Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

Members often receive enquiries from constituents about school-related matters. Many of these can be answered from readily available information on the internet or in standard publications. Where complex issues are raised it may be more appropriate to refer the constituent to specialist bodies and organisations or to a solicitor if legal advice is sought. This note gives a very brief overview of the structure of the state-maintained school system, including an outline of the different categories of schools, as often an answer to a school-related constituency question may depend upon the type of school in question. The note provides brief background and key sources on a selection of issues that are typically raised with Members by constituents. Members who have questions on topics not covered here may contact the Social Policy Section for information.
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House of Commons library: Briefing paper: Number 07819, 2 December 2016: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons library: Briefing paper: Number 07819, 2 December 2016: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

Members often receive enquiries from constituents about school-related matters. Many of these can be answered from readily available information on the internet or in standard publications. Where complex issues are raised it may be more appropriate to refer the constituent to specialist bodies and organisations or to a solicitor if legal advice is sought. This note gives a very brief overview of the structure of the state-maintained school system, including an outline of the different categories of schools, as often an answer to a school-related constituency question may depend upon the type of school in question. The note provides brief background and key sources on a selection of issues that are typically raised with Members by constituents. Members who have questions on topics not covered here may contact the Social Policy Section for information.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper:  Number 07819, 8 March 2018: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07819, 8 March 2018: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

sufficient number of places in adequate schools for all children of school age. The legislation directly relevant to the opening, closing or status change of a school is The Education (Scotland) Act 1980 , as amended and the Schools (Consultation) (Scotland) Act 2010 , as amended. In that context, education authorities may undertake reorganisation of their school estate at any time. School closures (or rationalisations), amalgamations or altering catchment areas can be prompted by many factors such as changing population patterns and the need to provide suitable school buildings for pupils and teachers. 4
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

4.3 Transparency and accountability will also be enhanced by the requirement for CCGs that are benefitting from the health inequalities funding adjustment to set out for the first time how they are targeting that funding to improve the equity of access and outcomes. The Long-Term Plan renews our commitment to commissioning, partnering with and championing local charities, social enterprises and community interest companies providing services and support to vulnerable and at-risk groups, including Gypsy, Roma and Travellers, which we recognize as leading innovators in their field and key partners in helping us achieving our ambitions to promote equality and reduce health inequalities. 4.4 In addition, the inclusion group of health charities within the Health and Wellbeing Alliance, which includes Friends Families and Travellers, have identified a small number of common themes which would help improve experience and outcomes for
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8389, 5 April 2019: Returns to a degree

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8389, 5 April 2019: Returns to a degree

2014/15 graduating cohort in 2016/17, by subject of first degree Medicine & dentistry No sustained destination Nursing Activity not captured Veterinary sciences Education & teaching Subj[r]

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 08083: 9 May 2019: Gypsies and Travellers

The fourth area that my hon. Friend raised was planning policy. He described the imbalance between the number of sites in some areas compared with others, particularly in his county. The Government’s planning policy for Traveller sites confirms that our aims include that local planning authorities should make their own assessment of need for the purposes of planning and, working together with neighbouring authorities, identify land for sites. Local planning authorities should consider the production of joint development plans that set targets on a cross-authority basis to provide more flexibility in identifying sites. The policy is clear that local planning authorities should ensure that sites in rural areas respect the scale of, and do not dominate, the nearest settled community. In exceptional cases when a local planning authority is burdened by a large-scale unauthorised site that has significantly increased its need, and where the area is subject to strict and special planning constraints, there is no assumption that the authority has to plan to meet its Traveller site needs in full. 83
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

On 16 June 2015, the then Education Secretary Nicky Morgan made a speech outlining the Government’s plans; a compulsory EBacc would ensure pupils “study the core academic subjects at GCSE, the subjects that keep your options open, and allow you to enter the widest ranges of careers and university courses.” The Secretary of State set out the Government’s view that a compulsory EBacc would enhance the chances of disadvantaged pupils, highlighting that capable pupils are currently less likely to take history, geography, a language or triple science at GCSE than their peers if they are eligible for free school meals. 19
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

If these findings are put alongside the data in the table at the end of this paper and the earlier chart we can conclude that ‘state school pupils’ improved their representation at Oxford and Cambridge between the end of the 1930s and end of the 1940s; there appears to have been relatively little change in the late 1950s, but further increases in the 1960s and late 1970s which saw state school pupil numbers draw roughly equal with independent schools at the start of the 1980s. State school participation was higher at Oxford, on the measures given here, up to the mid-1960s. However, given there are large gaps this may not necessarily have been the case in each and every year.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7647, 11 July 2019 : Early Intervention

Systems. These systems bring together the NHS, local authorities and other local partners with the aim of ensuring women and their families receive seamless care, including when moving between maternity or neonatal services or to other services such as primary care or health visiting. By spring 2019, every trust in England with a maternity and neonatal service will be part of the National Maternal and Neonatal Health Safety Collaborative. Every national, regional and local NHS organisation involved in providing safe maternity and neonatal care has a named Maternity Safety Champion. Through the Collaborative and Maternity Safety Champions, the NHS is supporting a culture of multidisciplinary team working and learning, vital for safe, high-quality maternity care. Twenty Community Hubs have been established, focusing on areas with greatest need, and acting as ‘one stop shops’ for women and their families. These hubs work closely with local authorities, bringing together antenatal care, birth facilities, postnatal care, mental health services, specialist services and health visiting services.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2018; 61.3% at Cambridge and 58.9% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages in 2017 and 2018 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2018. 23
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07714, 1 April 2019: The Family Test

