Statutory duties on local authorities relating to participation Whilst the Government provides the framework and funding to increase the number of youngpeople participating in education or training, reseponsibility and accountability lies with local authorities. Local authorities have a statutory duty to “encourage, enable and assist youngpeople to participate in education or training”. They need to ensure there is sufficient education and training provision within their area, and appropriate support for those with special educational needs and disabilities. 7
At a national level, the pilot programme very much demonstrates the potential added value of providing schools and NHS CAMHS with opportunities to engage in joint planning and training activities, improving the clarity of local pathways to specialist mental health support, and establishing named points of contact in schools and NHS CAMHS. At the same time, the evaluation has underlined the lack of available resources to deliver this offer universally across all schools at this stage within many of the pilot areas. Given the pilots show that additional resources would need to be allocated locally to deliver the offer universally across all schools, further work is needed to understand how sustainable delivery models can be developed. 60
Nick Boles: Like all academies, each university technical college (UTC) is responsible for publicising their school and encouraging applications. Officials from the Department for Education and the Baker Dearing Educational Trust provide UTCs with advice to support pupil recruitment, drawing on the best practice from UTCs and other new schools. Statutory guidance to schools on careers guidance is clear that they should allow UTCs to engage with their pupils on their premises. This guidance can be found at GOV.UK:https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/careers- guidance-provision-for-young-people-in-schools. This careers guidance should ensure pupils have information about their full range of education and training options. 22
This approach will enable a transition towards fewer, larger, more resilient and efficient providers, and more effective collaboration across institution types. A critical aspect will be to create greater specialisation, with the establishment of institutions that are genuine centres of expertise, able to support sustained progression in professional and technical disciplines, alongside excellence in other fundamental areas – such as English and maths. This will ensure that we have the right capacity to provide good education and training for our youngpeople across
For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in April to June it was 87,000 less than a year before. The number of youngpeople in employment decreased by 25,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 74,000.
The final section of the briefing provides brief information on a number of recent reports relating to ESOL, including the report of Louise Casey’s review of opportunity and integration, which was published in December 2016. The Casey Report raised concerns regarding the possible disadvantages caused by “English language proficiency issues” among certain groups. It recommended, among other things, that the Government should support “further targeted English language provision”, and should review whether current provision is sufficiently coordinated and meeting those who need it most.
judgement about what constitutes minimum needs. Successive governments have argued there is no single, objective way of determining what constitutes a minimum acceptable income for a particular person or family, although independent researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. The research involves in-depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living – “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 26
disadvantaged backgrounds have every opportunity to access the best possible education, without the cost of transport acting as a barrier. Pupils typically travel nearly three times as far to attend selective schools. The government is therefore expanding the current ‘extended rights’ entitlement for children aged 11 to 16, who receive free school meals or whose parents claim Maximum Working Tax Credit. They will now get free transport to attend the nearest selective school in their area, bringing it in line with free transport provision for those travelling to their nearest school on faith or belief grounds. 42
is that most grammars existed already and could be filled soon after the 1944 Act came into force. Expansion of the rest of the publicly funded secondary sector (effectively secondary moderns at first) took longer. The comprehensive school emerged as an experiment in a few areas in the early 1950s. This alternative to the ‘tripartite’ system increased modestly at first to just over 100 schools in 1959. More rapid expansion in the number of comprehensives and a very clear decline in the number of grammar schools came from 1965 when circular 10/65 was issued by the Ministry of Education encouraging local education authorities to move to non-selective education. The number of grammar schools went from 1,298 in 1964 to 675 in 1974 and 261 in 1979. The fastest period of decline was the 1970s. Between 1971 and 1978 650 grammar schools closed, an average of more than 90 per year.
Another difference between the MIS and the relative low income measure is how they account for household size and composition. The proportion of people in relative low income is measured with reference to equivalised household incomes, in order to compare living standards between households of different sizes or compositions. The equivalisation process uses a standard scale to compare between households of different sizes. For the MIS, however, annual income requirements for each household type are calculated separately so there is no fixed ratio that relates the MIS for a single adult, say, to that for a couple household. The MIS calculation also distinguishes between pensioner and non-pensioner households. Compared to the MIS research, the standard equivalisation scales in the official statistics “underestimate the relative cost of each additional child and also underestimate the cost of a lone parent family compared to a couple family”. 40
This report…acknowledges the improvements made to PE and school sport over the last four years. However, inspectors found that despite significant investment during much of this time, not all pupils have a good physical education. In some schools, there is not enough physical education in PE. In other schools, PE is not taught in enough depth and there is only limited access to a high standard of competitive sport. PE requires further improvement in about one third of primary schools and one quarter of secondary schools.
