The fact that saturated fatty acids have high MP, while unsaturated ones have low MP, supports this finding, since oils containing much of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) are liquid, whereas, fats with high saturated FA are solid at ambient temperature. However, high level of unsaturation result in a lower MP, and simultaneously, causes high vulnerability to oxidation. This trend causes adverse effects on the combustion and conservation of fuel , hence there is need to understand the fatty acid composition as these features of feedstock is taken over by biodiesel fuel. Table 3 summarizes their findings.
Abstract: In the current scenario, the energy sector of the developing world depends on fossil fuels. To reduce fossil fuel dependence, it is essential to develop new alternative energy source which can replace fossil fuels. Biodiesel is an effective approach that can replace conventional fossil fuels. Mahua biodiesel is produced from Raw Mahua oil by simple transesterification method. This experiment shows biodiesel production from raw Mahua oil with methanol instead of alcohol and KOH as a catalyst. Fuel properties of Mahua biodiesel are compiled in accordance with European (EN) and American (ASTM) standardization for testing of biodiesel and coldflowproperties are further improved by blending Mahua biodiesel with ethanol. B20 blends of ethanol and Mahua biodiesel shows good pour properties.
lower biodiesel blend ratios; however, these additives did not show any clear effect on the CP of both the neat biodiesel and its blend with petroleum diesel. Paper  investigated the effect of ozonized vegetable oils and found no significant CP depression for soybean, sunflower, and rapeseed, even though the CP of the palm oil biodiesel was reduced by 5°C to 12°C. Bhale et al.  studied the effect of ethanol, Lubrizol 7671 and kerosene on the coldflowproperties of neat madhuca indica biodiesel; it was observed that the CP was reduced by 10°C (with 20% ethanol) and 13°C (with 20% kerosene), respectively, whereas the ethanol-blended biodiesel E20 generated the lowest NOx emissions. Yasin et al.  tested a 5 vol.% methanol in a 20% biodiesel, a 80% mineral diesel blend and a neat mineral diesel separately. Test results showed that the operation of the 20% biodiesel blend generated lower brake power, higher bsfc (4–6%) and NO x emissions (up to
Abstract - The physiochemical properties are analyzed for the neem oil biodiesel and its cerium oxide nanoparticles blend. The neem oil biodiesel are produced from neem seed oil through transesterification process. The cerium oxide nano particles (30 ppm) are blended with neem oil biodiesel by ultrasonic agitation process which disperses the cerium oxide nanoparticle into the biodiesel permanently. Then the physiochemical properties such as kinematicviscosity, specific gravity, cetane number, gross calorific value and flash point are finding out by appropriate apparatus and equipment. From this analysis all the property of both neem oil biodiesel and its cerium oxide blends satisfies the ASTM standard. But the cerium oxide blended fuel gave very nearest value to the diesel and this lead to direct use in unmodified diesel engine.
Biodiesel represents a promising alternative to regular fossil diesel. Fuel viscosity markedly inﬂ uences injection, spraying and combustion, viscosity is thus critical factor to be evaluated and monitored. This work is focused on quantifying the diﬀ erences in temperature dependent kinematicviscosity regular diesel fuel and B30 biodiesel fuel. The samples were assumed to be Newtonian ﬂ uids. Vis co- si ty was measured on a digital rotary viscometer in a range of 0 to 80 °C. More signiﬁ cant diﬀ erence between minimum and maximum values was found in case of diesel fuel in comparison with biodie- sel fuel. Temperature dependence of both fuels was modeled using several mathematical models – polynomial, power and Gaussian equation. The Gaussian ﬁ t oﬀ ers the best match between experi- mental and computed data. Description of viscosity behavior of fuels is critically important, e.g. when considering or calculating running eﬃ ciency and performance of combustion engines. The models proposed in this work may be used as a tool for precise prediction of rheological behavior of diesel- type fuels.
