Top PDF Coexistence of ZIGBEE and WI-FI Frame Control Protocol Simulation Using HMM

Coexistence of ZIGBEE and WI-FI Frame Control Protocol Simulation Using HMM

Coexistence of ZIGBEE and WI-FI Frame Control Protocol Simulation Using HMM

As a less power and less cost communication technology, Zigbee is building its place on the market as an enabler for the emerging wireless personal area network (WPAN) [1]. As the Wi-Fi, Zigbee also uses the 2.4 GHz ISM band. Due to sustaining gracious application, they are very likely to be collect within the interfering range of each other and thus their ability to coexist need to be evaluated. Many such studies have done concerning coexist between the Wi-Fi and Zigbee thus by that there has a little impact on the performance of the two network. However the Wi-Fi during transmission can have a serious impact on the performance of Zigbee if channel selection and allocation is not done properly [1][2].Infect the channel utilization if Wi-Fi based on network is quite low as shown in figure 1 .
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NBP: light weight Narrow Band Protection for ZigBee and Wi Fi coexistence

NBP: light weight Narrow Band Protection for ZigBee and Wi Fi coexistence

The approaches to solve the coexistence problem are categorized into three groups. First, an intuitive approach to avoid such interference is to assign the preferable ZigBee channels that are less affected by the Wi-Fi trans- mission [11-13]. However, such a solution is often infea- sible as the shared spectrum band may already have been heavily loaded with many heterogeneous wireless devices. Second, ZigBee frame control mechanisms [5,14] either adjust the size of the ZigBee packet or the inter-packet arrival time between ZigBee packets, so that the ZigBee packets opportunistically fit into the intervals of the Wi- Fi packets. However, these adjustments cannot guarantee the delivery of the ZigBee packets and hence are inap- plicable for delay-sensitive ZigBee applications. The final approach is to use a dedicated entity to protect the Zig- Bee devices [15]. The dedicated entity, called protector, reserves the wireless medium on behalf of the ZigBee device. However, the ZigBee node still needs to explic- itly notify the protector that it has a packet to send and hence the ZigBee MAC protocol has to be modified. More importantly, this method is still vulnerable to the Wi-Fi interference as this control packet itself is basically sent using ZigBee transmission.
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Wireless Personal Area Network based Simulation and Design to Control the Speed of Permanent Magnet DC Motor using Zigbee Transceiver Protocol

Wireless Personal Area Network based Simulation and Design to Control the Speed of Permanent Magnet DC Motor using Zigbee Transceiver Protocol

orientation according to the field of interest. The system consists of a Transmitter module which generates control signals which contains information about the speed and orientation of motor depending on the application area. These signals are transmitted to the Receiver wirelessly through wireless RF module Zigbee. The receiver according to the control signals controls the speed of the motor by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is the technique of utilizing switching devices to produce the effect of a continuously varying analog signal. This PWM conversion generally has very high electrical efficiency and can be used in controlling either a three-phase synchronous motor or a three-phase induction motor .It is desirable to create three perfectly sinusoidal current waveforms in the motor windings, with relative phase displacements of 120°. The production of sine wave power using a linear amplifier system would have low efficiency, maximum of 64%. Efficiency can be increase up to 95% if instead of the linear circuitry, fast electronic switching devices are used, depending on the properties of the semiconductor power switch. The result is a load current waveform that depends mainly on the modulation of the duty ratio.
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M Toll Using Wi Fi Technology

M Toll Using Wi Fi Technology

The toll collection system all over India is the manual toll collection system. We have proposed an idea of making the toll collection totally electronic with the use of Wi-Fi and Android technology [1]. Electronic toll collection (ETC) is a technology enabling the electronic collection of toll payments. It has been studied by researchers and applied in various highways, bridges, and tunnels requiring such a process. This system is capable of determining if the vehicle is registered or not, and then informing the authorities of toll payment violations, debits, and participating accounts. The most obvious advantage of this technology is the opportunity to eliminate congestion at tollbooths, especially during festive seasons when traffic tends to be heavier than normal. It is also a method by which we can curb complaints from motorists regarding the inconveniences involved in manually making payments at the tollbooths. Other than this
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Li-Fi-An Alternative to Wi-Fi