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07714, 1 April 2019: The Family Test

Many of the responses to PQs describe briefly what the Family Test is and refer to guidance issued by DWP but provide little additional information. During the March 2019 debate on the Application of the Family Test, several Members expressed frustration at the Departmental responses to their Parliamentary Questions. Fiona Bruce said that the answers were inadequate and did not explain the actions taken by Departments to apply the Family Test. She also contested the argument, made in several Departmental responses, that the Family Test did not apply to the Department’s policy brief. 28
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 07236, 23 April 2019 : Careers guidance in schools, colleges and
universities

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 07236, 23 April 2019 : Careers guidance in schools, colleges and universities

Since September 2013, local authority-maintained schools in England have been under a duty to provide impartial careers guidance to pupils from years 8 to 13 (ages 12-18). The Department for Education has published statutory guidance (most recently updated in October 2018) for maintained schools on their duty to provide careers guidance. Many academies and free schools are subject to the duties relating to careers guidance through their funding agreements, including those which opened from September 2012 onwards and those which have moved to an updated funding agreement. Academies without the requirement are encouraged to follow the guidance as a statement of good practice.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 06103, 11 February 2019: Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 06103, 11 February 2019: Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

8.2 In relation to equality legislation, the proposals are that schools should encourage pupils to respect other people, even if they do not agree with them. This does not extend equality requirements or discriminate against Christianity or religious freedoms. The amended standard would not require a school to do anything that they are not currently required to do by the Equality Act 2010 (which applies to independent schools). 8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural] standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

Keep house warm Keep up to date with bills Money to decorate home Replace broken electrical goods Home contents insurance Replace worn out furniture Money to spend on self each week Make savings of 10 pounds a month or more One week's holiday away from home not with relatives Have a warm winter coat Celebrations on special occasions Eat fresh fruit and/or vegetables every day Go to a playgroup at least once a week Go on school trip at least once a term Have friends round for tea or a snack once a fortnight Leisure equipment, e.g. sports equipment or a bicycle Hobby or leisure activity Attend organised activity once a week Outdoor space / facilities to play safely Bedrooms for every child aged 10+ of different gender One week's holiday away from home with family
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

The consultation noted that increasing numbers of children are receiving their principal education outside of mainstream schools. Some of these, it said, are being educated very well at home by parents, but others are receiving “such education as they get…mainly or entirely through attendance at unsuitable settings such as unregistered independent schools or multiple part-time settings”. There are also likely to be a number of children, it added, who are receiving an unsuitable education because their parents cannot educate them effectively at home. The consultation stated that it is “mainly in the interest of such vulnerable children that the proposals” are being brought forward. 53
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

Figures are based on a survey so some of the reported changes may arise from survey error rather than ‘real’ changes in the levels. The unemployment rate (the proportion of the economically active population who are unemployed) for 16-24 year olds was 11.4% in May-July 2019. This is up from 11.2% in the previous quarter and up slightly from 11.3% a year before.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in April to June it was 87,000 less than a year before. The number of young people in employment decreased by 25,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 74,000.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

Some limited historical data are available on bankruptcies and Individual Voluntary Arrangements (IVAs). These only cover students who notified the Student Loans Company of this while they were studying and hence exclude anyone with a student loan who became bankrupt or had an IVA after they graduated. The total number bankrupt or with IVAs in England increased from 10-20 a year in the late 1990s to 110 in 2004. The Higher Education Act 2004 included provisions to prevent student loans being written off by bankruptcy. There were 30 IVAs amongst this group in 2005 and 20 in 2006. Over this period there were large
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

judgement about what constitutes minimum needs. Successive governments have argued there is no single, objective way of determining what constitutes a minimum acceptable income for a particular person or family, although independent researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in- depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 38
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07236, 9 June 2017: Careers guidance in schools, colleges and universities

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07236, 9 June 2017: Careers guidance in schools, colleges and universities

20. In particular schools should make clear to pupils that if they do not achieve a grade C or better in GCSE maths or English by the end of key stage 4 they will be required to carry on studying these – at school, college or as an apprentice – as no institution will receive public funding to teach them up to the age of 19 unless they continue to work towards achieving Level 2 in maths and English. This is because of the vital importance and powerful labour market value of a good GCSE in maths and English. 21.Schools should also ensure that, as early as possible, pupils understand that a wide range of career choices require good knowledge of maths and the sciences. Schools should ensure that pupils are exposed to a diverse selection of professionals from varying occupations which require STEM subjects, and emphasise in particular the opportunities created for girls and boys who choose science subjects at school and college. Schools should be aware of the need to do this for girls, in particular, who are statistically much more likely than boys to risk limiting their careers by dropping STEM subjects at an early age. 22.Schools should offer pupils the opportunity to develop entrepreneurial skills for selfemployment – and make it clear to them that working for themselves is a viable option (in fact it will be necessary for many). Pupils should receive the advice and support necessary to build and develop their own jobs, and have a clear understanding of potential barriers – whether real or
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