In view of the existing fossil fuel deposits may come for another 30 to 40 years and Costs of these Fissile Fuels are day by day increasing. As we know that all over the world the diesel vehicle population is growing at an alarming rate. The emission will irritate skin, eyes, nose and throat and also leads to bronchitis asthma in the long run and has been led to air pollution. It is a serious concern with the pollution point of view. Developing Countries like India depends on its fossil fuel requirements on foreign countries for which spars a huge foreign currency in purchase of crude oil. The increasing pressure on crude oil reserves and environmental degradation as an outcome. Hence in view of the above drawbacks there is an urgent need to find an alternat
 Basavaraji M.Shrigiri et al. states that the performance, emission and combustioncharacteristics of a diesel engine are investigated using two methyl esters: One obtained from cotton seedoil and other from neem kernel oil. These two oils are transesterified using methanol and alkaline catalyst to produce the cotton seedoil methyl ester(CSOME) and neem kernel oil methyl ester(NKOME) respectively. From these experimental investigations they have been carried out on a CIengine using CSOME, NKOME and diesel. The LHR engine using CSOME and NKOME is analysed and compared with that of diesel fuel in normal engine. Compared with cotton seedoil methyl ester (CSOME) operation, neem kernel oil methyl ester (NKOME) resulted in better performancecharacteristics in LHR engine. However, compared with diesel in normal engine, the performance of the LHR engine with methyl esters is observed to be lower. The brake thermal efﬁciency values of CSOME and NKOME in LHR engine are lower than that of diesel fuel in normal engine. The above comparative study indicates the possibility of using the methyl esters in LHR engine. The performance, emission and combustion analysis show the suitability of using cot- ton seed and neem kernel oil methyl esters as good alternative fuels in LHR engine.
Conventional method of mechanical stirrer technique. Thus, as per this technique higher amount of yield could be possible . Test performed on the two types of catalysts such as homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts are conventional, whereas heterogeneous catalysts are recently invented.. The methanol and ethanol both are suitable for transesterification of biodiesel, but due to having more cost of ethanol compared to the methanol, there is not more use of the ethanol. Due to lower cost of methanol, it also reduced overall biodiesel cost. So, methanol is more preferably used. By taking the proportion of 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 0.6% of catalyst concentration at 550c reaction temperature for 60 minutes would yield 96% of biodiesel yield . Cottonseed used in as biodiesel by some process transesterification process use in methanol and KOH as catalyst. Some blends are uses (B5, B10, B15, and B20), combustioncharacteristics they follow- Delay in ignition, start of combustion, premixing, diffusion and after combustion, end of combustion. Ignition delay decrease in decreasing order . Natural additives increase the engineperformance on its addition into the diesel with biodiesel. Trans- esterification process can be carried out to reduce high viscosity; high flash point of cottonseed oil is treated with ortho- phosphoric acid and Sulphur acid to remove the gums and fatty acids from biodiesel blend. In second step, methanol and potassium hydroxide are added to the cottonseed oil to segregate biodiesel and glycerol . For improving efficiency of fuel various novel technologies including engine and fuel cells were used. First development in fuel that is the bio fuel is well approved process of transforming plant sugar into ethanol through fermentation. High octane fuel such as ethanol with majority of SI or fossil fuel IC engine in market today as well as it is blended with gasoline. Traditionally, methanol has been used during transesterification production of fatty acid methyl ester. Also, ethanol and propanol are nominated for cold performance biodiesel fuels and implementation of bioethanol leads to improvement sustainability of existing biodiesel but these may lead to price increase. To obtain synthetic hydrocarbon fuels following methods are used. Fischer-troops synthesis, hydro treatment of triglycerides . Transesterification is carried out with ethanol in the existence of catalyst NaOH. Expeller method is employed to extract oil from the cotton seed and was subjected to single stage transesterification due to presence of 20% more free fatty acid content.