Li-Fi-An Alternative to Wi-Fi

Abstract - Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) refers to 5G Visible Light Communication systems using light-emitting diodes as a medium to high-speed communication in a similar manner as Wi-Fi. In the days where internet has become a major demand, people are in a search for Wi-Fi hotspots. Li-Fi or New Life of data communication is a better alternative to Wi-Fi in wireless communication. This paper proposes a survey on Li-Fi Technology. The Li-fi technology was invented by Professor Harald Hass of University of Edinburgh. Li-Fi has more capacity in terms of bandwidth in visible region therefore it does not poke its nose in other communications which uses radio frequency range, without taking its frequency bands. Li-Fi has thousand times greater speed than Wi-Fi and provides security as the visible light is unable to penetrate through the walls, which propose a new era of wireless communication. The concept of Li-Fi is data communication on fast flickering of light which is not detected by human eye but it is focused on photo detector which converts the on- off state into binary digital data. It has gained a huge popularity in two years of its invention. Such technology has brought not only greener but safer and cheaper future of communication.
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Design of a Secure HAS Using Wi Fi

Design of a Secure HAS Using Wi Fi

Home automation is the residential extension of building automation and involves the control and automation of lights, air conditioning, ventilation, and heating (LACVH) appliances using the Internet of Things (IoT) and establishing a wireless connection to various electrical devices within our homes. The main objective of an internet of things is used to help old age people and specially challenged people to control electrical appliances, and the security will be provided to the entry point of the home. In this paper, we are using Wi-Fi to control the home appliances that means we can control the home appliances the devise from outside the Wi-Fi range through internet anywhere, any place, anytime. And it reduces human efforts and power efficiency. The proposed system also deals with the OTP (One Time Password) generation which will be used as home entry password for users. Data from all these sensors is continually received and processed by Arduino Uno board which acts as a microcontroller unit. In case of untoward situations, the Arduino will trigger an alarm and alert messages will be sent to user’s mobile via GSM. And the camera module to captures the attacker’s picture and sends to the registered mobile numbers. Thus the system ensures home safety as well as security.
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1.
													Los identification using wi-fi

1. Los identification using wi-fi

Abstract - wireless LANs, especially Wi-Fi have been pervasively conveyed and have cultivated myriad wireless communication services and ubiquitous computing applications. The main concern in designing these applications is to face harsh indoor propagation environments, especially Non- Line- Of- Sight (NLOS). The ability to find the presence of line-Of – sight (LOS) path acts as a key enabler for adaptive communication, cognitive radios, and robust localization. Empowering such capability on commodity Wi-Fi infrastructure on the other hand, is restrictive because of the coarse multipath determination with MAC- layer received signal strength. In this paper we propose two PHY-layer channel-insights based elements from both the time and recurrence areas. To further split away from the intrinsic bandwidth limit of Wi-Fi, We propose Li-Fi a statistical LOS identification scheme with product Wi-Fi infrastructure, and assess it in typical indoor environments covering an area of 1500 m 2 . The experimental results illustrates that Li-Fi accomplishes an overall LOS detection rate of 90.42% with a false alarm rate of 9.34% for the temporal feature and an overall LOS detection rate of 93.09% with a false alarm rate of 7.29% for the spectral feature.
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Polling In Wi-Fi Using Android

Polling In Wi-Fi Using Android

With all the efforts invested in polling android application for interaction between the teacher and student, we believe that at the end of the project finds itself a much better place and moves a bit closer to the real world. We summarize the progress with respect to the main objectives of the project, namely, capability, convenience and accessibility. Polling in wi-fi android application will help all the college students overcome the communication barrier that is present currently among them. It helps for student and teacher both improve knowledge so if any student doubt in the lecture they can free ask about that particular topic, then it is easy to give their feedback and also help for teacher how to improve teaching. This application aims at bringing together all the college students so that they can help and be helped. It will be beneficial for all the students Thus, the proposed of fetch the mac address from student mobile because no one student can fake feedback about the lecture.
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An Internet of Things Framework for Automation and Remote Control of Home Appliances

An Internet of Things Framework for Automation and Remote Control of Home Appliances

Internet of Things is making devices smarter with the help of other devices. It is formed by a large network of connected devices where devices can interact and share information with each other [1]. It allows sensing and remotely controlling objects which bridges the gap between the physical world and computer-based systems. With the help of this paper, any home appliances that don’t havethe capability to connect to the internet can be brought online. Anyone in United States can control a device they possess in India with the help of this internet of things framework. Through this automatic control of windmills, automatic control of solar panels, street lighting in rural areas, and control of cameras in forests or even much bigger global problems can be solved.
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Wi Fi authentication using visual cryptography for securing Wi Fi 
		enabled devices

Wi Fi authentication using visual cryptography for securing Wi Fi enabled devices

