Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

Costs would clearly be lower if a cap was reintroduced at a level below current numbers. Equally costs would be higher if there was no cap and student numbers increased in response to lower/no fees. It could also be argues that the £-for-£ compensation for universities may not have to apply. Universities that charge fees of over £6,000 have to have a set of actions agreed to improve access from disadvantaged groups (financial support, outreach etc.). It might be argued that scrapping fees, or reducing them below a certain level, means they need to spend less on access and hence do not need to be compensated in full for the loss of fee income. The fee levels at which this might apply and any possible cut in access spending are very much open to question.
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

After consultation the Government decided to freeze the repayment threshold for all post-2012 borrowers. The discount rate used for the public accounting of loans was reduced from 2.2% to 0.7%. These changes were expected to result in savings to current spending when grants are ended, and a substantial cut in the subsidy element of loans. On 1 October 2017 the Prime Minister announced a number of changes to these policies: The fee cap would be frozen in 2018-19, the repayment threshold would rise to £25,000 and a there would be a review of the student finance system. The Department for
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 6 June 2018: Initial teacher training in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 6 June 2018: Initial teacher training in England

More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 47
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 7 November 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 7 November 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

Similarly, in a letter on 15 October 2018, Robert Halfon, Chair of the Education Committee, asked the Chancellor to “look very carefully at the core level of funding for students in FE” as he prepared the 2018 Budget and the forthcoming Spending Review. The letter argued that “it cannot be right that a funding ‘dip’ exists for students between the ages of 16 and 18, only to rise again in higher education”, and that “successive governments have failed to give further education the recognition it deserves for the role it pays in our national productivity puzzle.” The letter also highlighted particular issues with regards to 16- 19 funding, including underspends, VAT, and the English and maths condition of funding rules (further information on these issues is below). 50
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7976, 21 February 2018: International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7976, 21 February 2018: International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

In the UK therefore EU student have access to tuition fee loans on the same basis as UK students. EU students studying across the UK regions will be treated the same as home students of that region, this is why EU students in Scotland do not pay fees. These rules do not apply to a member states own internal arrangements so our devolution settlement means that English students can be charged fees at Scottish universities. EU students are not generally eligible for maintenance loans but some students may qualify if they meet residency criteria.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 17 October 2018: Initial teacher training in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 17 October 2018: Initial teacher training in England

Over 30,000 individuals enter one of several ITT routes each year. Although they vary in other ways, the main distinctions between the different ITT routes are whether they are ‘school-centred’ (for example, the School Direct programme and Teach First) or ‘higher education- centred’ (for example, a university-based PGCE course), and whether the trainee pays tuition fees or receives a salary. All courses include time spent teaching in at least two schools and lead to QTS. They can also all (except undergraduate) include a postgraduate qualification, usually a Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE).
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 10 January 2018: Initial teacher training in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 10 January 2018: Initial teacher training in England

Although they vary in other ways too, the main distinctions between the different ITT routes are whether they are ‘school-centred’ (for example, the School Direct programme and Teach First) or ‘higher education- centred’ (for example, a university-based PGCE course), and whether the trainee pays tuition fees or receives a salary. All courses include time spent teaching in at least two schools and lead to QTS. They can also all (except undergraduate) include a postgraduate qualification, usually a Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE).

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

The Secretary of State writes to the funding councils around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent funding letters for the Office for Students and Research England were published in February and March 2018 respectively. Funding for teaching 2018-19, research was for 2018-19 and indicative totals for 2019-20. Earlier funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises this
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 17 October 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 17 October 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 47
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2018 only 2.7% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 10.0% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2015 onwards. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to more than seven points in 2016, 2017 and 2018.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 13 June 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 13 June 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

The term 16-19 education is used in this briefing to refer to education funded by the Education and Skills Funding Agency (ESFA) and its predecessor bodies through the 16-19 funding system. This refers to a broad range of educational provision, including (but not limited to), students aged 16-19 in maintained school and academy sixth forms, sixth form colleges, general further education (FE) colleges, and special schools. It also includes students aged 19 to 25 with Education, Health and Care Plans (or, previously, learning difficulties and/or disabilities). It does not include students on apprenticeships or at higher education institutions.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7049, 27 February 2018: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7049, 27 February 2018: Postgraduate loans in England

