causing and maintaining their performanceanxiety. A further theme, the musical identity, was common to three of the four participants and included a link between performance and identity, and the notion of overcoming MPA by performing ‘in character’.
The finding that participants felt more anxious when performing in front of audiences made up of fellow musicians suggests that an important cause of MPA is the fear of negative judgement by peers or knowledgeable others. This is consistent with findings from Brown and Garland (1971), who found that people sing for longer in front of strangers than in front of their friends, presumably because they are less embarrassed. Similarly, Fehm and Schmidt (2006) found that the size and status of an audience could have an effect on the level of the performer’s MPA, and Larrouy-Maestri and Morsomme (2014) showed that musicians are more likely to feel anxious in conditions in which they are being evaluated. This tallies with the participants’ view that not only is the number of people present important, but that who they are matters too, with audiences made up of fellow musicians eliciting the greatest amount of anxiety. It is also in line with Lehrer’s (1987) suggestion that MPA comprises several facets, including fear of social disapproval and a judgemental attitude, a theme that was discussed by all participants. As pointed out by Wells et al. (2012), musicians work in an extremely competitive environment, where negative assessment by peers and audience members is part of the occupation. This competitiveness was experienced by our participants too, although it was acknowledged by at least one participant as a fear rather than a fact. Positive experiences of a supportive audience may therefore help in overcoming MPA.
To fully comprehend performanceanxiety, one must understand the physiological responses of performanceanxiety. The activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system results in the physiological symptoms associated with performance. Also known as the flight or fight response, in the sense of performing arts, the fear is not of physical attack but fear of humiliation. Performanceanxiety can also be thought as a threat vs. challenge concept and this process can inhibit a performer’s ability to act or perform at one’s full potential. Wilson and Roland (2002) give examples including increased heart rate, which supplies additional oxygen to muscles which can provide a distressing or tense feeling. Another symptom is an increase in breath rate, which increases oxygen consumption and widens the airways which give a performer a sense of being breathless. Other symptoms include blurred vision which can affect readings and placement, as well as a dry mouth which affects vocal and musical instrument playing abilities and sweating which can interfere with grip and appearance (Hinkamp et al., 2017; Wilson & Roland, 2002). Performanceanxiety symptoms can interfere with any
cases are better reasoned. They attend to the actual works and the ways that different media make different meanings. Explicit attention to narra- tive techniques, distinct from subject matter, “mood,” and other consider- ations, could aid courts in identifying when performance elements matter. Problems determining infringement can also occur when performance is the way a work is communicated to a factfinder, even though the work itself is not a work of performance. Professor Jamie Lund’s empirical work on music infringement cases provides further reason to be skeptical about infringement judgments when performance elements may influence perceptions even as factfinders lack the vocabulary to explain those per- ceptions, or even lack awareness that the performance elements matter. Lund demonstrates that when mock jurors are asked to assess the similar- ity of two musical works using standard instructions given to actual juries, they give enormous significance to the performance elements of the sound recording. 147 Her controlled experiments showed that performance style 143 LaChapelle v. Fenty, 2011 WL 2947007, at *5 (S.D.N.Y. July 20, 2011). 144 Gordon v. McGinley, 2011 WL 3648606, at *6 & n.5 (S.D.N.Y. Aug. 18, 2011). 145 789 F.2d at 162 (holding that a viewer of one photo would intuitively under- stand the movements that must have occurred before and after the photo was taken, and that one familiar with the underlying ballet would recognize even more of the choreography from the still photo).
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback that teaches individuals the self-control of brain functions, measuring the brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually does not provide an audio and/or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desired goals or undesirable brain activities, respec- tively . There are seven kinds of feedback, two of which are indicated for anxiety treatment, which makes this technique potentially suitable for treating MPA. The more frequent neurofeedback used is the frequency/power neurofeedback. It is used to alter the amplitude or velocity of specific brain waves in specific brain areas to treat TDAH, anxiety, and insomnia. This technique usually includes the use of two to four surface electrodes, sometimes called neurofeedback. There is a second modality called low energy neurofeedback system (LENS) which provides weak electromagnetic sig- nal to alter brain waves on the patient while he is motionless and with his eyes closed. This kind of feedback has been used to treat traumatic brain injuries, TDAH, insom- nia, fibromyalgia, restless legs syndrome, anxiety, depression, and irritability .
