5.1 Social Mobility Commission state of the nation report (November 2017)
In its fifth annual state of the nation report, published in November 2017, the Social Mobility Commission noted that schools in deprived areas often struggle to recruit teachers and, where they can, they often lack high-quality applicants. Noting that high teacher turnover can have a negative effect on disadvantaged children’s attainment, the report highlighted that secondary school teachers in the most deprived areas are also more likely to leave. In comparison, there is much more stability in the teacher workforce in more affluent areas. 101 Rural and coastal areas, however, have the opposite problem in that they can attract fewer new teachers and so have little infusion of new blood into the workforce, leading to stagnation, the report argued.
classrooms, including whether the money could be more effectively spent in other ways, such as on retention measures.” 45 This call for more evidence on the effectiveness of bursaries was echoed by the Institute for Fiscal Studies in its 2016 report on the costs and benefits of ITT routes. 46
More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 47
A further teacher supply analysis, intended to build on some of the areas covered previously, was published in February 2018.
The first two sections of the report looked at post-ITT employment rates and the mobility of NQTs. The analysis found that post-ITT employment rates rose in the six years up to 2014-15, at which point 85% of trainees achieving QTS secured a teaching role within a state-funded school. Employment rates amongst graduates of school-led training routes were typically 5 percentage points higher than those on HEI- based routes. There were also significant variations by secondary subject. Regarding the mobility of NQTs, the analysis found that NQTs do not tend to move far to take up their first post, with around half taking up a post within 25km of their ITT provider.
The report stated that it could not conclude that arrangements for training new teachers represented value for money until the Department meets its targets and addresses information gaps:
The Department has missed its recruitment targets for the last 4 years and there are signs that teacher shortages are growing. By taking a national view of the number of teachers required, the Department risks paying too little attention to clearly meaningful local patterns of supply and demand. The Department does not yet have the information it needs to understand how different routes into teaching impact on schools’ ability to recruit and retain newly qualified teachers, and cannot yet demonstrate how new arrangements are improving the quality of teaching in classrooms.
launched from September 2018. All ITT courses include time spent teaching in at least two schools and lead to an award of qualified teacher status (QTS).
All trainees, regardless of route, are required to meet a number of minimum standards.
They must, for example, hold GCSEs in English and Maths (and science for enrolment on primary ITT) at grade C / grade 4 or higher. In addition, since September 2013 trainees have had to sit and pass professional skills tests in literacy and numeracy before beginning their course. Prior to 2013, the passing of the tests was an exit requirement of training.
For 2019-20 the bursary scheme will be extended to graduates with 2:2 degrees who train to be religious education, history, design technology and music teachers. 44
There are also a number of specialist competitive scholarships available to recruits in certain shortage subjects. Scholarships are jointly awarded by the Government and professional bodies, and selection is through an additional application and assessment process. Each scholarship also comes with a package of non-financial benefits, such as early career support and membership of the appropriate professional body. 45 A table on the Get Into Teaching Website provides an overview of bursary and scholarship levels for the 2019-20 academic year. The level of bursary ranges from £26,000 to £6,000 depending on the subject.
There are also a number of specialist competitive scholarships available to recruits in certain shortage subjects. Scholarships are jointly awarded by the Government and professional bodies, and selection is through an additional application and assessment process. Each scholarship also comes with a package of non-financial benefits, such as early career support and membership of the appropriate professional body. 48 A table on the Get Into Teaching Website provides an overview of bursary and scholarship levels for the 2018-19 academic year. The level of bursary ranges from £26,000 for physics trainees with a 2:2 class degree or higher, to £4,000 for history trainees with a 2:1 or Master’s degree. Scholarships of £28,000 are also available in physics, chemistry, languages, computing, and geography. Scholarships of £22,000 are available in maths, in addition to the early career payments. 49
During a March 2018 debate in Parliament, the Schools Minister, Nick Gibb, set out that the Government did not plan to introduce any new subjects at GCSE level during the current Parliament, although it was open to a BSL GCSE in the longer term. The bar on new qualifications was intended to allow schools a period of stability, following wide- ranging reforms to GCSEs that have taken place in recent years. 46 However, the Government has recently reversed this position. The Schools Minister stated that the Government was prepared to make an exception to the broader prohibition, and consider proposals for a GCSE in BSL more quickly than previously indicated, opening the door for a GCSE to be introduced ahead of 2022. 47
Neither of the first two falls changed the overall upward trends, they were dips linked to changes in fees. Applicant numbers recovered more quickly after the introduction of variable fees in 2006.
These figures provide no evidence that variable fees caused a major ongoing decline or downward shift in overall numbers of applicants or entrants to higher education in England. Similarly there is no evidence that those from ‘lower’ socio-economic groups or (deprived) areas with historically low levels of participation have been adversely affected by tuition fees. The proportion of students from these groups has increased over this period. A report from the funding council concluded that there have been substantial and sustained increases in participation among
5.1 Children sexual imagery
The CAP Code does not prevent marketers from using images of children but they should do so in a socially responsible manner. On 2 January2018, rules 4.8 and 4.13 were added to the CAP and BCAP Codes respectively. These rules state that advertisements should not portray or represent anyone who is, or seems to be, under 18 years old in a sexual way. This does not apply to advertisements whose principal function is to promote the welfare of, or to prevent harm to, under 18s, provided any sexual portrayal or representation is not excessive.
