The most important factors appear to be cultural environment and ap- proach towards collaboration. Humanists generally are considered to be quite individualistic and relatively closed to collaboration: this attitude may change between nationalities, cultures, subdisciplines, communities of prac- tice. Data analysis seems to suggest that there are few differences between the Italian and the English context towards collaboration and authorship in Humanities. However, data gathered are not enough to make sure state- ments: thus, it will be better to leave approach to collaboration as a variable. In fact, the present research was based on the Italiancontext, which will show to be relatively closed to collaboration and communication between scholars. Further and interdisciplinary research is needed to enlight col- laboration issues and approaches of determined communities, and this was not the scope of the present study. Anyway, interviews suggested that each community of practice has his specific way of dealing with collaboration. Furthermore, collaboration through Internet and general digital tool vary dramatically between subdisciplines and singular individuals.
“lack of IT capacity and sustainability are major threats to the continuity of our digital research sources, tools, and results.” 21
Just as it is desirable for individual researchers and teams of researchers to move away from a ‘digital silo’ model, so too is it desirable for digital RIs to operate in a simi- lar context. Accordingly, participation in a digital RI is becoming a question of survival not only for European research institutions, libraries and archives but also for Humanities itself. While many national RIs own very important electronic archives their patrimony will remain silent without the possibility of interoperability in an open access environment. So too, Humanities in Europe, which is often bound by various national lan- guages, will benefit from greater access to a culturally broader and more varied set of empirical data (see sec- tion ‘Cultural and Linguistic variety – transnational RIs’ below). Absence of such data sets threatens to make research in the Humanities too confined to data that is easily available or that reflects narrow national contexts and developments only.
While encoded primary sources constitute the main content of this type of collection and may perform the brunt of the work of holding a collection together, expressing interpretation, and enabling a variety of uses, a collection (as it is experienced by a user) is more than the items it gathers. The realization of the whole resource depends not only on the context of accompanying editorial and technical documentation, along with secondary sources, but on data models and processes that operate in the interstices among digital objects (not depicted in figure 3). These may take the form of database designs, search algorithms, management systems, cobbled-together transformation processes, and so on. In type 2 collections, which lack advanced markup, contextual information and seemingly peripheral data models (or models that are external to those used to represent digital objects) may perform still more of the work of constituting the collection.
Should Libraries Do it” to light, in a seminal discussion that much subsequent research and project implementation has benefited from. Holley proposes that there are a variety of potential benefits in using crowdsourcing within a library context (which we can also extrapolate to cover those working across the GLAM sector, and DigitalHumanities). The benefits of crowdsourcing noted are that it can help to: achieve goals the institution would not have the resources (temporal, financial, or staffing) to accomplish itself; achieve these goals quicker than if working alone; build new user groups and communities; actively engage the community with the institution and its systems and collections; utilise external knowledge, expertise and interest; improve the quality of data which improves subsequent user search experiences; add value to data; improving and expanding the ways in which data can be discovered; gain an insight into user opinions and desires by building up a relationship with the crowd; show the relevance and importance of the institution (and its collections) by the high level of public interest in the project; build trust and encouraging loyalty to the institution; and encourage a sense of public ownership and responsibility towards cultural heritage collections (ibid).