Much more work needs to done on the role of cognition in MPA and its effect on performance quality. Research on the role of cognition in test anxiety is instructive here, although findings are complex and to some extent counter-intuitive. Early research indicated a simple relationship between cognition, test anxiety and test performance. High test anxious subjects engaged in negative cognitions that impaired task performance while low test anxious subjects engaged in problem solving cognitions that enhanced performance (Wine, 1980). Subsequent research reported that high test anxious children engaged in more negative and positive coping cognitions than low test anxious children and that positive coping was not task facilitating (Zata & Chassin, 1985). Several researchers have since concluded that the absence of negative thinking may be the more salient factor than the presence of positive thinking and that this relationship held across low, moderate and high anxious children. Further, coping cognitions of high anxious (but not low and moderate anxious) children interfered with task performance. Only positive self-evaluations showed a positive relationship with task performance (Prins, 1994). The most likely explanation for these findings is that on-task and coping cognitions distract attention from the task or in feet remind children that they are in an unpleasant anxiety-arousing situation. These findings could form the basis for the development of hypotheses to be tested in music performance settings.
As already mentioned above, feeling anxious or stressed out does not necessarily mean that anything abnormal is happening – in fact, anxiety has the capacity to facilitate performance in most aspects of our lives. However, for some individuals, stress can become chronic and turn into an abnormal physical and psychological response. In order to uncover what this means, we might want to turn to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM– 5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for some answers. According to the DSM-5, we can call something a psychological/mental disorder (for an explanation of the difference between the two, see Stein et al., 2010) if the psychological and/or physical symptoms cause significant distress or impairment in the individuals’ daily life (APA, 2013). The impairment can be intellectual, professional, social, or educational. Additionally, the impairment and/or distress needs to be out of proportion to the individuals’ culture or context. This means that even though the loss of a loved one may cause significant distress in someone’s life, if the distress is
There is evidence to suggest that many university schools of music struggle with student retention. In many music programs, a significant factor in students being able to matriculate in their area of study is based on quality of performance in high-pressure settings in the form of jury performances. The importance placed on these jury performances makes the ability to predict a student’s success in this area highly valuable to students and music educators. Using the Big Five Model of personality and a measure of narrow personality traits, this study used a stepwise multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between performance outcomes (jury scores), personality, musicalperformanceanxiety, and dispositional flow in a sample of students enrolled in an applied college music program (N= 109). The overall prediction model was not found to be significant. The narrow personality trait of Work Drive (β = .27), and performanceanxiety in a solo context (β = - .31) were shown to be significant and unique predictors of jury scores. Results also revealed multiple significant inter-correlations among variables, finding significant correlations between flow and jury scores, solo specific
which enables interaction between a live musician and a responsive vir- tual character. The character reacts to live performance in such a way that it appears to be experiencing an emotional response to the music it ‘hears.’ We modify an existing tonal music encoding strategy in order to define how the character perceives and organizes musical information. We reference existing research correlating musical structures and composers’ emotional intention in order to simulate cognitive processes capable of inferring emotional meaning from music. The ANIMUS framework is used to define a synthetic character who visualizes its perception and cognition of musical input by exhibiting responsive behaviour expressed through animation.
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Although the design was audience-centric, no particular au- dience feedback was received other than general comments about the visual quality of the meshes. However, the live performer was able to respond to a short post-performance questionnaire made of three scale ratings and an open-ended feedback form. The musician rated the comfort of perform- ing while wearing the suit as 3 out of 7 (1 being ”Very uncomfortable” and 7 being ”Very comfortable”). The sense of acoustic cohesiveness between real and virtual sound was rated 5 out 7 (1 being ”Not cohesive at all” and 7 as ”Very cohesive”). Finally, the difficulty of playing with avatars rather than real life musician was rated to be 3 on a seven- point likert scale (1 being ”Easier”, 7 being ”Harder”, with 4 being ”No Difference”). Other general impressions included the fact that the performance felt like a ”one-way avenue of communication, where my job was to fit myself into this world that was created for the experience” and it ”did not feel as organic as performing with other people in real time, perhaps because of some visual aspects”. Naturally, this is a single data point which needs to be further explored before generalizing to wider settings.
