The study focused on establishing the changes in climate elements that has occurred over time in Meruconservationarea and the impacts of these changes on wildlifeecosystems. According to Jaetzold and Schmidt, (1983) and Otuoma (2004), the entire studyarea is classified to be in a similar ecological region (AEZ VI), Arid to semi arid receiving amount of annual rainfall ranging between 300-500mm. annually. The study based on the fact that availability of food in arid and semi arid areas and the distribution of wildlife population in the protected areas is a function of rainfall amount and distribution pattern. It is hypothesized in this study that wildlife populations in the ecosystem will reduce with the decline in rainfall amounts and distribution. Since not all wildlife species could be studied under the present endeavor, the African elephant (loxodonta africana) was selected as the evaluation species. The elephant was used because inter alia, 1) it is highly visible and easily counted during census 2) it is water dependent 3) it is very mobile and known to cause conflicts outside the parks when resources are missing and 4) their data is readily available since they have been highly studied. The approach is supported by Esikuri (1998) who argues in his study of African elephants that capacity of savanna areas to support elephant population is influenced by rainfall patterns, availability of water and human land use activities.
As the conducting body of climate change mitigation and adaptation action plans, the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) mentioned in its fifth assessment report that little efforts have been applied to fully incorporate indigenous knowledge into its reports; hence under representing the critical roles and values culturally relevant and appropriate adaptation measures that need a vigorous inclusion suitably (Ford, Cameron, Rubis, Maillet, Nakashima, Willox and Pearce, 2016) . A study carried out amongst the Giriama people of North Coast (Kenya) demonstrated that their use of indigenous knowledge and traditional management practices exemplified through their systems of naming, taboos, common sayings, and life-long experiences have jointly contributed to the sound environmental supervision of mangroves, fisheries, corals and coral reefs conservations (Shilabukha, 2015). Indigenous knowledge, an embodiment of knowledge, belief and practices including one’s inter personal relationships and interaction with his/her surrounding environments that have evolved amongst a group of people through adaptation and transfer between generations (Berks, 1993). This means, every community has got some unique practices to sustainably interact and preserve its ecological diversity (Patnaik, 2002). An evaluation of the contributions of indigenous knowledge of Native American Indian of Alaska to climate change adaption strategies and their worldviews of climate change emphasizes the invaluable roles to lessen climateimpacts. This is not limited to Native American Indians, but to other native communities of the world in their localities. In this regards, it called for an uncompromising teaming of native scholars, community leaders, and scientist including policymakers to find more sustainable and diverse solutions to climate change response challenges (Shilabukha, 2015).
resource base and other stresses and this situation is likely to worsen when a 4 °C warmer climate is reached (World Bank, 2012; Connolly-Boutin and Smit, 2015). ClimateVariabilityimpacts are projected to reduce the general produce of cereal crop by shortening of growing seasons, magnifying water stress and amplifying occurrence of pests, diseases and weed outbreak (Niang et al., 2014). Such assessments concentrate on the likely impacts of anticipated changes in average rainfall and temperature on crop production (World Bank, 2012). Studies carried out by Bita and Gerats (2013) show that heat stress during flowering and grain filling stages end up decreasing grain count and weight, leading to both low crop production and quality. Boko et al. (2007) further reports that total crop produce could come down by 90 % in the year 2100. A study by Teixeira et al. (2013) explains further that, even short length heat shock will scale back crop yields substantially, particularly if it coincides with the reproductive phase. General crop production in many African countries by the year 2050 will decline by 10–20 percent owing to climatevariability notably in Sub-Saharan Africa countries, (Omoyo et al., 2015). Net crop revenues could fall by 90% by the year 2100 (Boko et al., 2007). Extreme rainfall varies with high intensity, few occurrences, and poor spatial and temporal distribution thus directly impacting on soil productivity which leads to low yields (Naanyu, 2013). Rainfall failure as well could mean loss of major livelihood source that always accentuate food shortage (Icheria, 2015).