Ramadhas et al.  tested rubber seedoil on a four-stroke direct injection, naturally aspirated single cylinder diesel engine at a speed of 1500 rpm under various loads. They reported that when the applied load increased, the BSFC decreased until the engine attained a 60–70 % load condition. In the same analysis, it was seen that as the percentage of biodiesel increased the BSFC of the engine also increased. Lin C and Lin H  reported that the BSFC of fuels decreased with increasing speeds of the engine under a constant engine torque. It can be concluded from the reviewed literature that engines running with biodiesel result in a higher BSFC than when running with diesel, as the former has lower heating value and hence higher amount of fuel is consumed in order to maintain the same brake power , . These studies indicate that the fuel consumption is, on average, proportional to the loss of heating values, irrespective of whether heavy-duty or light-duty engines were tested. For example, Hasimoglu et al.  obtained 13% higher BSFC with a biodiesel having LHV 13.8% lower as compared to diesel on a 4-cylinder, TU and DI diesel engine.
From the present numerical investigation, it can be con- clouded that the addition of methanol as a supplementary fuel to diesel-biodiesel blends has a significant effect on the engineperformance emission and combustioncharacteristics, an increase in brake thermal efficiency by 5% with methanolblended diesel-biodiesel blend has been observed. From the environmental point of view, emissions are greatly reduced with MKD blend. It is observed that blended fuels give significant reductions in the harmful emissions of CO2,CO, NOx, specific PM and smoke by an amount of CO Emission like 0.32%, 0.41%,. The fuel properties of neat kusum seed biodiesel and its blends, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point were found to be higher than that of diesel and calorific value is lower than that of diesel. Conclusions are as follows:
Biodiesel is known to be biodegradable, so it is considered to be much less damaging to the environment if divulge. The advantage about biodiesel is that it is made from plants and animals resources which are not depleted when used. The non renewable of world petroleum and increased environmental impact has reviving interest in another possible sources for petroleum based fuels. Biodiesel extracted from vegetable oil or animal fats by transesterification ( with alcohol like methanol and ethanol) is advised for use in place of petroleum-based diesel, because biodiesel has more oxygen , not depleted when used, biodegradable and environmental amiable. The used cooking oil is considered as waste, while it has potential as a liquid fuel by physical and chemical conversion remains same.
Lemongrass (cymbopogon flexuosus) is a native aromatic tall sedge which grows in many parts of tropical and sub-tropical South East Asia and Africa. In India, it is cultivated along Western Ghats (Maharashtra, Kerala), Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states besides foot- hills of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim . Furthermore, lemongrass is a high biomass crop that may have applications for biofuel production. Owing to the content of its high value essential oil, the cost for production of biofuel may be low, since the biomass would be a by-product of essential oil production. Lemongrass may demonstrate to be a new high value specialty crop and a worthy source for biofuel in the southeastern United States (a region known for its hot and humid climate) .
M.G. Bannikov  has studied on Mustard methyl esters (further biodiesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustioncharacteristics. Engine fuelled with biodiesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission.
Self reliance in energy is vital for overall economic development of our country. The need to search for alternative sources of energy which are renewable, safe and non- polluting assumes top priority in view of the uncertain supplies and frequent price hikes of fossil fuels in the international market. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) which is derived from triglycerides by transesterification, has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic fuel. Several processes of biodiesel fuel production have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali as a catalyst gives high level of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl ester in a short duration. This process has therefore been widely utilized for biodiesel fuel production in number of countries. In India, there are many trees bearing oil like ratanjot (jatropha curcus), mahua (madhuca indica), pilu (salvodara oleoids), nahor (mesua ferralina), kokam (garcinia indica), rubber seed (hevea brasilensis)and karanja (pongamia pinnata) etc. Among these species, which can yield oil as a source of energy in the form of biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata has been found to be one of the most suitable species due to its various favorable attributes like its hardy nature, high oil recovery and quality of oil, etc. An acid value of this oil is high, so that we have to reduce it by the process of esterification followed by transesterification. The methyl ester produced by this way gives the good result. The present study deals with transesterification of karanja oil which gives 907ml of karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) and 109ml of glycerol using methanol (13%) and sodium hydroxide as a catalyst (1%). The properties like density, viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point have been determined as per ASTM standards for accessing the fuel quality of KOME .
