The report stated that average teacher salaries “remain considerably lower for teaching than other graduate professions.” It added that trends in teacherrecruitment and retention “continue to face substantial pressures”, with the number of qualified teachers leaving the profession for reasons other than retirement continuing to rise, teacherretention rates deteriorating, and the number of schools reporting vacancies and temporarily-filled posts increasing “markedly over the last five years.” There is a “real risk”, the report stated, that the cumulative impact of these factors will mean that schools “will not be able to recruit and retain a workforce of high quality teachers.” The report noted that this was a particular concern given the projected increase in pupil numbers.
A report published by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) in May 2018 looking at the characteristics of London’s teacher supply market. The report stated that “London’s teacher labour market faces a particularly acute challenge over the coming decade”. It added that this challenge “is specific to London rather than a general pattern across other large English cities.” While London seems to initially attract younger teachers, the report said, factors such as higher housing costs discourage teachers from remaining in London in their thirties and beyond. The report highlighted five areas as likely to offer the most effective remedies to the issues faced:
For the 2018-19 academic year, ITT providers were invited to request training places “based on a realistic assessment of local need and minimum sustainability of their ITT programmes” Fixed allocations were given for undergraduate, Early Years, postgraduate Physical Education and Primary School Direct (salaried) courses and providers could not recruit trainees in excess of their allocation. Recruitment controls were lifted for all other postgraduate courses, meaning that ITT providers had automatic permission to recruit above the number of training places they initially requested, with no cap.
The report concluded that “schools face increasing challenges of teacher shortages, particularly within certain subjects and regions” and that rising pupil numbers and changes to accountability, such as the focus on English Baccalaureate subjects, “will exacerbate existing problems.” It stated that the Government is aware of the issues but “needs to identify a strategic, long-term plan to effectively address them.” The “failure of the National Teaching Service”, had, it added, left “a gap in the Government’s plans to tackle regional shortages.” 135
More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 50
The number of state funded faith schools in England broken down by level and religion is given in the table at the end of this section. Church of England schools were the most common type among primary schools (26% of all primaries); Roman Catholic schools the most numerous type of faith school at secondary level (9%). Non-Christian schools were very much in the minority; there were 48 Jewish, 27 Muslim, 11 Sikh and 5 Hindu schools at the start of January 2017. While the number of Christian schools has fallen slightly since 2007 the number of non- Christian schools has increased. Between January 2007 and September 2017 the number of Jewish schools increased by 11, Muslim schools by 20, Sikh schools by 9 and all the Hindu schools have opened since 2008. 19
The interest rate issue received more attention in 2017 when it was announced that the rate applied to student loans in 2017/18 would be 6.1% - this was a large increase from the 2016/17 level of 4.6%. A report by the Institute for Fiscal Studies, Higher Education funding in England: past, present and options for the future July 2017 stated that under the 2012 system students from the poorest 40% of families would accrue around £6,500 in interest during study. The report also said that the interest rate had virtually no impact on the repayments of the lowest earning graduates because very few would earn enough to repay the interest accrued. The interest rate would however have a significant impact on top earners.
The Secretary of State writes to the funding councils around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent funding letters for the Office for Students and Research England were published in February and March 2018 respectively. Funding for teaching 2018-19, research was for 2018-19 and indicative totals for 2019-20. Earlier funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises this
• Higher costs and lower retention rates for Teach First mean that the cost per teacher in school five years after training is more than £60,000 for a Teach First recruit, compared with £25,000 to £44,000 for other routes. This may be justified by the fact that Teach First trainees are disproportionately likely to teach in disadvantaged schools and that Teach First may attract graduates who would otherwise not enter teaching. The additional cost needs to be weighed against the possible benefits.
The Coalition Government stated that the principal purpose of the new measure was to increase the take-up of ‘core’ academic qualifications that best equipped a pupil for progression to further study and work. During a debate on foreign languages held in the House of Lords in January 2015, the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Schools, Lord Nash, stated that “the inclusion of a foreign language in the English baccalaureate measure has raised entries from pupils in England by 20% since 2012.” 28
In July 2016, the Institute for Fiscal Studies published research into the longer-term costs and benefits of different ITT routes. The report found that ITT costs an average of £23,000 per trainee, taking into account costs to government and schools. In addition, a high drop-out rate of recently trained teachers means that over £38,000 is spent on training for every teacher still in post five years after completing training. The report also looked at the costs, benefits and retention rates of each ITT route. The findings from the report included:
More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 35
Ofsted is a non-ministerial department that reports directly to Parliament. It inspects maintained and academy schools (including free schools), some independent schools, and a wide range of other providers in England. The position of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector has been held by Amanda Spielman since January 2017. Her predecessor was Sir Michael Wilshaw. The current Chair of Ofsted’s board is Julius Weinberg.
The House of CommonsLibrary research service provides MPs and their staff with the impartial briefing and evidence base they need to do their work in scrutinising Government, proposing legislation, and supporting constituents. As well as providing MPs with a confidential service we publish open briefing papers, which are available on the Parliament website.
Private independent schools are fee-paying schools and are not part of the state sector. The Secretary of State is responsible for keeping a register of independent schools in England. It is an offence to operate an independent school without registration. The Secretary of State is empowered to set standards that independent schools must meet in order to be registered. Registered schools are subject to inspection. Occasionally, Members are asked about sources of funding for parents who wish to send their children to private independent schools. Parents seeking financial support may wish to ask the individual school if it offers bursaries etc. The Independent Schools Council may be able to provide information about independent school scholarships and bursaries.
This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.
The term 16-19 education is used in this briefing to refer to education funded by the Education and Skills Funding Agency (ESFA) and its predecessor bodies through the 16-19 funding system. This refers to a broad range of educational provision, including (but not limited to), students aged 16-19 in maintained school and academy sixth forms, sixth form colleges, general further education (FE) colleges, and special schools. It also includes students aged 19 to 25 with Education, Health and Care Plans. It does not include students on apprenticeships or at higher education institutions.
assessment regime would place on both children and teachers: The latest stage in the assessment saga is the key stage 2 teacher assessment exemplifications for writing, which were released last week. Many teachers, who had been waiting anxiously for these materials, must, when they opened them, have despaired. Not only has the standard for reaching the expected level been very significantly raised (more akin to an old level 5 rather than the promised 4b), but also the assessment burden placed on Year 6 teachers is huge and unworkable.
Nutritional standards for school dinners were first established in the 1940s in England but were abolished in 1980. Subsequently, the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 gave the Secretary of State the power to make regulations prescribing nutritional standards and other nutritional requirements for school meals. It also placed a duty on LEAs and the governing bodies of schools maintained by LEAs, when they provide lunches, to provide them for registered pupils in line with the standards. In April 2001, statutory nutritional standards for school lunches were reintroduced by the Education (Nutritional Standards for School Lunches) Regulations 2000 (since superseded).
8.2 In relation to equality legislation, the proposals are that schools should encourage pupils to respect other people, even if they do not agree with them. This does not extend equality requirements or discriminate against Christianity or religious freedoms. The amended standard would not require a school to do anything that they are not currently required to do by the Equality Act 2010 (which applies to independent schools). 8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural] standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.