voice that identified and lamented a decline of quantitative skills, latterly computationally enriched, in both the training offered to historians and the historian’s craft, a decline this chapter has observed in the publication his- tory of Tosh’s The Pursuit of History. In the context of the present volume, it seems to me that we—the library community—must both share and expand upon Jordanova’s lament. For to do aspects of digital history well, to take full advantage of those sources—be they ledgers, ephemera, books, newspa- pers, sound recordings, videos, web pages, or personal digital media—that libraries make available to historians as data, as source material that can be manipulated, counted, and prodded by machines working at their behest, that can be queried at scale rather than merely presented in digital forms yoked to print paradigms, the historical profession needs quantitative skills and a critical understanding of the profession’s deep and contested rela- tionship with quantitative research. Librarians can be key collaborators who ensure that historians and other humanistic scholars have the ability to do rigorous quantitative research, but, in order for these partnerships to work, it is clear from the before-mentioned textbooks that there is much work to be done. 42 Emerging historians in particular need to know how to
Analyzing the corpus of library literature through topic modeling produced a few
surprises. Some of the researchers expected the corpus to be much more pessimistic about the future of libraries, perhaps because doom and gloom articles loom larger in the
memory. Topics like the one on whiteness and social justice and the future of libraries caused us to read and appreciate the library literature in a new light, by indicating an area where there is more nuanced critique of the idea of the future of libraries. Indeed, the subject of social justice and equity in the context of this project allowed us to reflect on the inherent privilege of those forecasting the death of the library as if Internet access, computers, and mass quantities of copyrighted content could be easily attained by anyone at any time. To say “we no longer need libraries” ignores the reality that 25 per cent of Americans do not have internet at home, and for many, the library is how they bridge that digital divide (Pew Research Center, 2018).
The collection of information that is in the electronic form stored and accessed randomly is called a digital library. The unique feature of a digital library is a user interface to provide information to its users even from remote places also. The digital library is an information retrieval system rather than an information service. The terms like Digital Library, Electronic Library, and virtual library are often used in the hypertext environment. The services and digital material will be served through computer networks. The information and communication technology paved the way for digitallibraries to provide library users with the right information at the right time. Digitallibraries solved problems like space, infrastructure and material cost. It reduced the budgetary estimations towards the procurement of study materials to its users, particularly in academic institutions. The factors mostly influencing the libraries to change its mode into digital is as follows.
The deep Web (sometimes called the “hidden Web” or “invisible Web”) has been estimated to be 500 times the size of the visible or surface Web . It includes all those Web pages that are not accessible to search engine Web crawlers and thus includes most digitallibraries. The DP9 Gateway  addresses this issue by putting wrapper around each Web crawler request so that it looks like an OAI-PHM request, and then translates the returned XML-formatted metadata into HTML for the search engine to index.
dominating social norms. Shifting the library from its traditional roles—archival, pedagogy, legitimization and gatekeeping—to what might be characterized as a postmodern orientation— interactivity, empowerment, cultural pluralism, and communitarianism—is inherently political (Hand 2005), and something that I believe will continually run up against resistance and infiltration. The internet cannot be summed up by any central discourse, but the tools used to access and make meaning of it are very often the products of commercial enterprise and thereby subject to the influences of capitalism and the regulations of the market. We see this very much in action as libraries struggle to make public goods out of commoditized information in our current phase of increased marketization (Burawoy 2005b). Battles are waiting to be fought over intellectual property produced or remixed with library assets, or systems of eBook distribution and ‘borrowing.’ Companies like Facebook and Google walk a dangerous line between privacy, transparency and encouragement of open access and sharing; their practices, policies and ethical dilemmas will work their way into the social impacts yielded by the public library. In one sense I like the idea of making sure everyone has the ability to share their identity and establish social connection on the internet, but in another sense I’m less excited if the only—or institutionalized— way to do this is through Facebook. As it stands right now, some of the main uses for public computers, as well as new ICT mediums like cell phones, are commercially driven interactions and entertainment. If public libraries are to be seen as institutional intermediaries between citizens and their government, and connectivity, content and competencies are a requirement for meaningful citizenship and input into globalized cultural flows (Hand 2005, Castells 1997), then I see it as our duty as researchers to move forward from descriptive analysis, as it is commonly seen in the literature above. We need to grant recognition of power, both when we establish what we mean by digital literacy and when we measure literacy-related outcomes.
