tariff reductions, and because trade and competition matter too. Moreover, trade liberalization tends to reduce water use in water scarce regions, and increase water use in water abundant regions, even though water markets do not exist in most countries. Considering impacts of climate change the results show that global food production, welfare and GDP fall over time while food prices increase. Larger changes are observed under the SRES A2 scenario for the medium term (2020) and under the SRES A1B scenario for the long term (2050). Combining scenarios of future climate change with trade liberalization countries are affected differently. However, the overall effect on welfare does not change much.
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Organic agriculture and climate change mitigation   A report of the Round Table on Organic Agriculture and Climate Change

Organic agriculture and climate change mitigation A report of the Round Table on Organic Agriculture and Climate Change

organic rotations. However, both green manure and catch crops have environmental impacts that cannot directly be related to a specific crop. Thus, the challenge is determining how the crops can share the burden of emissions or benefits of the green manure crops and catch crops. The environmental impacts (or benefits) of green manure, etc., might be allocated according to some biophysical relations such as the nitrogen utilization effect of the residuals, although it is hard to get reliable data to justify this allocation. The impact also could be allocated according to the economic value of the crops in the crop rotation. For now, the best path would seem to be recommending allocation of such impacts according to the area used to produce the different crops, because the effects could be considered “system” effects rather than the effect of one particular measure. The same would then apply when accounting for soil carbon changes, which would also be considered a system effect rather than an effect attached to the single crop. There is also an alternative that would avoid allocating the emission burden or benefits among the specific crops, and look instead at the full crop rotation. This would mean considering the full crop rotation as a “black box” that produces some calories, or dry matter or money, and then using one functional unit such as a food basket in mega joules (MJ). However, this approach would be meaningful only in certain situations.
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The Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture and Health Sectors in Tanzania: A review

The Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture and Health Sectors in Tanzania: A review

Moreover, the climate change in Tanzania threatens sustainable development and other socio-economic activities (Majule et al. 2013; Rowhani et al. 2011). Unusual extreme temperatures and rainfall alterations have shown strong impacts on agriculture, health and other sectors in the country (Enfors and Gordon, 2007; Hemp, 2009; Majule et al. 2013). Climate change related scenarios such as severe droughts, floods, livestock deaths, crop failures and outbreak of disease such as cholera, malaria episodes and deaths are regularly observed (Levira, 2009; URT, 2007). Its impact also accelerates food shortage, poverty, deforestation and forest degradation, poor livelihoods and occurrence of infectious diseases (Hatibu, 2003; NAPA, 2005; Wolbring, 2009; Wu et al. 2016). The poor and rural communities are particularly chiefly vulnerable owing to their complete dependence on subsistence agriculture and forests resources coupled with limited capacity to adapt to climate change (Brown et al., 2009). Researches have shown that more than 80% of Tanzanian population directly rely on agriculture for their livelihoods; thus, 10% decrease in rainfall would make most of areas unsuitable for cultivation (Hemp, 2009; URT, 2003, 2007). Moreover, Craparo et al. (2015) reported that, a minimum temperature change in future will be severe in the interior regions of Tanzania and will considerably affect crops production and health sector. This review paper provides an overview of the impacts of climate change on agriculture and health sectors in Tanzania. Recommendations to overcome them have also been discussed.
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11. AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY UNDER CLIMATE CHANGEIN MIDDLE BELT OF NIGERIA;CHALLENGE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

11. AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY UNDER CLIMATE CHANGEIN MIDDLE BELT OF NIGERIA;CHALLENGE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

agriculture and food security in middle belt of Nigeria’s sub region. It starts with an overview of the principal aspects of climate change and their impacts on the four dimensions of food security.It then reviews model-based results and discusses the main findings that have arisen from these assessments. The likely impacts of climate change on the other important dimensions of food security are discussed indicating the potential for further negative impacts beyond those currently assessed with models. Strengths and weaknesses of current assessment studies are discussed, suggesting improvements and proposing avenues for strategies of having food security through a viable agriculture despite changes in the climate. Finally, limitations of the current modeling systems are discussed; this includes a discussion on potential surprises and some suggestions to improve future assessments to enhance their overall robustness and their relevance for policy makers.
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Agriculture, climate change and nature in Africa

