Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7771, 19 December 2018: Child maintenance: income in the CMS formula (including why gross income is used, and annual reviews)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7771, 19 December 2018: Child maintenance: income in the CMS formula (including why gross income is used, and annual reviews)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7771, 19 December 2018: Child maintenance: income in the CMS formula (including why gross income is used, and annual reviews)

The non-resident parent may tell the CMS is their gross income falls by 25 per cent or more, but they are not required to do so. 34 • CMS using current income for self-employed non-resident parents – the CMS states that a non-resident parent does “not have to tell us about changes to your gross weekly income within seven days if you are self-employed. This is because you would not be able to tell if a 25 per cent change had taken place until the end of the financial year”. In such cases, the CMS uses the Annual Review to make sure that child maintenance payments are kept up to date. Non-resident parents may tell the CMS of a change of income in excess of 25 per cent if they wish by sending the CMS an up-to-date self-assessment tax return. 35
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07388, 19 December 2018: Language teaching in schools (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07388, 19 December 2018: Language teaching in schools (England)

The response set out the following reasons a child might not be entered for the EBacc: The decision not to enter a pupil for the EBacc combination of subjects will need to be considered on a case by case basis by each school, and schools will need to take into account a range of factors particular to each pupil. These will include, for example, complex SEN; having spent significant amounts of time out of education; recently arriving in the country; and only being able to take a limited number of key stage 4 qualifications as significant additional time is needed in the curriculum for English and mathematics. We believe that no single factor should automatically exclude a pupil from entering the EBacc. 33
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 08444, 10 December 2018 : Off-rolling in English schools

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 08444, 10 December 2018 : Off-rolling in English schools

Recent years, however, have seen concerns being raised that children are leaving school rolls in rising numbers, in particular as they approach GCSE level, because of pressures within the school system. It has been suggested that increased ‘off-rolling’ is taking place because of the impact of pupils who are likely to perform relatively poorly in their examinations on school performance measures, and because schools may be struggling to support children who need high levels of support, for example pupils with special educational needs. Off-rolling of this kind might involve children being excluded for reasons that are not legitimate, or parents being encouraged to home educate a child where they would not otherwise have chosen to do so.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 7770, 23 September 2019: Child maintenance: how it is calculated under the 2012 CMS scheme (GB)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 7770, 23 September 2019: Child maintenance: how it is calculated under the 2012 CMS scheme (GB)

Instead, a level playing is being retained in relation to the current maintenance. That 10 HC Deb 15 June 2010 c361W – the answer was given in reference to the 2003 statutory child maintenance scheme, where the upper limit was £2,000. However, this was increased to £3,000 under the 2012 scheme to take account of the change in using net weekly income to gross weekly income to calculate a non-resident parent’s child maintenance liability. As the then head of child maintenance noted in his answer, the £3,000 figure “is broadly the same as the [then] current cap in net income terms” (see also PBC Deb 9 October 2007 c278).
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7951, 21 December 2018 : T Levels : reforms to technical education

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7951, 21 December 2018 : T Levels : reforms to technical education

• substantial academic or applied and technical qualifications; • non-qualification activity, such as work experience; and • the study of English and maths where they do not hold a GCSE 9- 4 (reformed grading) or A*-C (legacy grading) in these subjects. 2 Under the 16-19 funding formula introduced in 2013-14, a single basic funding rate per full-time student, currently £4,000 for 16 and 17 year olds, is intended to fund a study programme of around 600 guided learning hours, regardless of where and what the student studies. 3 The formula also provides a number of funding uplifts, including for large programmes and disadvantaged learners, and an area costs adjustment.
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 04195, 7 December 2018 : School meals and nutritional standards (England)

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 04195, 7 December 2018 : School meals and nutritional standards (England)

The Resolution Foundation considered the FSM eligibility issue in a blog post published on 11 January 2018: So far all families [on Universal Credit] are entitled – because very few working families with children are in the system. Rather than massively expand or severely curtail Free School Meals the government proposes a compromise. It will broadly maintain the status quo with an earnings threshold similar to the tax credit cut off point. But doing so creates an effective £11 a week loss of income when crossing the threshold, and it takes £30 of earnings to claw it back given the UC taper. In reality relatively few will find themselves faced with this cliff-edge. However, a core tenet of UC – that it will always pay to work more – has been sacrificed. 20
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House of Commons Library : Briefing Paper : Number 7777, 25 January 2017 : Child maintenance: fees (UK excluding NI)

