It is significant to find an effective way to identify the target consumers’ specific requirements, and link them with the technical attributes of products and the knowledge and methodology used in clothing comfort researches are the vital tools to achieve this objective . Clothing comfort incorporating aspects of clothing design and fabric comfortproperties where we have fabric design and construction parameters to observe the perception of comfort is closely related with human physiology. Due to the interaction with external environment physiological system of the body generates heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation, moisture transfer by diffusion, sorption, wicking and evaporation and mechanical interactions in the form of pressure, friction and dynamic irregular contact . Although many experimental researches have been made to evaluate the feeling of comfort by asking participants to describe the sensations they experienced during trials, in addition to these subjective researches it is better to have measurements in numerical units and to compare and analyze the results of the tests related with the properties which finally compose the comfort feeling. In order to investigate the parameters effecting clothing comfort in normal wear conditions various simulating models and testing systems have been designed and developed by researchers to get findings. In the following parts, it is mainly focused on the physiological aspects of comfort and the content of the survey incorporates mechanisms of moisture vapor transport, wicking and drying of textile fabrics.
Pilling is one of the fabric faults that originally found in knitted woolen goods especially made from soft twisted yarns. The rubbing action on loose fibres that is present on the fabric surface gives a high tendency to form pills which gives poor appearance to the fabric. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of repeated launderings on the propensity of pilling formation by using pill grade machine. The primary objective of this study was to determine the pilling behaviour of different types of weft knittedfabrics after a repeated number of laundering cycles. The study was conducted using two types of knittedfabrics; cotton and polyester with three types of knitted structures; interlock, 1x1 rib and plain jersey. The various number of laundering cycles were given on the fabrics and followed by 15,000 revolutions of ICI pilling box. The results showed that polyester fibre has better pilling resistance due to its exceptional strength, whilst in terms of fabric structure, plain jersey showed an excellent resistance. This is due to the higher density and compact structure that it possessed.
In this study, 30 Ne regular ring-spun and compact yarns were used to produce the knitted fabric samples. The 30 Ne yarns of compact and regular were tested. The characteristics of the yarns are shown in Table 1. Single jersey, single lacoste, double lacoste, honeycomb & popcorn knits and double jersey fabrics such as rib & interlock knits were produced. The grey fabrics were dyed, then subjected to relaxation treatment as per STARFISH recommendation. The details of the knittedfabrics are given in Table 2. 2.2 Testing of KnittedFabrics Samples
Plasma treatment is a good substitute for chemical finishing as it causes no environmental pollution. From the study it may be concluded that plasma treatment with oxygen gases improves fabric stiffness, air permeability and absorbency. Plant extracts finished plasma treated cotton fabric showed increase in all comfortproperties than the control and untreated plasma cotton samples. Thus obtained results pave way to investigate on more properties of cotton or equivalent fabrics. These properties include physical, mechanical and biological viz., tensile strength, fabric count, antibacterial activity, insect repellency and UPF.
larity in their properties, with a view to achieving or improving certain characters of the yarn or its processing performances. Fabric produced from the blended yarn might have better characteristics than the in a fabric produced from a single fibre. The blending of fibre is done to develop drape properties, comfortability, durability and many oth- er properties of the fabric products (Prakash et al., 2012). Errandi silk has a potential of emerging as “A silk of the new millennium”, providing excellent dimension of scope in design development and produced fashionable dresses with special proper- ties to produce abundant finished products. It’s possesses excellent thermal properties and offer tremendous blending possibilities with other natu- ral fiber such as silks, wool, cotton, jute and syn- thetic fibers (Somashekhar, 2003). Acrylic can be thought of as artificial wool. It is made from the unlikely combination of coal, air, water, oil, and limestone (Textile School, 2018). Discovery of different types of man-made fibres and the use of them in staple form have opened immense scope to produce textile having diverse properties and visual appeal to cater the taste of all kinds of peo- ple. Jurisdiction selection of fibre for blending can increase the possibilities of newer application of these fibres along with different kinds of products. The survival of textile industry depends primarily on the fabric quality as well as fashion trends meet the national as well as international de- mands. Diversification in the product can be brought about at various stages viz., yarn, fabric, design, fashion and style. These Errandi silk is most suitable for handloom sector and boon for entrepreneur because it is compatible to inter- weave with natural as well as manmade yarns to produce designer fabrics at a reasonable price. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the aim of producing Errandi union silk fabrics for variegated dress materials with twill and herring- bone weave using Errandi-Acrylic blended yarn as weft direction.