The kinematicviscosity prediction model was developed for biodiesel using an ANN which represents a mathematical relationship between input and output parameters of a system as such a black box model. The selection of input parameters which contribute to the output is therefore a crucial task. It is also desirable to minimize the number of input parameters for an ANN system in order to reduce the computational time. In general, the best input parameters are being selected based on an understanding of the physics of a problem. Published literature suggested that the kinematicviscosity of biodiesel is a function of chemical composition- the fatty acid profile of methyl ester and impurities. In the present study, 27 variables are used as input parameters in developing the ANN for viscosity prediction. These parameters include: mass percentage of 18 fatty acid methyl ester that is commonly found in the biodiesel and 9 parameters listed in Table 2. Among 352 data sets that have been collected from literature, 327 sets are used in the ANN model training process whereas other 25 data sets are randomly selected for simulation.
catalyst (KOH) is used during the transesterification process. The reason for this is the high percentage of the FFA content in the seed oils because if we directly use the base catalyst the reaction will not take place properly instead the formation of soap takes place and the catalyst is no longer available for the reaction. Mahua biodiesel and Jatropha biodiesel has better combustion and emissions properties than that of the conventional mineral diesel as it found out by various researchers in the past. Coldflowproperties of Jatropha biodiesel are better than Mahua biodiesel as it has higher value for pour and cloud point. To improve the low temperature properties of the Mahua biodiesel, we blended the Mahua biodiesel with Jatropha biodiesel in different blending ratios, in order to find out optimum blending ratio for dual fuel. Studies have found that the thermal stability of biodiesel and vegetable oils is better than standard diesel fuel . In this experimental research, we have prepared the dual-fuel biodiesel with non- edible vegetable oil in order to achieve better coldflowproperties of the biodiesel and which conforms to the ASTM standards.
The properties test considered to be investigated are included density, kinematicviscosity, water content, acid value and flash points test [7-9].These properties test are established along the European Standard for Biodiesel (EN 14214) and American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM D6751). The density properties were measured by Metter Toledo Diamond Scale modelled JB703-C/AF. In this inquiry, the kinematicviscosity of sample blend was measured by Viscolite 700 model VL700-T15.Kinematicviscosity is referring to the time consumed from a volume of sample (liquid form) to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary Viscometer. The water content and acid value in the biodiesel sample were measured by Volumetric KF Titrator model v20 and titration process. The condition of acid value is shown as the amount (mg) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize one gram of the biodiesel. During acid value measurement, the sample is titrated with alcoholic KOH using phenolphthalein as indicator. The flash point measured by Pensky-Martens PMA 4. The particulars of the tested fuels are detailed in Table 1
The conversion of waste frying oil into a valuable methyl ester (biodiesel) has been successfully conducted and also the acid pre-treatment process was carried out prior to the main biodiesel production process for lowering waste frying oil free fatty acid (FFA) content below 1%. The physicochemical properties of biodiesel were analyzed to ensure the prod- uct could meet the standards of fuel properties. The methanolysis was selected as the biodiesel production technique under various mixing speeds namely 350, 400 and 450 rpm, while the other parameters are maintained at the optimum process conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio is 6:1, percentage of catalyst loading is 1.0% wt, reaction tem- perature is 60˚C, and reaction time is 50 min. Also, the investigation on the kinematicviscosity, density and flash point of biodiesel was performed against a number of rpm. The standards of ASTM D 6751 were applied to measure the en- tire prescribed properties of biodiesel. The highest yield of biodiesel obtained was 99%. The values of flash point, ki- nematic viscosity and density were in the range of specified limitations. Other biodieselproperties fulfilled the diesel engine application requirements.
There are four samples which are standard diesel, B80 (80% of B100), B90 (90% of B100) and biodiesel (B100). The samples were blended at 270 rpm for an hour and heated around 70 ˚C . According to biodiesel handling guide, biodiesel temperature should be above it cloud point while blending to avoid fuel appearing cloudy. The cloudiness of the fuel indicates that the fuels is in low quality and contain high viscosity and water content . All samples were stored for nine weeks at 24 ˚C. The fuel properties (acid value, flash point, density and kinematicviscosity) for all samples have been measured and recorded according to ASTM D6751.