The attempts to build science Grids have recently evolved into developing open science Clouds. Hey defines the Cloud as “...the ecosystem of technologies that enable the hosting of an organisation’s or individual’s ICT infrastructure (hardware and software) in large data centres managed by service providers” (Hey, 2010). Clouds are also used to store, manage and analyse digital content, including curation and preservation services, and to host advanced services for data analysis, data indexing, metadata extraction and so on. (Gray et al, 2005). Clouds offer the promise of seamless access to resources and services; much as we take for granted (at least in the developed world) that electric power is available at the flick of a switch, so the Cloud promises that big structures will be similarly available. Researchers will just plug in to a Cloud, which will provide storage or computation on demand. Cloud Computing is part of the larger domain of Utility Computing and if more resources are needed they are available at the click of a button.
Transaction log analysis is one of the most commonly used methods for DL evaluation. It is a dependable method for obtaining the quantitative data for the evaluation. Originally this method was developed for evaluating the OPACs by libraries. It can be used as an effective tool for evaluation when it is used along with other evaluation tools (Tenopir, 2003). It helps to understand factors such as who uses the DL, what do they use, how long do they use, etc.
Library operations today are also entirely different from what we have experienced in the past and we can expect a tremendous change in the future. These changes may affect almost all the fields of library organization and library management. The librarian and the library users must be ready to accept and adopt the new technologies; otherwise they will be pushed aside. Electronic library or digital library is the product of the technological development which enriched the field of library and information science and the
In order for metadata to be as useful and cost-effective as possible, it is essential that its structure, semantics and syntax conform to widely supported standards, so that it is effective for the widest possible user community (6). There is no single international standard for metadata 1 . Several metadata schemes for digital information objects have been proposed, with different levels of complexity and richness from relatively simple formats, such as Dublin core to more complicated and richer formats like TEI (Text Encoding and Interchange). Clearly, the information structure and content of Web metadata records should capture the essence of the web resources they describe and facilitate the various tasks for which the metadata was devised. If there is a solution to the problem of resource discovery on the Web, it must surely be based on a distributed metadata model 6 . There are necessary protocols available for creating distributed and shared meshes of resource discovery models such as Z39.50 etc. What is required now is the widespread adoption of standards for metadata structure, content and authentication that will allow secure interoperability on semantic level.
Centro per lo Sviluppo Creativo “Danilo Dolci”
Via Roma n. 94 - 90133 Palermo, Italia Tel: + 39 091 617 7252 - Fax: +39 091 623 0849
At the end of the first cycle, the student will have to be able to express his/her personality, have a proficient level of Italian and an elementary level of English so that they are able to talk with people of different nationalities; he/she will be able to interpret environments, facts and art productions, and he/she will absorb the sense and need of respecting civil coexistence. The student is at the heart of the educational action in all its aspects. Cultural diversity is a defining feature of society, and it fosters school to educate to coexistence and enhancement of each student’s different cultural identity and roots. The school shall train students to become Italian citizens as well as Europe and World citizens. 5
Information is increasingly being captured, processed and produced in digital form in recent times. Digital information can be copied at almost zero cost–at lightning speed, and without any loss of quality–making information available in digital form can be unattractive both for authors and distributors. A key problem in electronic publishing is that current legislation does not deal with the intricacies of computer-based, networked systems, resulting in many gray areas. In some cases, strict application of law in its current form can even result in severe restrictions that eliminate advantages brought by technology. Of course, it is possible to reinterpret existing law in its application to intellectual works in a digital networked environment. Organizations often lack the intellectual property rights and permissions to the materials they hold. Permission seeking for selected materials begins immediately after selection. One of the serious problem in creating digitallibraries is to acquire copyright permissions.