Figure (5) shows the relationship between fabric blend and weaving type and fabric stiffness. It is clearly shown that in general the plain weave was the highest value of fabric stiffness according to the fabric blend and weaving type. and that might be attributed to the large number of interlacing and the short floats of plain weave, That is what a negative impact on the degree of softness of fabric , And therefore the properties of comfort .While the twill weave was the least .The maximum fabric stiffness was (wool: flax) for plain1/1, while the minimum was (wool: cotton: flax) for twill 2/2.
The microstrip line method is one of the most convenient method to characterize the complex form of the relative permittivity and have been often successfully employed to characterize various substrates including textile materials in literature [48,118,179]. However, the accuracy of this transmission line technique is usually limited by several factors (e.g., the impedance mismatch, radiation, and loss in conductors) [180,181]. As such, not necessarily all small differences in the dielectric behavior of cottonfabrics in woven and knitted forms may be properly visualized by this technique. Therefore, the patch antenna method [42,43], which generally offers a higher resolution than the microstrip line, was also incorporated in this work. However, because the patch antenna method measures only the real part of the relative permittivity and only at a single frequency, the structural parameters of cottonfabrics are discussed in relation to the real part of the relative permittivity at a single frequency. Based on this, the following RQ was prepared.
Figure 3 shows images of fabric samples after the vertical flame test used in this study. From these photos it is obvious that the increase of Kermel fibres ratio in blended fabrics has a pronounced effect on prevention of fire diffusion. Problems arise in blends with natural fibres like cotton which will char and form a supporting structure that will then hold the molten polymer. Kermel fibres are not ignited or burnt, but they provide a coherent char form (without
Thermal comfortproperties of 3-Dimensional knitted spacer fabrics have been studied in order to replace the existing polyurethane foams in the car seat and back supports. The influence of different characteristics of spacer fabrics, like structure, areal density, thickness and density on thermo-physiological performance has been studied. The potential thermal behavior is identified with the support of the thermal conductivity and resistance evaluation. The air and water vapor permeability have been measured and analyzed in-order to study the breathable performance of spacer fabrics. Advance statistical evaluation and two-way analysis of variance is used to analyze the significance of various factors on required properties. The result shows that spacer fabric with a hexagonal net structure has more open structure on surface than lock knit fabrics, which results in highly permeable to air with good thermal conductivity. It is also observed that, the hexagonal net fabrics have the ability to pass more water vapor than the fabrics with lock knit structure on the surface. These findings are the important requirements for designing the car seats with required thermal comfortproperties using 3D spacer fabrics.
Sewing damage is one of the most troublesome problems for the knittedfabrics and this damage is caused by the resistance of fabric to the penetration of needle during sewing operation. Such resistance comes from the fact that the spaces in fabric (between the fibers or the yarns). Finishing treatments directly affect these spaces and so, the sewability and the sewing conditions of fabrics are affected. The aim of this study is; to research the effect of the parameters, such as knitting structure, softeners type and chemical concentration to the sewability and seam puckering in apparel on cottonknittedfabrics. For this purpose, five various softeners with two concentration were applied to the pre-treated 100 % of cotton single jersey, interlock and fleece fabrics. After applications, the sewability and the seam puckering of all fabrics were measured and the obtain results were statistically evaluated. The softening treatments improved the sewability and seam puckering markedly. Especially, macro silicone emulsion had the lowest needle penetration force value. After softening treatment, seam puckering increased nearly 1.5-2 grades. The lower concentration is sufficient to get same effect.