The phases of the Wi-Fi AVC proposed system are explained in this section. The proposed system consists of three phases; Firstly, Share construction phase in which two shares Share1 and Share2 are generated from the given input secret image and two natural images (NI). Secondly, in Revealing phase, the two share images SH1 and SH2 are generated from the shares Share1 and Share2 respectively. A Reconstructed Image (RI) is revealed by stacking the two share images using Logical XOR operation. Figure-1 shows the overall phases in the proposed system.
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LI-FI TECHNOLOGY OVER WI-FI

LI-FI TECHNOLOGY OVER WI-FI

The bulb sub-assembly is the heart of the Li-Fi emitter. It consists of a sealed bulb which is embedded in a dielectric material. This design is more reliable than conventional light sources that insert degradable electrodes into the bulb [3]. The dielectric material serves two purposes. It acts as a waveguide for the RF energy transmitted by the PA. It also acts as an electric field concentrator that focuses energy in the bulb. The energy from the electric field rapidly heats the material in the bulb to a plasma state that emits light of high intensity and full spectrum [15]. Figure 2 shows the bulb sub-assembly. Bandwidth of Li Fi is more efficient and the consortium of Li Fi and the light emitting the data in the form of 0’s and 1’s within the range. Representation of Spectral Power Distribution of LED light which transmits the data in the form of 00000111111111100101…. And it will be received by the Photo detector and amplification processing is done.[4]
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Design Optimization and Simulation Analysis of Formula SAE Frame Using Chromoly Steel | Journal of Engineering Sciences

Design Optimization and Simulation Analysis of Formula SAE Frame Using Chromoly Steel | Journal of Engineering Sciences

The framework was designed to ensure maximum load path, space of different components and comply with regulations, considering the suspension points location [7]. The driver cell has ample space, offering storage for the gear lever, batteries, fuel tank, guaranteeing the safety of the operator and fast egress. 4130 Steel is used as it is an ideal material for the frame due to its machine durabil- ity, ease of manufacturing, tolerance to scaling and corro- sion, lean and smooth finish.

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WEB BASED INDUSTRIAL BOILER REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEM

WEB BASED INDUSTRIAL BOILER REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEM

MAC address is a unique serial number assigned and burned into each network adapter that differentiates network cards, just as your house number is unique on your street and identifies your home among others. To be a part of any network, you must have an address so that you will be able to be reached. Two types of addresses are found in a network: the logical (OSI model Layer 3, network) and the physical (OSI model Layer 2, data link). For this part of the thesis the physical address (also known as the Media Access Control [MAC] address) is relevant. A MAC address is the physical address of the device. It is 48 bits (6 bytes) long and is made up by two parts: the organizational unique identifier (OUI) and the vendor-assigned address, as illustrated in
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LI-FI TECHNOLOGY OVER WI-FI

LI-FI TECHNOLOGY OVER WI-FI

d) Underwater applications: Underwater ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicles) operate from large cables that supply their power and allow them to receive signals from their pilots above. But the tether used in ROVs is not long enough to allow them to explore larger areas. If their wires were replaced with light — say from a submerged, high-powered lamp then they would be much freer to explore. They could also use their headlamps to communicate with each other, processing data autonomously and sending their findings periodically back to the surface [1]. Li-Fi can even work underwater where Wi-Fi fails completely, thereby throwing open endless opportunities for military operations.
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Networks Coexistence with other 2.4 GHz ISM Devices

Networks Coexistence with other 2.4 GHz ISM Devices

Figure 1: ZigBee (802.15.4) and Wi-Fi (802.11) Channels (Source: Mobiusconsulting.com) Arif and Supankat [11] stated that interference will occur on networks due to the large number of devices and several different wireless communication technologies are connected. Because of this interference, a decrease in the performance of the wireless networks is noted. Wi-Fi and ZigBee are expected to run simultaneously in close proximity due to the demand for ubiquitous Internet access and increasingly, these two networks are being utilized in urban areas to support real-time and long-term monitoring [10]. Interests in using these two networks to coexist in different systems have intensified and one of these systems is in smart homes. However, because of the overlap in the channels of ZigBee and Wi-Fi, there is a cause for concern.
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Multicast Wi Fi Raptor enabled data carousel design: simulation and practical implementation

Multicast Wi Fi Raptor enabled data carousel design: simulation and practical implementation