12 From lowest lifetime income to highest
13 The data are from the latest public version of the Government’s Student loan repayment model. This was published in before the Summer Budget 2015 changes to student finance were announced. The model has been adapted where possible to reflect these changes and the higher repayment thresholds from 2018-19, but its underlying assumptions about earnings and employment have not been changed and it takes no account of variations in loan amount by income caused by the ending of grants.
We will carefully consider all responses and then publish the two guidance documents in their final form. 41
Box 4: Integrated Communities Green Paper and Home Education
Plans to look at revising the guidance around home education were also outlined in the Government’s Integrated Communities Strategy Green Paper, published in March 2018. The strategy noted the Government’s concerns about cases where home educated children are not receiving a suitable education, and about cases where children are said to be home educated but are in fact attending an unregistered setting. It is essential, the strategy said, that local authorities can identify children who are missing education or are being neglected, but many local authorities currently feel that they lack the necessary powers.
Single and small academy trusts and sixth form colleges were able to bid for funding through the Condition Improvement Fund, with guidance published by the Education and Skills Funding Agency stating that the HPCF “is intended to improve children’s and young people’s physical and mental health by enhancing access to facilities for physical activity, healthy eating, mental health and wellbeing and medical conditions, such as kitchens, dining facilities, changing rooms, playgrounds and sports facilities.” 33 In March 2018 the Education and Skills Funding Agency published the list of schools who had successfully bid for funding from the Condition Improvement Fund. £38 million will be provided for specific projects supported by the HPCF in 2018-19. 34 Local authorities, large multi-academy trusts and other bodies are not eligible to bid for the Condition Improvement Fund and instead receive School Condition Allocations (SCA). They will receive a direct allocation from the HPCF in addition to their normal SCA for 2018-19. 35 School
and stated that it was therefore “no surprise 60 per cent of women of a Pakistani or Bangladeshi heritage are economically inactive.” 29
A Government press release stated that the £20 million would “build on and extend the English language fund, run by the DCLG” and that classes “will take place in homes, schools and community facilities, with travel and childcare costs provided to remove some of the greatest barriers to participation.” The announcement added that that the scheme would be “targeted to specific communities based on Louise Casey’s…review into segregation in England.” 30 A parliamentary question response in February 2016 confirmed that the scheme “will not just be restricted to Muslim women.” 31
This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.
1.101 From 2018-19, loans of up to £25,000 will be available to any English student without a Research Council living allowance who can win a place for doctoral study at a UK university. They will be added to any outstanding master’s loan and repaid on the same terms, but with the intention of setting a repayment rate of 9% for doctoral loans and a combined 9% repayment rate if people take out a doctoral and master’s loan. The government will launch a technical consultation on the detail. Those who take out only a master’s loan will still repay at 6%, as announced at Autumn Statement 2015. 40
6. This chapter sets out our proposals to increase the number of good school places by lifting the restrictions on selection, but at the same time requiring selective schools to play a greater role in raising standards at other schools. In doing so, we do not propose a re-introduction of the binary or tripartite system of the past or a simple expansion of existing selective institutions. We propose that selective schools should be asked to contribute to non- selective schooling in certain ways, ensuring the expansion of good selective education alongside the creation of new good school places in nonselective schools. We believe that these proposals will make grammar schools engines of academic and social achievement for all pupils, whatever their background, wherever they are from and whatever their ability. 37
Again, the proposals proved highly controversial and generated strong feeling among commentators – particularly with respect to the
proposed subject content. On 20 March 2013, The Independent published a highly critical letter signed by a large number of academics about the curriculum proposals. 24 The letter’s authors criticised what they saw as the new curriculum’s “endless lists of spellings, facts and rules” and “mountain[s] of data” which would not develop young
1.1 The previous funding system
Public funding for postgraduate students has traditionally been limited compared to that available to undergraduates. Prior to 2016-17, Government funding was generally limited to specific courses, such as some postgraduate teacher training and some medical and healthcare courses, or provided indirectly through the Research Councils and the Postgraduate Support Scheme. Aside from self-financing, other sources of funding for postgraduate students included individual higher
As regards children with statements of SEN which name schools as the appropriate placement for a child but parents decide to educate such a child at home, it remains the local authority’s duty to ensure that the child’s needs are met through the provision made by the parents. The local authority can support parents financially in these circumstances under section 319 or section 19 of the Education Act 1996 (this would fall under either paragraph 18 or paragraph 20 of Schedule 2 to the School and Early Years Finance (England) Regulations 2012). In deciding how much support is needed, the local authority should be aware that, unlike schools, parents do not receive base funding from the public purse in support of SEN, and should not therefore be expected to pay £10,000 before they receive any support.