House of Commons Library : Briefing Paper : Number 7777, 25 January 2017 : Child maintenance: fees (UK excluding NI)

collaborate and non-resident parents will be faced with steep fees if they fail to comply”. 11 The White Paper added: Collection fees are intended to provide an ongoing incentive for both parents in the collection service to consider making payments direct rather than via the Government, as evidence shows that collaboration results in the best outcome for children. The collection fees work as a percentage surcharge on top of maintenance liability for the non-resident parents and as a small deduction from maintenance otherwise received for the parent with care. 12
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

The Government gradually introduced new arrangements for students starting in autumn 1998 (academic year 1998/99). In the first year new entrants received support through loans and grants. The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 6 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2000. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 will be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 7
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP08249, 26 October 2018: Support for care leavers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP08249, 26 October 2018: Support for care leavers

circumstances. Young people aged 16-17 who are “care leavers” – who have been looked after by a local authority for at least 13 weeks since the age of 14 and who left care on or after their 16th birthday – cannot usually claim Income Support, income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance or Housing Benefit. This is because the local authority remains responsible for meeting their needs for maintenance, accommodation and support. Care leavers aged 16-17 are not excluded from claiming Income Support or income- based JSA if they are a lone parent, or from income-related Employment and Support Allowance if they are sick or disabled. Housing Benefit cannot be paid however, even in these situations.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

1.4 Scotland Following the report of the Independent Committee of Inquiry into Student Finance 8 , the Cubie Report, the Scottish Executive made a number of changes to student support arrangements. From 2000/01 upfront tuition fees were abolished for all eligible full-time Scottish and EU students studying at Scottish institutions. A contribution will be made after graduation in the form of the Graduate Endowment. This was introduced for students who entered higher education from 2001/02 and qualified after completing a degree level course. The level was initially set at £2,000 (£2,289 for those entering in 2006/07) and can be repaid in the same way as income-contingent student loans. Various groups including lone parents, mature/independent students, the disabled and students studying HNC and HNDs were all exempt from the Graduate Endowment. 9 In summer 2007 the SNP-led Scottish Government announced that the Graduate Endowment would be scrapped. 10 The Graduate Endowment Abolition (Scotland) Bill was approved at the end of February 2008 and meant that no current or future students would pay the endowment and neither would those who graduated on or after 1 April 2007. 11
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 2 December 2016: Student Loan Statistics

Professor Nicholas Barr has argued for some time that the interest rate subsidy is both inefficient and unfair. The operation of income contingent loans means that graduates with low income in any one year are ‘protected’ from high repayments because they only repay 9% of their income over £15,000 per year. These are normally graduates at the start of their career. Where graduates have a low income for their entire career –either through low annual earnings or periods out of the labour market- they make little or no repayments. Their ‘protection’ comes from the 25 year write off. If they make any repayments they are small and unlikely to cover more than interest payments, so it does not matter what the interest rate is. It is their income that determines repayments, not the interest rate. The interest rate is completely irrelevant for the lowest paid graduates. It could be set at commercial levels, zero, or even a negative rate. It would have no impact on the amount they repay. The interest rate affects the duration of repayments for those who do repay. If it were higher then it would take longer to repay and total repayments would increase. By definition it is the higher paid graduates who benefit from this shorter repayment period and lower total repayments.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 917, 2 December 2016: Tuition Fee Statistics

1.4 Scotland Following the report of the Independent Committee of Inquiry into Student Finance 8 , the Cubie Report, the Scottish Executive made a number of changes to student support arrangements. From 2000/01 upfront tuition fees were abolished for all eligible full-time Scottish and EU students studying at Scottish institutions. A contribution will be made after graduation in the form of the Graduate Endowment. This was introduced for students who entered higher education from 2001/02 and qualified after completing a degree level course. The level was initially set at £2,000 (£2,289 for those entering in 2006/07) and can be repaid in the same way as income-contingent student loans. Various groups including lone parents, mature/independent students, the disabled and students studying HNC and HNDs were all exempt from the Graduate Endowment. 9 In summer 2007 the SNP-led Scottish Government announced that the Graduate Endowment would be scrapped. 10 The Graduate Endowment Abolition (Scotland) Bill was approved at the end of February 2008 and meant that no current or future students would pay the endowment and neither would those who graduated on or after 1 April 2007. 11
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049: 5 December 2016: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7049: 5 December 2016: Postgraduate loans in England