Multicast is an efficient way of transmitting the same set of data to multiple interested users. Unlike the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) cellular standards, for Wi-Fi, there is no standardised solution for reliable multicast data transmission. Multicast packets are delivered to multiple users as a broadcast service without support for automatic repeat request. Hence, multicast transmission often results in high packet loss. In order to improve the reliability of multicast delivery, a fixed low-speed (robust) transmission mode can be used. However, this results in the inefficient use of scarce and valuable radio bandwidth. This paper presents a reliable and efficient Wi-Fi multicast delivery solution for use in challenging outdoor environments. An application layer forward error correction (AL-FEC)-enabled data carousel is proposed to enhance reliability. For multicast transmission, we demonstrate that limitations in the Wi-Fi clients are a major source of packet loss, even in ideal channel conditions. Client limitations (particularly data rate limitations) were found to vary as a function of modulation and coding mode, Raptor code parameters and multicast server rate. Our initial Raptor-enabled carousel designs are based on computer simulations and lab-based trials. Analysis is then extended to field trials using a practical implementation of the recommended design. These trials were performed in central Bristol with parameters such as received signal level, packet loss traces and file download times recorded at the clients. Finally, we compare our site-specific simulated results against real-world measurements.
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Coexistence of Wi Fi and heterogeneous small cell networks sharing unlicensed spectrum

Coexistence of Wi Fi and heterogeneous small cell networks sharing unlicensed spectrum

As two major players in terrestrial wireless communications, Wi-Fi systems and cellular networks have different origins and have largely evolved separately. Motivated by the exponentially increasing wireless data demand, cellular networks are evolving towards a heterogeneous and small cell network architecture, wherein small cells are expected to provide very high capacity. However, due to the limited licensed spectrum for cellular networks, any effort to achieve capacity growth through network densi- fication will face the challenge of severe inter-cell interference. In view of this, recent standardization developments have started to consider the opportunities for cellular networks to use the unlicensed spectrum bands, including the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands that are currently used by Wi-Fi, Zigbee and some other communication systems. In this article, we look into the coexistence of Wi-Fi and 4G cellular networks sharing the unlicensed spectrum. We introduce a network architecture where small cells use the same unlicensed spectrum that Wi-Fi systems operate in without affecting the performance of Wi-Fi systems. We present an almost blank subframe (ABS) scheme without priority to mitigate the co-channel interference from small cells to Wi-Fi systems, and propose an interference avoidance scheme based on small cells estimating the density of nearby Wi-Fi access points to facilitate their coexistence while sharing the same unlicensed spectrum. Simulation results show that the proposed network architecture and interference avoidance schemes can significantly increase the capacity of 4G heterogeneous cellular networks while maintaining the service quality of Wi-Fi systems.
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Design and Development of Bi-Directional IoT Gateway using ZigBee and Wi-Fi Technologies with MQTT Protocol

Design and Development of Bi-Directional IoT Gateway using ZigBee and Wi-Fi Technologies with MQTT Protocol

General IoT gateways consists of different protocols for transferring the data to the cloud which received from the sensor nodes. Here the main objective is to implement a Bi-Directional gateway to avoid interoperability by transforming the information. A gateway is proposed with the protocol ZigBee and GPRS facilitating the data transmission. [12] A similar gateway was proposed with three communication protocols [13]. Many Authors as proposed to transmit the data to local and network and to cloud [14] [15].

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Supervisory Android for Network Sensor Wireless WI-FI/ZIGBEE

Supervisory Android for Network Sensor Wireless WI-FI/ZIGBEE

In this work, a gateway for the development of a supervisory system is proposed that captures and transmits data from a wireless sensor network Zigbee to a mobile device. The sensor is coupled to an XBee device set to End Device (ED) which relays the data to Xbee 's willing routers in a mesh network. Xbee 's modules are designed to work in a Zigbee network. This network architecture was chosen as a function of allowing two or more ways for data transmission reducing potential data loss problems in the case of a device failure. In this type of network there is a XBee coordinator (CO) that receives data from the XBee 's routers. In each network there is only one coordinator who is responsible for managing the ZigBee network. To integrate between ZigBee network and the Wi -Fi network has developed a gateway that connects the XBee coordinator modules to the XBee Wi -Fi module. XBee Wi -Fi is the device that makes communication and data exchange with the network without thread. The schematic design can be seen in Figure 6.
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ZigBee and Wi Fi based Safety System for Mine Workers

ZigBee and Wi Fi based Safety System for Mine Workers

The APR33A processor is designed very simply such that, user can record their voice and playback the audio message averagely for 1, 2, 4 or 8 voice message(s) by switch, It is suitable in simple interface and need to limit the length of single message, e.g. toys, leave messages system, answering machine etc. Meanwhile, this mode provides the power-management system. Users can let the chip enter power-down mode when unused. It can reduce electric current consumption to 15uA and increase the using time in any projects powered by batteries.

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