Fossil fuels are limited in nature. Fuel consumption rate is increases and there will be the need of alternate fuels in future. Replacing biodiesel as a fuel in the place of standard fuel to study the characteristics of performance, combustion and emissions of the DI-CI diesel engine. DI-CIengine with biodiesel all the characteristics are investigated. The results of enginecharacteristics with biodiesel were compared with standard baseline petroleum diesel. Fuel in any engine burnt with air. Air is a mixture of gases and it contains approximately 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. Some of the oxygen is used to burn the fuel during the combustion process and the rest is supposed to just pass through unreacted. But when the peak temperatures are high enough for long periods of time, the nitrogen and oxygen combine to form a class of compounds called nitrogen oxides, collectively referred to as NO x . These
Systems involving a steady stream of state, for example, process heater, do not face this problem, with the exception of a small area near the areas where the fuel and air mixture. In such a case, and reportedly more accurate and durability can not be achieved. However, in its current form, together with the code KIVA ILDM is a good way to simulate combustion processes in internal combustion engines and forecasting of nitrogen oxides and soot. It can investigate further analysis using the compression ratio and speed of numerical dissipation to link the three PDF files (supposed) independence.
This by-product has similar calorific value to petroleum distillates and is a renewable energy sources. Several studies has been carried out for using fish oil as fuel for diesel engines ;the fish oil has lower content of carbon and slightly higher content of hydrogen. The fish oil has larger flash point but lower kinematic viscosity. As a result, the viscosity of the blend is much lower .this could reduce the requirement for preheating the fuel to make it flow easily, and reduce demands. Lower viscosity could also improve the atomization of the burner. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in 2014 the estimated world fish production is about 164 MT. approximately. The volume of waste produced by processing plants is calculated to be around 50% of the total processed fish, for which the amount of oil varies from 40% to 65%. Bio-oil has a large variety of compositions as a function of the feedstock.
Diesel engine plays a vital role in power generation, transportation and industrial activities. The main advantages of the diesel engine over the gasoline spark ignition engine include its durability, reduced fuel consumption and lower emission of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon. Due to higher efficiency, diesel engines are of high interest in light duty vehicles. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended diesel fuel combustion, performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a diesel engine. Experiments were conducted to determine engineperformance, emissions and combustioncharacteristics in a single cylinder diesel engine using diesel fuel (DF) and diesel fuel blended aluminium oxide nanoparticles in mass fractions of 25ppm (DF+AONP25) and 50ppm (DF+AONP50), respectively with the help of a sonicator. After a series of experiments it was observed that 25ppm of aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended fuel exhibits a significant reduction in specific fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions at all operating loads compared to other cases. There is a considerable reduction in carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. Due to complete combustion NOx emissions increases. The results also showed a considerable enhancement in brake thermal efficiency due to the influence of aluminium oxide nanoparticles addition in diesel blend. As the dosage level of aluminium oxide nanoparticles increases to 50ppm the brake thermal efficiency, HC, CO and NOx emissions decreases considerably with respect to 25ppm of aluminium oxide nanoparticles blend. There is a noticeable increase in specific fuel consumption and smoke emissions of DF+ANOP50 with respect to DF+ANOP25.
Diesel exhaust is now classified as carcinogenic  to humans and exposure has been linked to increased risk to lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases . Besides human effects diesel exhaust emissions is considered the primary source of providing ground level ozone , sick building syndrome , acid rain  and smog . Therefore, the road to find an alternative source of fuel energy with desirable characteristics as those of petroleum based fossil fuels cannot be emphasized . Early alternatives developments in fuel energy studies utilized food based sources as alternatives to petroleum fuels. However due to the poor food security in most developing countries this development has faced opposition and arguments from all sectors and the world leading organizations such as FAO and the united nations security council on human rights. The first generation food based biodiesels lead to cultivation of large swathes of land for commercial purposes eventually supressing the edible food crop acreage. Consequently this increased food insecurity leading to increased food prices and economic inflation as reported by .
Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are widely accepted as a technology offering an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with non-linear problems, and once trained can perform prediction and generalization at high speed . They have been used in diverse applications in control, robotics, pattern recognition, forecasting, medicine, power systems, manufacturing, optimization, signal processing, and social/psychological sciences. They are particularly useful in system modelling such as in implementing complex mappings and system identification. AI systems comprise areas like, expert system, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and various hybrid systems, which combine two or more techniques . The major objective of this paper is to illustrate how AI techniques might play an important role in modelling and control of the performance IC engine.
a few neighborhood flames at the chamber wall for BD20. For the BD20, there are some local early flame close to the spray tip location in the CVC. That is attributed that BD20 gasoline has longer ignition put off as compared with BD0. And additionally the flame of last level is burnt-out a good deal faster for BD20 than BD0 due to its oxygen content. When injection pressure will increase to 100MPa, the ignition commenced earlier because of the stronger fuel impingement. The variations between BD0 and BD20 are ignition and luminosity. Preliminary flame for BD0 happens later for BD20. The luminosity of BD20 is an awful lot lower than that of BD0. The combustion stress and heat launch rates as the characteristic of time for BD0 and BD20 are shown Figures 6~nine. The diagram of stress and warmth launch prices have been exclusive because of the numerous ignition timings on account that longer ignition put off allows plenty more mixtures of fuel and air and induces stronger jet impingement at some stage in the combustion strategies. HBD and WCO have shorter ignition delays compared to others. And HBD emitted much less CO, HC and NOx as compared to others. That is because of the characteristics of HBD fuel which become manufactured with the aid of the procedure wherein oxygen changed into removed and hydrogen was delivered rather.
Methanol ingested in large quantities is metabolized to formic acid or formate salts, which is poisonous to the central nervous system, and may cause blindness, coma, and death. Because of these toxic properties, methanol is frequently used as a denaturant additive for ethanol manufactured for industrial uses. This addition of methanol exempts industrial ethanol (commonly known as "denatured alcohol" or "methylated spirit") from liquor excise taxation in the USA and some other nations.
After ambient temperature and pressure were measured and the biofuel blends density and calorific values determined, the water pumps to the engine and dynamometer were turned on. The engine was connected to the battery terminal. The start button was pressed while the choke is in return position. The throttle was placed at relative low speed, 800 rpm and allowed to run idly for about 15minutes to attain a uniform temperature. The value of the torque was recorded. The time for a given value of the fuel to be consumed at the speed of 1500 rpm was measured by using the stopwatch to measure the time for the fuel to move between appropriate spacers while supply tank fuel gauge is turn off. The manometer reading, oil temperature and oil pressure were measured. Also the readings on the two water systems for both engine and dynamometer viz.: the water inlet temperature, water outlet temperature and water flow rate/head were measured. The process starting from recording the torque was expected for higher torque values: 10, 20, 30, 40 Nm.
The setup enables the evaluation of thermal performance and emission constituents of the engine. The thermal performance parameters include brake power, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and exhaust gas temperature. Thermocouples are provided at appropriate positions and are read by a digital temperature indicator with channel selector to select position. The setup also includes the necessary measuring instruments for the measurement of smoke density and exhaust gas emissions. The exhaust emissions of the engine are analyzed by using an exhaust gas analyser. The constituents of the exhaust gas like CO, HC and NOx are measured with exhaust gas analyzer. The simple line diagram and photographic view of the experimental setup are shown in Fig 3.1 and 3.2 respectively.
Abstract: Consumption of fossil fuels and petroleum products in India is continuously rising the recent years. India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. The alternative option for conventional vehicular fuels is biodiesel, which can be produced from the feedstock available abundantly in the developing countries due to their agricultural base. Few countries, including India, have developed a keen interest in utilizing the potential of biodiesel and accordingly framed policies to promote biodiesel production and use. Indian National Biodiesel Policy does permit the production of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils. Bio-diesels produced from vegetable oils not only provide energy security but also reduces harmful emissions including greenhouse gases. In this regard, current work done on Simarouba Glauca finds suitability of simarouba oil as a potential source in near future. Experimentation is carried on various blends B5, B10, B20 and B30 with varying compression ratio and injection pressure. Compression ratio as 18 and injection pressure of 220 bar are the investigated as optimum parameters for single cylinder engine using 30% biodiesel