The study revealed important differences in growth, development and resource use of legume species/varieties, emphasizing the suitability of specific characteristics and traits for different applications within the smallholder farming systems. In general, the studied short-season grain legumes seemed to follow the physiological strategy of drought escape ( Vadez et al., 2012 ) as they flower and mature comparatively earlier than commonly grown maize crops (Supplementary Material, Appendix 8). Common bean flowered about five weeks after planting and was ready to harvest after ten weeks or less (Table 7). Consequently, water-potential yield of common bean was relatively stable (1,000 kg ha −1 ), independent of total in-crop rainfall and soil conditions (Figure 4). No responsiveness to increased water availability was observed and even at the low-potential site Makindu or at soils with low PAWC, grain yields were not significantly reduced. Many studies on legumes show that short- duration genotypes have higher and more stable yields than longer duration types ( Turner et al., 2001; Vadez et al., 2012 ). However, the earliness decreases the overall yield potential of common bean. The fast development is compromising maximal biomass accumulation as a perquisite for grain production and the risk of reducing soil water to a level that will limit the
5.4.4 Sediment and nutrient fluxes in the transition zone
Measurements of beam transmittance generally allowed the spatial distribution of sediments entrained in the inflow to be characterised continuously throughout the studyarea, although measured beam transmission did not fully account for variations in TSS concentration (Fig. 5.8a). The four sites circled in Figs. 5.8a–c that displayed the highest deviation from the general relationship between beam transmittance and suspended sediment concentrations were located in the main path of the deflected inflowing stream. The unusually low beam transmittance (relative to TSS concentration) measured at these sites therefore indicates that sediments transported to the lake during this period of high Q had markedly different optical characteristics compared with other sediments that were sampled. Light attenuation is strongly dependent on particle size; attenuation per unit of sediment mass peaks at an intermediate particle size that approximately corresponds to silt (Davies–Colley & Smith, 2001). A change in particle size characteristics of TSS during high discharge in the sediment plume, for example due to relative increase in the contribution of silt–sized particles (i.e. 3.9 – 62.5 μm; Wentworth, 1922), is therefore likely to account for these data points that deviate from the overall relationship between beam transmittance and suspended sediment concentration.
75 SPITFIRE uses both anthropogenic and natural ignitions. The anthropogenic ignitions are again based on the unimodal relationship of population density with ignitions proposed by Pechony and Shindell (2009), with low ignitions at low population densities, rising with population to a peak, then decreasing at high population density. The lightning ignitions are prescribed from LIS lightning data. In terms of geographic distribution and general timing of fires compared to data from MODIS, SPITFIRE has been shown to do well (Thonicke et al. 2001, Thonicke et al. 2010). However, the model does not allow for long-lasting fires, landscape heterogeneity, or fire suppression. There are also a couple of key regions over which the model performs poorly as outlined in Fletcher et al. (2014); for the interior of Australia which is a high fire-prone region, the model simulates very low vegetation due to low rainfall, and thus zero fire. The extent of low fire occurrence in northern latitudes also extends too far south in the model. This could be due to the use of monthly climate data, which are interpolated to quasi-daily values. There is little fire activity simulated over the Amazon due to the humid conditions, which fails to capture the high rate of human-induced fire which can be seen in the MODIS data, although later studies show the statistical representation of burned areas of the Amazon performs well at coarse resolution. SPITFIRE is also one of the more complex fire models, making it difficult to develop and maintain, and the underlying calculations are based on a number of weakly constrained input variables and datasets (Fletcher et al. 2014).
makes a large contribution to local marine (Kaehler et al. 2000) and terrestrial (Dufour 2011) trophic webs. Kelp plays an important role in local community structure by facilitating settlement and growth of some macroalgal species over others (Taylor & Schiel 2005), and providing habitat and food for a diverse array of invertebrate taxa (Edgar & Burton 2000, Smith & Simpson 2002) including polychaetes, echinoderms, crustaceans and molluscs. Beach-cast bull-kelp (wrack) is consumed by a wide variety of insects and crustaceans (Dufour 2011) which in turn form the prey of many birds. In deeper (>5m) subtidal sub-Antarctic waters, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh dominates and, like D. antarctica, performs important ecosystem- structuring services by providing habitat and food for many organisms. Pugh & Davenport (1997) hypothesised that M. pyrifera might survive some degree of ice scour as its holdfasts attach to the substrate deeply enough to avoid the ice foot. Molecular data, however, indicate that this species has probably recolonised many sub-Antarctic islands post- glacially (Macaya & Zuccarello 2010b), suggesting it does not survive long periods of sustained ice scour. Indeed, Macrocystis is not presently recorded from any of the islands within the northern limit of sea ice. More than a century ago, Skottsberg (1904) noted the absence of Macrocystis from the South Orkney Islands and suggested it was unlikely to occur near any islands within the northern limit of drifting sea ice (which he defined as the “Antarctic” zone).