Academies and free schools are state-funded, non-fee paying schools that are independent of local authorities. They are funded directly by the Department for Education (through the Education Funding Agency) and sign a funding agreement with the Secretary of State to receive that money. Many have sponsors, but this is no longer a requirement. At January 2016, 65.5 per cent of secondary pupils and 19.5 per cent of primary pupils in England were attending academies. 1
Spending has varied less when expressed as a proportion of GDP (below). It fell for much of the 1980s from 4.8% in 1980-81 to 3.8% in 1988-89. It increased to more than 4.4% again in the early 1990s due to increased spending and falling GDP. The lowest level since the late 1980s was in 1998-99 at 3.9% due to several years little or no real spending increases and a strong economy. The increases since then have been less dramatic than in absolute spending levels. Education spending exceeded 5.0% of GDP in 2008-09 and peaked at 5.5% in 2010-11. These particularly high figures reflect increases in spending during a recession and the accounting adjustments for student loans (2010-11) mentioned earlier.
Following the session, the chair of the Work and Pensions Committee, Frank Field, sent a letter to the Secretary of State for Education, stating that the testimony at the session from parents and parental support organisations was “profoundly distressing” and raised the issue of school uniform costs, in particular schools using particular providers for generic items.
The Education Policy Institute (EPI) think tank praised many aspects of the new framework, including its focus on off-rolling and schools’ use of exclusion. EPI also commended “improvements to the framework which are welcome because they have the potential to promote judgements that are sharper with respect to the inclusion of vulnerable learners and fairer to schools with more of these pupils.” However, it criticised Ofsted’s decision to stop recommending that some schools review their use of the Pupil Premium, and for the framework’s approach to speaking and listening skills in the early years and in the teaching of early reading. 14
Local authorities should, the guidance states, approach cases where the suitability of education is in doubt using powers under the Education Act 1996 (as set out above). It adds, however, that they should also be ready to “fully exercise their safeguarding powers and duties to protect the child’s well being” if a lack of suitable education appears likely to impair a child’s development. The guidance emphasises that a failure to provide suitable education is capable of satisfying the threshold that a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm, but whether this is the case will depend on the particular circumstances of the case. Actions that a local authority could take include applying to the court for an education supervision order (giving the authority a formal supervisory role in the education of the child) or a care order under the Children Act 1989. Both of these give the local authority the right to contact with a child. The guidance emphasises that care orders must only be used as a last resort “in the most egregious cases of a failure to provide a suitable education, and a persistent refusal by parents to co- operate with the local authority.”
The guidance for local authorities sets out the process by which local authorities should identify home educated children and how best they should intervene if a child is not receiving a suitable education. Among other things, it recommends that local authorities should ordinarily make contact with home educating parents on at least an annual basis “so the authority may reasonably inform itself of the current suitability of the education provided.” The guidance states that this will enable local authorities to “fulfil its duty to serve a notice on any parent who does not appear to be providing efficient and suitable education. The guidance also recommends that each local authority should “seek to offer guidance to all known home-educating families in their area and provide advice and support for parents who request it.” 47
• the median duration of self-employment is between six and ten years (Department for Work and Pensions analysis). This means that those with profits below the SPL are unlikely to rely solely on their profits for their entire working lives Analysis suggests that those expected to pay Class 3 NICs in any one year following the abolition of Class 2 would represent only 5% of those with profits below the SPL in 2018-19, and around 2% of all self-employed individuals who may have self-
Twelve thousand students, those in care, care leavers and those receiving income support, including the severely disabled, should in future all receive an annual bursary of £1,200 if they stay on in education—more every year than they ever received under EMA. I also propose that those most in need who are currently in receipt of EMA be protected. All youngpeople who began courses in 2009-10 and who were told that they should receive EMA will still receive their weekly payments. Youngpeople who started courses in the 2010-11 academic year and received the maximum weekly payment of £30 should now receive weekly payments of at least £20 until the end of the next academic year.
temporary agency worker on their payroll. Therefore these companies can have payrolls over the £3million threshold despite small number of staff working directly for the company. The REC argues that this means that small to medium sized recruiters, specialising in temporary agency workers, will be unfairly captured by the levy. The REC also argues that opportunities to take advantage of apprenticeships are limited for recruitment agencies specialising in temporary employees. This is because apprenticeships tend to last longer than agency workers are contracted for.