As we need an alternating fuel that will replace diesel fuel in order to reduce the harmful emissions coming out of engine as exhaust by products, which necessitates the improvement in engine performance and increase in combustion characteristics of fuels in the combustion chamber. As biodiesels are having high viscosity and higher flashpoint than diesel, it will be difficult to use biodiesel as a fuel alone in present diesel engines. Hence it is preferred to blend biodiesel with diesel to get required properties of blend that will suit the present diesel engines. But higher kinematicviscosity of biodiesel/diesel blends as compared to diesel affects the atomization of fuel in the combustion chamber which further reduces the combustion pressure and temperature and reduces the power output of the engine. This necessitates the addition of ethanol as an additive in the blends which further enhances the hot flow, coldflow and thermo-physical properties of the biodiesel/diesel blends. Therefore in this study feedstock of palm oil biodiesel is used as fuel with 5% ethanol by volume as an additive in the blends of palm oil biodiesel/diesel blends. Hot flow and coldflowproperties of blends of palm oil biodiesel/ethanol/diesel blends are experimentally investigated as per IS 1448 standards. Investigation outcome shows that ethanol as an additive improves the kinematicviscosity of blends of palm oil biodiesel/diesel by 4% lesser than biodiesel/diesel blend without ethanol and 12% higher than diesel. But on the other hand calorific value of the blends with the addition of ethanol decreases calorific value by 6.27% than biodiesel/diesel blend without ethanol and 6.87 % than diesel. Most importantly the coldflowproperties are enhanced by the addition of ethanol in the blend such as cloud point increases by 13 % than biodiesel/diesel blend without ethanol and pour point increases by 14% than biodiesel/diesel blend without ethanol. The combustion and performance analysis are improved with the addition of ethanol and decreases the harmful emissions from the exhaust manifold of the engine. The effect of ethanol as an additive in the blends of palm oil biodiesel/diesel blend on properties, performance, and combustion and on emissions are studied in this paper.
In this study, local vegetable oil named as Ricinus Communis (RC) is used as the raw material for the production of biodiesel. In order to obtain RC oil, Soxhalet Extraction apparatus was used. This paper deals with the transesterification of Ricinus Communis oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. Moreover, this study analysis the fuel properties of RC biodiesel and soybean biodiesel blends. Various properties of the RC biodiesel, Soybean biodiesel and their blends such as the cold filter plugging point (CFPP), cetane number, flash point, kinematicviscosity and density were determined. Test results were compared well with European biodiesel standards EN 14214. Analysis showed that the cetane number and the coldflow behavior of the RC biodiesel and soybean biodiesel blends were improved due to the high cetane number (80) and the low cold filter plugging point (-35 o C) of RC biodiesel.
Kinematicviscosity is the most important property of oil because it affects the fluidity, lubricity and atomization of the fuel . Fuels with low viscosity may not provide sufficient lubrication resulting in wear and high viscosity causes poor combustion and increases exhaust emission . The kinematicviscosity of the crude castor oil as presented in Table Table 3.1 is 233±2.00 mm 2 /s at 40°C, similar result of 224 mm 2 /s at 40°C was obtained by Rengasamy et al.,  and high results of 258.01 mm 2 /s at 40°C was observed by Encinar et al., . After refining, the viscosity dropped to 159.0±3.00 mm 2 /s at 40°C. Reduction in the viscosity may be related to the removal heavy materials i.e. hydralable phospholipids, non hydralable phospholipids, metal salts etc. and impurities during refining process .