2. To counteract this risk, respondents suggested that some form of tuition fee cap be imposed and/or that institutional fee changes should be subject to greater scrutiny or be made more transparent to mitigate this risk. Recognising the Government does not intend to introduce new or additional regulation, there could be a monitoring role for Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and/or the Office for Fair Access (OFFA). 35

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2016 only 2.5% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 9.5% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2016. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to seven points in 2016.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7708, 13 June 2018: Adult further education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7708, 13 June 2018: Adult further education funding in England since 2010

From 2013-14, grant funding for leaners aged 24 and over studying at levels 3 and 4 (e.g. A-levels) was removed and replaced with Advanced Learner Loans. Initially, loans also replaced grants for apprentices aged 24 and over studying at level 3 and above. However, loans for apprentices were dropped from February 2014 onwards, in part due to low take-up, and higher level apprenticeships were instead made eligible for grant funding from the ASB. 15 Following an announcement at the Spending Review

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 19 January 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 19 January 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

In February 2017, the Education Committee published the report of its inquiry into teacher supply: Recruitment and retention of teachers. The report concluded that “schools face increasing challenges of teacher shortages, particularly within certain subjects and regions” and that rising pupil numbers and changes to accountability, such as the focus on English Baccalaureate subjects, “will exacerbate existing problems.” It stated that the Government is aware of the issues but “needs to identify a strategic, long-term plan to effectively address them.” The “failure of the National Teaching Service”, had, it added, left “a gap in the Government’s plans to tackle regional shortages.” 112
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 4 June 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 4 June 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

The Department has missed its recruitment targets for the last 4 years and there are signs that teacher shortages are growing. By taking a national view of the number of teachers required, the Department risks paying too little attention to clearly meaningful local patterns of supply and demand. The Department does not yet have the information it needs to understand how different routes into teaching impact on schools’ ability to recruit and retain newly qualified teachers, and cannot yet demonstrate how new arrangements are improving the quality of teaching in classrooms. The Department has plans to analyse existing data further. However, until the Department meets its targets and addresses the remaining information gaps, we cannot conclude that the arrangements for training new teachers are value for money. The Department will also need to show that the arrangements are more cost-effective than alternative expenditure, for instance on improving retention. 143
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06798, 16 April 2018: The school curriculum in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06798, 16 April 2018: The school curriculum in England

The House of Commons Library research service provides MPs and their staff with the impartial briefing and evidence base they need to do their work in scrutinising Government, proposing legislation, and supporting constituents. As well as providing MPs with a confidential service we publish open briefing papers, which are available on the Parliament website.

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House of Commons Library : Briefing Paper: Number 5108, 18 January 2017: Home education in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing Paper: Number 5108, 18 January 2017: Home education in England

If a notice is served and the parents fail to satisfy the local authority that the child is receiving a suitable education, or the authority believes that it is expedient that the child attends school, then the authority will serve a school attendance order requiring the child to become a registered pupil at a named school. If they do not, the parents can be prosecuted. At any stage following the issuing of the Order the child’s parents can give evidence to the local authority that the child is now receiving a suitable education and apply to have the Order revoked. If the local authority refuses, parents can refer the matter to the Secretary of State. If a local authority prosecutes a child’s parents for failing to comply with a school attendance order, the courts will decide whether the education being provided is suitable and efficient. 25
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7222, 12 February 2019: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7222, 12 February 2019: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

The first two sections of the report looked at post-ITT employment rates and the mobility of NQTs. The analysis found that post-ITT employment rates rose in the six years up to 2014-15, at which point 85% of trainees achieving QTS secured a teaching role within a state-funded school. Employment rates amongst graduates of school-led training routes were typically 5 percentage points higher than those on HEI- based routes. There were also significant variations by secondary subject. Regarding the mobility of NQTs, the analysis found that NQTs do not tend to move far to take up their first post, with around half taking up a post within 25km of their ITT provider.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 5108, 12 April 2019 : Home education in England

The majority of parents who arrange home education for their children work closely with, and share information with, the local authority. However, this is a voluntary act on behalf of the parent and a number of parents are not willing to provide information to the local authority. In both of these cases [unregistered settings and home education] the local authority is not able to assess either the quality of education being received by the child or whether there are any safeguarding issues that require attention. This needs to be addressed urgently. New guidance should be provided which makes clear the responsibility of parents to ensure information about their child’s education is provided to the local authority.
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