Having grown up in Canada, I was particularly struck by the wariness and sometimes even secrecy that pervaded these meetings. This is not to suggest that I met people in a cloak and dagger fashion but simply that without certain elements in place, the meetings would never have happened and/or people might not have opened up about the subject. While growing up in Canada it was not unusual to see non-Zoroastrian friends, girl-friends, boy-friends, spouses etc at community functions that also involved prayers. Also, I am familiar with people, including priests, who in Canada and England (and probably also the USA) participate in inter-faith meetings where the rituals of different faiths are performed in front of people of all backgrounds. Before going to Iran I was aware that, given the political situation there, rituals and priests were probably things that were kept away from non-Zoroastrians. The fieldwork not only confirmed this, but also revealed (as analysis later in the thesis will discuss), how this element of isolationism pervades the way in which prayer performance itself is perceived by many Persian and Indian priests (who still live in Iran and India). It is something private, and is kept apart from the social circle o f one’s everyday life.
The pilot studies used to develop the Cognitive Test Anxiety scale spanned 2 years and relied on data gathered from over 400 participants. The process of deriving the final scale of the Cognitive Test Anxiety scale began with the examination and creation of 96 total items. The bulk of these items were developed in the late 1960s, but were not revisited until the mid-1990s. The revisitation was prompted by the recognition that the two-factor model of test anxiety was viable, but the cognitive dimension was of primary interest and utility when determining the underlying performance on examinations. Thus, all emotionality or bodily symptoms items were deleted from the Cognitive Test Anxiety pilot measure, and additional items for the cognitive dimension were created. The focus of the new scale was on the tendency to engage in task-irrelevant thinking during test taking and preparation periods, the tendency to draw comparisons to others during test taking and preparation periods, and the likeli- hood to have either intruding thoughts during exams and study sessions or relevant cues escape the learner’s attention during testing.
As systems evolve and become more ‘intelligent’ and are able to ‘learn’ it becomes increasingly important to understand how we can interact and engage with such systems, particularly if we as a community are to design better systems that can be used in a creative manner for the composition and performance of music. Research methods such as ethnography can clearly give us insights into creative practices and in so doing raise implications for the design of Human-Like Computing systems. Such studies can provide data that can help to develop and model a useable Computational Creativity Continuum. Currently we are at an early stage in this process, but we hope that this paper goes someway to helping researchers and designers appreciate some of emerging issues in this rapidly evolving field.
In a period of prolonged crisis surrounding live performance venues in Sydney, new governance structures and institutional frameworks arose – namely the Task Force model, along with public recognition of the social value of informal spaces – that clashed with inherited institutional forms, such as the world of environmental planning and building compliance. Thus Black Wire’s status within the world of local environmental planning is an emergent strategy of state spatial regulation, one that allows the process of uneven development to continue whilst ameliorating its more negative effects (Neil Brenner & Theodore, 2002a). Black Wire is emblematic of a “conceded informality,” one that recognizes the political economic intractability of informal urbanization (McFarlane & Waibel, 2012, p. 4). This form of state-authored legitimation that exists without being codified in law is an example of an arrangement that I would understand as constituting an informally formal type of state spatial regulation. Under this type, examples of informal development are known to authorities, and are given state legitimation through “soft” forms of engagement, such as consultative programs, but are nonetheless officially denied formalization through development consent. Whilst these forms of urban governance are commonplace in cities of the “Global South,” they are only recently receiving attention from scholars in the regulated cities of the “Global North.”
3 Technologies to enable personalised performance with interactive sonification We can enable this new approach to performance using a digi- tal musical instrument (DMI) that separates the gestural input of the performer (sensed using a gestural controller) from the generation of its sound via digital sound synthesis [ 19 ]. Jin et al. have proposed a new class of DMIs called “distributed, synchronized musical instruments” (DSMIs): these allow for sound generation to occur on multiple devices in different locations at once, while still maintaining the synchroniza- tion between the input gestures of the performers and the sound output [ 14 ]. DSMIs achieve this synchrony by predict- ing performer movements, such as percussive strikes meant to trigger particular sounds, before the performers complete those movements. Information about these predicted per- former movements can be sent (e.g., over the internet) to all sound generation devices in advance, so that the sound is synthesised at all locations in synchrony with the performer’s completion of the movement.
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