The frictional behaviour of textile structures is of considerable importance especially in footwear components. The friction coefficient of linings refers to sliding resistance between leather and lining. In the upper part of the footwear, lining and leather are attached together. If the friction between leather and lining is too low, the linings begin to slide and wrinkles will occur on the surface of the linings and this will cause an uncomfortable feeling for the wearer. According to “ISO/TR 20882:2007, Footwear - Performance requirements for components for footwear – Lining and insocks”, the friction coefficient of the materials designed for shoe linings should be equal or higher than 0.7 (13). The results indicated that, the spacer fabrics are more appropriate structure for shoe linings as compared with interlock fabrics. Spacer fabrics produced with Cotton/Type A, Cotton/Type B and Cotton/Bamboo blended yarns report slight differences of the coefficient in both direction compared with the others, where the differences are quite visible (Fig.3). This particular behaviour makes them suitable to be used in any direction, according to the shoe part where they find place.
In the subjective evaluation of pilling, although the size of the pills is considered together with the pill count on the fabric surface, generally the evaluation is carried out based on the pill density which is the number of the pills. According to the visual rating scale ranging from 1 to 5, the fabric having a small number and bigger pills and the fabric containing a large number and smaller pills are evaluated with the same pilling degree. The PillGrade objective pilling evaluation system measures the weighted total pill count, by considering the size of the pills as well. The difference between the total pill count and weighted total pill count values gives a better idea about the structure of the pills formed on the fabric surface. With the increased difference value, the sizes of the pills get larger. Therefore in order to ascertain the structure of the pills, the prediction of the difference between the total pill count and weighted total pill count values were done by using the fiber, yarn and fabric properties as input variables.
other 10% water-soluble compound (WSC) and 90% cotton fiber. The study compared both samples’ properties under different conditions. Both yarn types were knitted on a circular plain weft knitting machine. They were subjected to washing treatment where one of the component fiber (WSC) in the yarn was dissolved, making the yarn in the fabric lighter, bulkier and softer. While developing the fabric, the stitch length (∼ 0.240 cm), yarn tension and fabric takedown tension were kept constant. Parmar et al. (1999) reported that as expected the areal density (weight per unit area of cloth, g/m 2 ) of the plain knittedcotton fabric is directly proportional to tightness factor: it increased with the increase in tightness factor. However, after the washing treatment, the areal density in the WSC-cotton mix knitted fabric decreased to about 7.6 % due to elimination of water-soluble compound from the fabric.
Chenille yarn can be made from many different types of fibres and yarns, most commonly cotton, viscose, acrylic, polyester and polypropylene. The core and pile yarn can be of the same or a different material.  .The careful choice of the lock and pile materials is very important to increase the inter-fiber friction may also assist in reducing the rate of pile loss .Different methods of the chenille yarn production exist; weaving, knitting, flocking and twisting methods. Where the later method used is greater than the previous methods .
types harvested from different regions. The fabrics were manufactured in three different tightness factors, including dense, medium, and loose, by changing the yarn length utilized in each course of the fabrics. The models for pilling degree, total pill number, total weighted pill number, average pill area, and average pill height of the fabrics evaluated by PillGrade Objective Pilling Grading System, were derived by using a neural network method. In order to define the effective properties on pilling formation, sensitivity analysis was carried out. All models indicated relatively good estimation power. Fabric cover factor and short fiber content were found as the most significant parameters influencing the pilling propensity feature of the interlock knittedfabrics.