In this paper, observed climate change impacts in the country were collated and tabulated to provide the baseline information on the prevalent climate ha- zards associated with the impacts. Available climate and socio-economic da- tasets for the country were then subjected to the GeoClim software analyses in order to generate the spatial patterns of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive ca- pacity parameters. Composite layers of these parameters were overlayed to ge- nerate the vulnerability map. Finally, effectiveness of the country’s existing poli- cies and capacities in addressing the vulnerabilities has been evaluated. Results have revealed that the entire country is vulnerable. However, the Northern parts as well as the Southern tip of the coastal strip are the most vulnerable. Flood and drought hazards result in the greatest impacts to the Kenyan socie- ty. Significant gaps and weaknesses have been observed in the existing policies and capacities which render them inadequate to effectively address the vulne- rability. It is concluded that the country urgently requires a raft of measures to address the current and future vulnerabilities presented by climate change.
Marquette area recognized the need to restore hill prairie, glades, limestone cliffs and other blufftop communities under serious threat of woody invasion along much of the river bluffs. As the vast majority of the high priority blufflands remains in private ownership, outreach to obtain landowner support is essential. Additional resources including funding and improvements in strategic management will also be of benefit. This portion of the COA has a diverse base of agency and NGO stakeholders actively managing land and water resources in area. The FWS manages the Two Rivers Wildlife Refuge, which provides a variety of aquatic, wetland, and floodplain forest habitat types. The southwestern part of Calhoun County, extending into eastern Jersey and Madison counties includes the Mississippi River State Fish and WildlifeArea (MRSFWA) managed by IL DNR. This large complex of wetlands consists of 16,875 acres managed for wetland habitat enhancement and public recreation. This management is made possible through a cooperative agreement with FWS and a cooperative lease with ACE. The MRSFWA provides essential resting and foraging habitat for migratory and
The combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods helps provide a combined socio-ecological assessment of conservancies and how they integrate into pastoral livelihoods. Quantitative methods such as the questionnaire, and livestock and settlement analysis, measure impacts and allow for comparison of landscapes or groups of people. The qualitative methods try to explain those impacts and as well as being important in their own right are also an essential precursor to design of quantitative approaches. Quantitative research is important when you want to measure scale and importance of different factors and effects, to discern causality, and allow for generalisation and replication of findings (Bryman 2008), whereas qualitative methods allow for more in-depth, richer and thicker descriptions of what is observed in quantitative methods (Denzin and Lincoln 2002). Although quantitative research is useful for proving generalisations about a population, the complementary use of qualitative research can significantly enhance understanding of the research context, improve internal validity, and strengthen interpretation and analysis of research findings (Drury et al., 2010). The use of mixed methods also allows for ‘triangulation’, where two or more methods of data collection are combined to cross-check the results derived from one source with the results derived from another source. In triangulation, the combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods supports each other to increase reliability and validity of the data, and thereby reducing potential bias, misinterpretation and inaccuracies (Burton 2000).
Although the AWF had a transnational influence on my fieldwork, my host organization had a local influence on my research. My research was hosted by Sauti Moja, a Canadian-based charity NGO focused on linking donors to community projects of the Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania. Sauti Moja focuses on community initiatives such as the education of vulnerable girls and children about HIV/AIDS prevention or workshops on sustainable livelihoods. The Tanzanian- based office, Sauti Moja – Tanzania, was established based off of collaborations in 2010 between Sauti Moja staff members and Maasai leaders in the Longido district. Currently, the local staff consists of both men and women who play an active role in their community. These communities are found within the district of Longido, and major projects are conducted in Longido (town), Oltepesi, Mairowa, Ngoswak, and Ketumbeine (see Figure 5 pg. 52). The belief driving Sauti Moja is that the Maasai are an indigenous pastoralist group that have encountered great challenges and thus capacity building and understanding the intricate realities that the Maasai are living in is needed. Part of this vision includes understanding where wildlifeconservation comes to play as it reaches high on the pastoral agenda. Through my research being hosted by Sauti Moja, an entire network unfolded. Although I had a sizable chain of connections available to me, all these contacts came with assumptions in regards to the NGO and myself. As previously stated, the ethical dimension of compensating participants was an influence that having this network had on my research. As the NGO has not conducted any projects regarding conservation, through hosting my research, the organization is taking a stepping-stone to understanding an aspect of Maasai livelihoods that has previously not received much attention. This is where the institutional influences of researchers come to play.