1.154 Autumn Statement 2014 therefore introduces a new offer of income contingent loans for those under 30 years old wishing to undertake a postgraduate taught masters in any subject. These loans, of up to £10,000, are planned to be available from 2016- 17 and will be repaid concurrently with undergraduate loans. The loans are designed so that, on average, individuals will repay in full, in recognition of the high private return to individuals, but they will beat commercial rates. The government will consult on the detail and will confirm the delivery plan. This is expected to benefit around 40,000 students, and enable around 10,000 more individuals to take advantage of the opportunity to undertake postgraduate study each year.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07250: 23 December 2019: University Technical Colleges

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07250: 23 December 2019: University Technical Colleges

Wiltshire UTC is also due to close in 2020. 24 In the event that a UTC closes, the Government states that it works with the local authority and academy trust to ensure that new school places are identified that meet the needs of each individual child. 25 This has included the sponsors of UTCs offering a place for pupils to continue their course, converting the UTC to a mainstream academy, or waiting for all students to finish their course and not recruiting for earlier year groups before closing. 26

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8389, 19 September 2018: Returns to a degree

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8389, 19 September 2018: Returns to a degree

Margaret Hodge: We said in the White Paper, "The Future of Higher Education", that graduates enjoy different returns from different courses and according to the institution attended. Recent research found a 44 percentage point difference in average returns between graduates from institutions at the two extremes of the graduate pay scale. No specific estimates have been made of the distribution of lifetime earnings premia by type of course or institution attended, for either first-degree graduates or post-graduates. However, we will be publishing research evidence later this year on how lifetime earnings premia might differ according to institution attended.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number SN04223, 21 December 2018: Research & Development spending

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number SN04223, 21 December 2018: Research & Development spending

Textiles, clothing and leather products Transport and storage services Casting of iron and steel Wood&paper products Sewerage & waste management Non-ferrous metals Other non-metallic mineral products Other transport equipment Electricity, gas and water supply Refined petroleum products Agriculture, hunting and forestry; Fishing Rubber and plastic products Extractive Industries Public administration Fabricated metal products Other manufactured goods Wholesale and retail trade Construction Shipbuilding Computers and peripheral equipment Food & beverages Electrical equipment Precision instruments Telecommunications Consumer electronics and…
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

households. An IFS report explains: …the NLW is projected to have a very small impact on incomes right across the household income distribution, with incomes being affected by less than 1% at almost all percentile points. This is partly because household incomes are larger than individual earnings in most cases, partly because some of the gains from the NLW are captured by the exchequer in higher tax payments and lower benefit entitlements, and partly because gains from the NLW are much more widely spread across the income distribution than across the individual earnings distribution, with similar gains between the 20th and 60th percentiles. This reflects that those who benefit from the NLW have low hourly pay, but not necessarily low household incomes. For example, those paid less than the NLW who have a higher-earning partner may benefit from the NLW but have a household income sufficient to be in the top half of the income distribution. 30
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 19 January 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 19 January 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

5.1 Social Mobility Commission state of the nation report (November 2017) In its fifth annual state of the nation report, published in November 2017, the Social Mobility Commission noted that schools in deprived areas often struggle to recruit teachers and, where they can, they often lack high-quality applicants. Noting that high teacher turnover can have a negative effect on disadvantaged children’s attainment, the report highlighted that secondary school teachers in the most deprived areas are also more likely to leave. In comparison, there is much more stability in the teacher workforce in more affluent areas. 101 Rural and coastal areas, however, have the opposite problem in that they can attract fewer new teachers and so have little infusion of new blood into the workforce, leading to stagnation, the report argued.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

This is regardless of whether they make any repayments or not. Their repayments depend on their income and the repayment threshold alone, not interest rates. The charts below look at repayments by income decile of graduates 12 under different maximum interest rates. 13 The first chart gives lifetime repayments in present value (discounted) terms and the one below the change compared to the current maximum. Where the change is positive this group would repay more and where it is negative they repay less or benefit from the change. These charts illustrate the point made earlier that it is higher earning graduates, particularly those in the top three deciles, who would benefit from a cut in the maximum interest rate.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

Why might these costs vary? Costs would clearly be lower if a cap was reintroduced at a level below current numbers. Equally costs would be higher if there was no cap and student numbers increased in response to lower/no fees. It could also be argues that the £-for-£ compensation for universities may not have to apply. Universities that charge fees of over £6,000 have to have a set of actions agreed to improve access from disadvantaged groups (financial support, outreach etc.). It might be argued that scrapping fees, or reducing them below a certain level, means they need to spend less on access and hence do not need to be compensated in full for the loss of fee income. The fee levels at which this might apply and any possible cut in access spending are very much open to question.
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