Knitting is one of the main fabric manufacturing methods among the knitting, weaving, and nonweaving in the textile manufacturing. Basically, knit fabric is formed by intermesh- ing yarn loops with each other in wale and course directions. The quality of fabrics is considered a big issue in the global textile and apparel market. The demand of knitted fabric especially viscose knitted fabric is increasing rapidly due to their unique quality characteristics such as elasticity, drape, wrinkle resistance, comfort, softness, and easy-care proper- ties over woven fabrics. Viscose knittedfabrics are very popu- lar for apparel wears such as T-shirts, shirts, sweaters, blouses, underwear, casual wear, active wear, and sportswear because
In this study, bamboo charcoal, lyocell, bamboo and micro polyester yarns have been used to enhance the moisture and thermal management properties of the functional fabrics. Two tri-layer fabrics are developed by using both knitted and woven structures. These fabrics are then evaluated for the comfort characteristics, such as water vapour permeability, thermal conductivity, water absorption, wicking, drying rate and spreading rate. The results reveal that the tri-layer weft knittedfabrics possess exceptionally good functional characteristics, such as air permeability, water vapour permeability, transverse wicking and drying rate, due to their structural factors as compared to the woven tri-layer fabrics. The woven tri-layer fabric possesses higher thermal conductivity, water absorption and vertical wicking than the knitted structure. The effects of fibre content on the properties of tri-layer fabrics are also found to be significant. The tri-layer fabric made of bamboo charcoal/micro polyester/lyocell exhibits higher air permeability, water vapour permeability, thermal conductivity, wicking tendency and faster drying rate. In the case of tri-layer fabric made of bamboo/ micro polyester/lyocell combination, the water absorption, verticle wicking, transverse wicking and spreading areas are found to be high.
The effects of conductive yarn forms in the fabric structure (loop and tuck formation) on horizontal shielding efficiency were found to be similar to vertical the shielding efficiency results. The positions of miss stitches (once or twice a course) were found to make no great differences. In the fabric sample of K5, there are miss stitches in every three needle for acrylic yarn. On the other hand, for the conductive yarn, the contact with other courses was formed by making the loops in every third needle. Hence, vertical conductive lines were created in every third needle. As a result, better performance could be reached in horizontal measurements. -15dB attenuation in high frequency band is shown in Figure 21.
After soft finishing dimensional stability are rises due to the mechanical rein- forcement by formation of bonds within interfibre and interyarn. Soft finishes reduce the surface roughness by reducing interfibre and interyarn friction. For water repellent finishing, the change in the physico-mechanical and comfortproperties of the treated cotton is an improvement of dimensional stability. The improvement of dimensional stability of both knit and woven fabrics are because of the formation of a repellent film on the fibre surface along with a hydrophobic layer around the fibres. After paper touch finish, fabric’s stiffness is improved which reduces shrinkage percentage. Moreover, after wrinkle free finish, dimen- sional stability for both woven and knit fabric is improved due to the crosslink- ing reaction of the resin.
and easy-care properties over woven fabrics. Due to their unique quality characteristics compared to woven fabrics, in recent times, knittedfabrics are typically preferred for apparel wears such as T-shirts, shirts, sweaters, blouses, underwear, casual wear, active wear and sportswear [3-4]. The present dyeing industry is facing tremendous challenges in the global textile and apparel market due to the shorter life cycle of product development, increasing product diversity, high demand of product quality and above all product costing. However, traditional dyeing process depends on trial and error which is time consuming, less efficient and produces fabrics of inferior quality. Moreover, dyeing process automation is developing gradually due to the complexity of the processes . The color strength is one of the most important chemical properties to the consumers among all dyed knittedfabrics quality characteristics. In the dyeing process, however, many inside and outside factors affecting the fabrics color strength are the dye concentration, dyeing time, temperature, alkali concentration, salt concentration, liquor ratio etc. [5, 6]. In case of cottonknittedfabrics when dyeing with reactive dyes in exhaust dyeing, the important key factors affecting color strength are dye concentration, dyeing time and process temperature. Moreover, the factors affecting the color strength are very non- linear and have mutual interactions between them. As a consequence, it is very difficult to create an efficient correlation between the input variables and the color strength using mathematical models or statistical models [7, 8].