18%) were observed compared to petroleum diesel. Zhu et al.  studied the emissions and performance of a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated DI diesel engine with diesel fuel, pure biodiesel, and biodiesel with additives (ethanol and methanol separately in 5%, 10% and 15% blends). Waste cooking oil was used to produce biodiesel. They observed that compared to diesel fuel, the blended fuels could reduce both NOx and PM of a diesel engine, whereas the biodiesel–methanol blends were more effective than the biodiesel–ethanol blends. Joshi et al.  improved the low-temperature operability, kinematicviscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of diethyl ether as additive to biodiesel on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics in an unmodified diesel engine at different loads and constant engine speed . With the addition of diethyl ether into biodiesel, the brake thermal efficiency and bsfc were improved with the use of 5% biodiesel blend. The CO and smoke emissions are lower for 5% biodiesel blend compared to those of other fuel blends and biodiesel. The NOx emission is higher for 5% biodiesel blend compared to that of neat biodiesel. The HC emissions are higher for all the biodiesel–diethyl ether blends compared to those of biodiesel at all loads. Aydin et al.  examined 20% kerosene and 80% cottonseed biodiesel blend in a single cylinder DI diesel engine and compared the emission results with that of diesel and cottonseed biodiesel blend. The experimental results showed that the exhaust emissions for 20% kerosene and 80% biodiesel were fairly reduced as compared to diesel fuel. Boshui et al.  evaluated the impact of three coldflow improvers namely, olefin-ester copolymers (OECP). Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EACP) and poly methyl acrylate (PMA), on the low temperature properties, and viscosity-temperature characteristics of a soybean biodiesel was evaluated on a low temperature flow tester and rotary rheometer. The result indicated that the ability of coldflow improvers varied in improving the coldflowproperties of soybean biodiesel but among most of them, OECP was found to be the best candidate. Four comb-like copolymers derived from styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer were prepared and characterized by FTIR, 1 H-NMR and elemental analysis. The prepared polymers were investigated as pour point depressants and flow improvers for waxy crude oil and it was found that, the maximum depression was obtained by the sample that has long branch chain (C 18 H 37 O) from 27˚C to -3˚C (DPP=30˚C, at
Pour point is the temperature where the flow of the liquid ceases to exist. Generally, waxes and paraffin are contained in the engine base oils which easily solidify on cooler temperature. More the waxes and paraffin in the base oil more will be its pour point. The engine oil’s pour point is an important variable especially in the cold areas. The oil must keep on flowing in the oil pump and then be pumped to the engine’s various parts (Riazi M.R. et al., 1987). Table-2 & figure-3 show the pour point value of various samples. Little decrease of pour point was observed in monograde (SAE-40 and 50) oil samples as compared to multigrade oil. In multigrade engine oil samples, no significant change was observed in pour point as the multigrade oil is a high viscosity and high grade engine oil with greater percentage of various additives.
The ash point results showed that Calophyllum inophyllum oil possesses the highest ash point, followed by mustard and palm oil. All of these crude vegetable oils have very high ash points (>160 C), which conrm that these feedstock are safe for storage, transportation and handling. Mustard oil showed the lowest cloud point and pour point among all of the tested feedstocks. By analyzing the cloud point and pour point result, it can be concluded that mustard oil possesses better cold ow properties than palm and Calophyllum inophyllum. Caloric value is an important fuel selection parameter. Again, mustard oil was found to be superior to the other two biodiesel Table 5 Physicochemical properties of biodiesels
dimensional and morphological changes of GNPs have effective influence on their rheological properties. To understand and categorize the role of GNPs in drug delivery and cancer therapy, GNPs of varying size, number of particles, shape and surface should be taken into consideration. Moreover, further additional in vivo studies after administration of GNPs in rats should be performed to support this hypothesis.
the specification range, diluting the vegetable oil with other less viscous liquid fuels to form blends that have been termed as hybrid fuels, micro emulsifying the vegetable oil and esterification process i.e. chemically converting the vegetable oil to simple ester of methyl, ethyl or butyl alcohols. Esterification process has been preferred because it reduces viscosity and maintains the heat of combustion. Moreover, this process also enhances volatility of the fuel which in turn helps in its better atomization. The esters produced from the esterification process present a very promising alternative to diesel fuel since they are renewable, non-volatile and safer due to increased flash point, biodegradability, contain little or no sulfur and can be produced easily in rural areas where there is an acute need for such form of energy. Moreover, they have been demonstrated to burn in unmodified diesel engines . The various aspects of using vegetable oils as fuel include crop production and development that include selection of high oil processing and storage, filtration, blends and additives, esterification, engine performance, problem with engine deposits and injector coking, use of byproducts, economics of vegetable oil and potential production of oil seeds.
The cetane number is a commonly used indicator for the determination of diesel fuel quality, especially the ignition quality. It measures the readiness of the fuel to auto-ignite when injected into the engine . High cetane numbers guarantee good cold start behavior and a smooth run of the engine. In contrast, fuels with low cetane numbers tend to increase gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions because of incomplete combustion . The ideal mixture of fatty acids has been suggested to be C16:1, C18:1 and C14:0 in the ratio 5:4:1. Such a biodiesel would have the properties of very low oxidative potential [37,38]. In the current investigation, the ratio was about 5:3:1. In view of that, the C18:1 acid concen- tration of D. salina has to be improved by controlling culture conditions.