The topography of the study sites are characterized by rugged hills, mountains and gentle plain lands. According to FAO (1986), the major soil types in the area are Chromic Luvisols, Dystric Cambisols, Eutric Nitosols, Pellic Vertisols and Rendzinas. From these soil types, Eutric Nitosols is the dominant soil type in Gozamin while Vertisol is the major soil type in Enemay. Altitude varies from 800 to 4088 meters above sea level which supports the presence of all agro- ecological zones but the dominant type (about 88%) falls under the category of Woina dega (subtropical) (Ayal and Muluneh, 2014). Vegetation cover is very low but in some inaccessible places natural forests have been preserved and indigenous trees such as Wanza (cordial Abyssinia Lam), warka (ficusalicitolia), shoal (Ficus sur Forssk), tid (juniperus procera), girar (Acacia abyssinica), zigba (Podocarpus falcatus), and Bisana (Croton macrostachyus Del.) are found.
Even though, the conflict between human and wildlife occurs worldwide, it is intense in the developing countries like Ethiopia, where livestock rearing and agriculture are important parts of rural people's livelihoods and income. Particularly, increasing human population has resulting pressure on land under cultivation and increased the degree of conflicts between human and wildlife. Hence, the livelihoods of communities living adjacent to protected areas have been affected because of destruction and damage of property and infrastructure; like agricultural crops, plantations, grain stores, fencing, livestock depredation and transmission of disease to domestic animals and leading to additional labor costs for guarding farm lands and livestock’s. Therefore, to reduce the negative impacts of wildlife on human; governmental and non-governmental organization, conservation organizations, the scientific community, wildlife managers, tourism industry operators, rural communities living clos to protected areas and other stakeholders should collaborate to safeguard rural livelihoods, reduce their vulnerability, and counterbalance losses with benefits and practice the implementation of community-based participatory conservation approach.
This study was conducted for a period of two months between August 2016 and September 2016. To achieve the objectives of the study, a selection of qualitative and quantitative research methods was used to gather the data. These included participant observation, household surveys, key informant interviews, informal interviews and conversations. A desk review of relevant literature was also conducted before starting the fieldwork. Relevant literature on the management of natural resources in Laikipia county in general and on Il Ngwesi was also reviewed. I gathered a lot of information through informal interviews and conversations, like a story of when the neighbouring herders, Samburu, camped in Il Ngwesi group ranch’s core conservationarea with their livestock, in 2013. This in turn resulted in violent conflicts between the two communities that led to the loss of both human and livestock lives. Informal conversations were mostly with my research assistant as we made transect walks across the villages and some elders whom we met at different shopping centres in the evening while we drank a cup of tea. In one interesting encounter, my assistant and I met an elder who was willing to tell the story of the transformation of Il Ngwesi since the formation of the conservancy. Villagers know him as one of the founders of Il Ngwesi conservancy. I later learned that he was one of the elders who was consulted by one of the founders of LWC (Ian Craig) in the early 1990s to start wildlifeconservation on the group ranch land. Similarly, I obtained information from women and girls from my host families on the days that I spent my nights in the village. We were engaged in story telling before we slept, and I collected a lot of information from those informal talks. These included a story of how the family (the one that accommodated me in Ngarendare) had to move away from Nandunguro village to Ngarendare because of insecurity through raids by the Samburu. The family had lost over one hundred goats to the raiders and that prompted them to relocate before any of their family members lost their lives too.