Agriculture, climate change and nature in Africa

UNEP is leading a number of environmental organisations with calls for organic approaches to agriculture in developing countries. The logic is that in the absence of reliable supplies of fertilizers, pesticides and fuel it will be safer for African farmers to invest their labour in locally self sufficient farming systems (UNEP-UNCTAD 2008; Action Aid and Food first 2009). These systems also have less harmful global environmental impacts. The Convention on Biological Diversity and CGIAR research centres like BIOVERSITY, ICRAF and CIAT argue that small scale biodiverse farming systems will be more sustainable and resilient – notably in confronting the challenges of climate change – than specialised high input agriculture. However the danger is that organic locally self-sufficient approaches may keep farmers living at a precarious subsistence level. Locally self-sufficient agriculture may not be effective at bringing about the transformational changes in the lives of poor farmers that most would agree are essential (Walker et al 2010). The Millennium Development Goals will not be met through the continued reliance of 70% of Africa’s population on subsistence agriculture. The excellent report of the International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development – the IAASTD – assesses the options and implications of different agricultural strategies but comes down on the side of multiple locally adapted solutions but also acknowledges the need for higher inputs and greater market access (IAASTD 2008, 2009). Low technology approaches to agricultural expansion will emit less greenhouse gases, may be more resilient to climate change, may be less impacted by the increasing scarcity of fertilizers and pesticides and less vulnerable to economic shocks but environmentalists should not forget that they will also consume more land than more intensive high technology agriculture.
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Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture Sector using RS and GIS

Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture Sector using RS and GIS

Climate change. Agriculture lands are being used for construction of houses due to urban sprawl. If there is decrease in the production of agriculture, the Indian economy and the food security both will be affected. The perusal of General Circulation Models (GCMs) on climate change indicate that rising levels of GHG are likely to increase the global average surface temperature by 1.5-4.5°C over the next 100 years.

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The Climate Change Dynamics and its Impact on the Wheat Productivity in Pakistan: A VAR Approach

The Climate Change Dynamics and its Impact on the Wheat Productivity in Pakistan: A VAR Approach

Hanif (2009) studies the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture sector in Punjab Pakistan. Their study shows that the climate change will affect the land prices in Punjab which is the long run variable for net revenue. FGLS panel regression estimation method is being applied in order to check for the influence of the average precipitation and maximum & minimum temperature, on the land prices in the eleven representative districts of Punjab. Their results show that in Kharif season the mean minimum temperature and mean precipitation has a significant positive impact on the land prices. An increase in one mm in precipitation leads to the increase in land price, on an average by 166.57 Rs/acre, in Kharif season. While in Rabi season the precipitation and mean minimum temperature has significant negative relationship with the land prices that is a decrease in Rabi precipitation along with an increase in maximum Rabi temperature would raise the land prices. The study concludes that climate changes has a significant impact on land prices in the Punjab region which is a long run variable for the net revenue.
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CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE

prevalence of extreme events combined with an acceleration of warming, glacier retreat and sea-level rise, regional changes in mean precipitation, and increased risks of land degradation and crop loss from agricultural pests. There should be a determined effort from developed and developing countries to make industrialization environment friendly by reducing greenhouse gases pumping into the atmosphere. In the same fashion, awareness programmes on climate change and its effects on various sectors viz., agriculture, health, infrastructure, water, forestry, fisheries, land and ocean biodiversity and sea level and the role played by human interventions in climate change need to be taken up on priority basis. In the process, lifestyles of people should also be changed so as not to harm earth atmosphere continuum by pumping greenhouse gases. Reference:
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