The study described above has been extended going beyond the only nom- inal events and taking into consideration two languages, i.e. English and Italian. More specifically, following the works by Soberon et al. [Soberon et al., 2013] and Inel et al. [Inel et al., 2013], we designed a set of experi- ments in English and in Italian where the crowd is asked to identify event descriptions and temporal expressions, and, then, on top of these crowd annotated elements, the presence of temporal relations and their values. In other words, we asked the crowd to perform the Temporal Processing task from raw texts. The aim is to replicate a more realistic annotation scenario as the crowd workers perform all subtasks involved in the temporal anno- tation of documents from raw text data. To this end, we extracted 200 random sentences from the English and Italian TimeBank corpora [Puste- jovsky et al., 2002, Caselli et al., 2011a] and we adopted the CrowdTruth metrics [Inel et al., 2014] for cleaning the data from spammers and evaluat- ing their quality. The reuse of texts from TimeBank corpora already anno- tated with temporal information allowed us to make comparisons between crowd and expert annotations. Event detection and temporal expression identification were merged in a single task but this subsection reports only on the identification of event descriptions, since this is the focus of the PhD work.
Our Next Steps
By identifying potential concerns and new possibilities in peer review and digital publishing, our project is moving this conversation forward and encouraging change. We will continue to contribute to the ongoing conversations about digital publishing in the humanities through blogs, newsletters, journals, and conferences. For example, we will align our findings with the discussions and recommendations of the recent Jisc Collections and OAPEN Open Access Monographs in Humanities and Social Sciences Conference. In addition, the recently released white paper from Ithaka S+R focusing on “Campus Services to Support Historians,” shows how issues related to digital publishing and the promotion and tenure process are playing out in a specific discipline within the humanities.
We begin by examining available cultural datasets and – given our interest in timeline visualisations – focus particularly on descriptions of time. In many datasets we identify multiple, conflicting and uncertain descriptions of temporal information. Analysing existing projects we notice how digital timeline visualisations tend to struggle with the visual representation of large numbers of items – datasets that exceed a few hundred records. Given that one of the main challenges for the DigitalHumanities is an increase in size and scope of the datasets being studied (Lunenfeld et al., 2012, p.38; Sternfeld, 2014), the need for timeline visualisations to be able to represent large datasets is evident. The problems are not simply that many digital visualisations degrade technically in the face of large datasets, but that they also cease to ‘work’ in terms of yielding comprehensible displays and valuable insights.
Grusin’s proposal here demonstrates the distance travelled since the arrival of the digitalhumanities. The impulse to digitize that characterizes the emergence of the digitalhumanities, he suggests here, has been supplanted by the recognition that mediation does not begin or end with new technical apparatuses: questions of mediation are not suddenly relevant because literary works, for example, can now be translated into code and be placed in digital repositories. Electronic literature is provocative because it emphasizes opportunities for developing a compellingly interactive textuality since it explores the interconnection of human and computational practices. Drucker characteristically claims that “from the organization and labeling of tabs, menus, and other navigational features” (218) a far more fruitful engagement with both technological and creative practices can emerge. As a result, “[n]ew, advanced research agendas driven by a desire to expose interpretation rather than display its results may separate the critical from the engineering practice of digitalhumanities by revealing interpretative practices instead of by producing representations” (Drucker, “Reading Interface” 218). Combined with Grusin’s rethinking of mediation, Drucker’s claim leads to the realization that this kind of literature is gaining further significance today because it reveals mediation and not representation to be fundamental to the production and reproduction of material textual life, a realization that is expected significantly to alter literary experience in the course of the twenty-first century.
Are there faculty or students on campus interested in digital projects? Talk to the humanities subject specialists to learn more about the current landscape and who would be the right faculty to approach. 10 Incorporating a digital project into a course is a great way to get started building partnerships between faculty and the library on digital projects, and can be done in a way that doesn’t require especially strong technical knowledge. For example, I once worked with a history professor (who wasn’t especially tech savvy but understood the importance of having students develop these skills) to create a project for a course where groups of students used HistoryPin to create “tours” of soldiers’ lives after the American Civil War. The project was a success because we used a hosted platform (i.e. no servers or programming required) and the technology was not difficult for the students to learn, yet they gained experience building online exhibits and in the process learned the nuances of telling stories online.