The above are just but a few examples of the minimum criteria that should take priority in certification programmes in Kenya. The historical-political context and local dynamics of the setting in which certification programmes are to be applied are of paramount consideration. Achieving the socio- political and legal changes needed for local empowerment will require grappling with governance issues, such as decentralizing tourism authority and decision-making processes from the national level to democratically elected regional and grassroots institutions and organization (e.g., county governments, municipal councils, welfare societies and local tourism and environmental groups). Effective indicators will need to be developed to monitor tourism impacts on the socio-cultural fabric at the local destination level and the ability of the local communities to participate meaningfully in wildlife safari tourism in the Kenyan postcolony. In the absence of independent institutions and processes to facilitate transition towards self-empowerment and local control, safari tourism certification programmes and indicators should be regarded with caution—they may too easily constitute tools for cultural imperialism and external control over land-use, wildlife resources, and the rural, pastoral and nomadic inhabitants of the Savanna grasslands.
Agriculture provides employment for 2.6 billion people worldwide and accounts for 20 to 60 percent of the gross domestic product of many developing countries, forming the backbone of rural economies, contributing to local employment, and ensuring food security for poorer populations. The agricultural sector is also a major contributor to GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. Most studies attribute about twenty to twenty-five percent of all global GHG emissions to the production of food, feed, and biofuels, including emissions from agriculture- driven land use change. Though these numbers are substantial and comparable in aggregate to the transportation sector, agriculture’s potential contributions to GHG mitigation have received little attention the international dialogs on climate change mitigation. If agricultural systems are to meet the future needs of an expanding global population, significant progress will need to be made in helping the agricultural sector as a whole— and farmers in particular—increase the resilience of farming systems to climate change, better preserve soil fertility and freshwater flows, and reduce impacts on deforestation, biological diversity, and GHG emissions.
In polar regions where climatevariability and warming is changing at an unprecedented rate (Holland and Bitz 2003), the structure and function of tundra ecosystems is changing rapidly (Post et al. 2009). These changes are threatening global food security (Wheeler and von Braun 2013) primarily by limiting access and availability of animal and plant country foods (Ford 2009, Larsen et al. 2014). In the Canadian Arctic and Alaska, Inuit Elders and northerners have linked climatevariability to changes in berry resources, such as decreases (and in some cases increases) in the growth, quantity and quality of culturally important dwarf berry species (Hupp et al. 2015, Gerin-Lajoie et al. 2016, Boulanger-Lapointe 2017). Berries are a staple country food among Inuit (Zutter 2009), and the process of picking, preparing and consuming tundra berries is vital to living Inuit culture (Zutter 2009, Downing and Cuerrier 2011, Cuerrier et al. 2015, Boulanger-Lapointe 2017). Dwarf berry shrubs also contribute to tundra ecosystem health and function by providing forage (Richardson et al. 2002, Cadieux et al. 2005, Christie et al. 2015) and habitat (Marcot et al. 2015) for vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores, supplying nutrients and storing carbon in above/below ground biomass and litter (Shaver et al. 1992, Grafius and Malanson 2015), and by retaining soil moisture and insulating winter soils through snow trapping (Myers-Smith et al. 2011), with direct links to permafrost and freeze-thaw cycles (Blok et al. 2010).
Mark Hostetler Department of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation, Institute of
Food & Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Susan K. Jacobson Department Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
shock increases the survival probabilities of girls more than the survival probabilities of boys. Similarly, Hoddinott (2006) finds that there is a small but transient effect of drought on the BMI of women, but not on men‘s. Also, the age of the individual at the time of the shock matters. For example, Hoddinott and Kinsey (2001) find that a drought experienced at 12 months to 24 months of age, had an impact on annual growth rate, and that the impact persisted for the four years of the study. No such impact was found for shocks experienced later in life. Maccini and Yang (2009) find a slightly different result where an individual is susceptible to weather. In their study on rural Indonesia weather shocks experienced in the first year of life have an impact on adult outcomes. Namely, women born in localities with greater than average rainfall are taller as adults, have completed more years of education, and live in wealthier households. No impacts on men‘s outcomes are observed.
A VAR method offers compre- hensive results and also decomposes the individual effect which in reply offers the individual impact of the climate variable on rice production in the country. The impulse response function is employed to confirm for the shocks in the variables and ultimately to see their impacts on the explanatory variables. Assessments made from VAR model are easy because Ordinay Least Square (OLS) method is used (Gujarati and Porter, 2009; Janjua et al., 2010).