Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2018 only 2.7% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 10.0% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2015 onwards. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to more than seven points in 2016, 2017 and 2018.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2016 only 2.5% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 9.5% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2016. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to seven points in 2016.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

The responsibility for funding teaching in England has been shifted further away from the public sector towards the individual (graduate). The financial impact on the sector as a whole need not be negative if they can raise enough through additional tuition fees (backed by publicly subsidised loans). The impact on individual institutions is much more open to question and it depends on what fee levels they charge and changes in student numbers. These in turn depend on the types of courses they offer, the ‘value’ placed on a degree from that institution by potential students and the extent and type of student choice and competition introduced into the sector. Changes to higher education funding and student support from 2012/13 gives some background to the freeing up of places from 2012 and more recent detail is given in HE in England from 2012: Student numbers and Higher Education Student Numbers.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number CBP 7976, 26 September 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number CBP 7976, 26 September 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

In the UK therefore EU student have access to tuition fee loans on the same basis as UK students. EU students studying across the UK regions will be treated the same as home students of that region, this is why EU students in Scotland do not pay fees. These rules do not apply to a member states own internal arrangements so our devolution settlement means that English students can be charged fees at Scottish universities. EU students are not generally eligible for maintenance loans but some students may qualify if they meet residency criteria.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number CBP 7976, 12 March 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number CBP 7976, 12 March 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

The Government values the contribution that international students make to higher education, research, and the UK, both economically and culturally. That is why we have no plans to introduce a cap on the number of genuine international students who can come here to study, or to limit the numbers that individual higher education institutions can recruit. The reforms the Government is introducing through the Higher Education and Research Bill recognise the importance of the sector to the economy and will help to ensure that it continues to be one of
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8526, 11 April 2019 : Update on vice-chancellors pay in higher education institutions in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 8526, 11 April 2019 : Update on vice-chancellors pay in higher education institutions in England

The University of Bath and the Open University, which featured prominently on an Office for Students’ list of the highest basic salaries for university leaders in 2017-18, have announced their new vice-chancellors will receive lower amounts than their predecessors. The University of Southampton, which also featured on the list, said it was “likely” its next vice-chancellor would be paid a lower salary than the incumbent. The moves suggest some universities are responding to the public outcry over their leaders’ pay that started in 2017. 7

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 08444, 20 February 2019: Off-rolling in English schools

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 08444, 20 February 2019: Off-rolling in English schools

29. Pupils count towards the Progress 8 scores of schools if they are registered on the school’s census in the January in which they are in Year 11. While Progress 8 tracks the academic ‘distance’ travelled by a student and takes into account prior attainment, pupils who fall behind in secondary school, for example for medical reasons or because a pupil’s additional needs which were met in their smaller primary school but then become unmet in larger secondary settings, can negatively affect a school’s results. Off-rolling— the process by which pupils are removed from the school’s register by moving them to alternative provision, to home education or other schools—was raised by many witnesses, and we were told that the accountability system and Progress 8 was a major factor. […]
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7976, 21 February 2018: International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7976, 21 February 2018: International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

In the UK therefore EU student have access to tuition fee loans on the same basis as UK students. EU students studying across the UK regions will be treated the same as home students of that region, this is why EU students in Scotland do not pay fees. These rules do not apply to a member states own internal arrangements so our devolution settlement means that English students can be charged fees at Scottish universities. EU students are not generally eligible for maintenance loans but some students may qualify if they meet residency criteria.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

Applicant numbers fell in 2012 with larger falls among those who faced fees of up to £9,000. The total was 7.6% down; accepted applicants were down by 5.5%. Applicant numbers bounced back somewhat in 2013. A record 496,000 were accepted and new records were set for acceptances in each of the three following years. Applicant numbers rose again in 2014, but did not beat their 2011 peak until 2015. Entry rates among 18 year olds from England increased from 29.2% in 2013 to 33.4% in 2017, setting new records in each year. The increase among those from the most disadvantaged areas was even greater, up from 15.1% in 2011 and 2012 to 20.4% in 2017. There was also an increase to a new high in the entry rate for 18 year olds formerly eligible for free school meals in each year from 2011 to 2017. 57
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8593, 21 August 2019: Support for students with mental health issues in higher education in England

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8593, 21 August 2019: Support for students with mental health issues in higher education in England

There is a strong connection between mental ill health and suicide or self-harm. The ability to identify students who are at risk of suicide is difficult. The Stepchange website states that only 12% of students who died by suicide were reported to be seeing student counselling services. In September 2018 Universities UK (UUK) and PAPYRUS, a national charity dedicated to the prevention of young suicide, published Suicide Safer Universities. This guidance provides a framework to help university staff understand student suicide, mitigate risk, intervene when students get into difficulties, and respond to deaths. The document also aims to help university leaders develop strategies to prevent student suicides. A number of higher education institutions have introduced suicide prevention strategies. The University of Wolverhampton and the University of Cumbria employ Connecting with People and the
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

The governing bodies of higher and further education institutions are public authorities for the purposes of the PSED. Universities and colleges must therefore have due regard to the need to eliminate discrimination and harassment and the need to foster good relationships between different groups when they formulate policies and practices in areas such as: sexual harassment, governance of student societies and sports teams, campus security, housing, bars and social spaces. The duty applies to decisions on individual cases, as well as to policy decisions. The PSED also applies to students unions and student societies if they carry out a ‘public function’ on behalf of a university, for example, if they are funded by the university to carry out pastoral care or other activities on the university’s behalf.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07020, 8 February 2019: Special Educational Needs: support in
England

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07020, 8 February 2019: Special Educational Needs: support in England

Separate consultations were conducted on high needs funding. The national funding formula for schools and high needs, published by the Department for Education in September 2017, described how the Government intended to proceed following those consultations. Local authorities would receive high needs funding through a national formula derived from, among other factors, a basic unit of per-pupil funding for pupils in specialist SEN provision, historic spend, and also proxy measures such as population, school attainment, and numbers of children in bad health. More detail is provided in chapter 4 of the Policy Document.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7393, 14 June 2017: Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7393, 14 June 2017: Higher education funding in England

The Secretary of State writes to HEFCE around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent full funding letter was published at the end of February 2017. It covered funding in 2017-18 and gave indicative allocations for the following year. All these funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises HEFCE funding
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 0616, 31 July 2019 : Oxford 'elitism'

In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2018; 61.3% at Cambridge and 58.9% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages in 2017 and 2018 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2018. 23
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0616, 9 January 2019: Oxbridge 'elitism'

In the first half of the period there was a clear increase in the proportion of state school pupils entering Oxford. This increased from 43% in the early 1970s to 52% in 1981. The level at Cambridge was more erratic, varying between 45% and 50% for most of this period. The rate at both institutions fell noticeably in the mid-1980s. New definitions were brought in from 1986/87 and trends since then have been more stable. Cambridge overtook Oxford in 1988 and took a higher percentage of state school pupils in each subsequent year other than 2011. There was little change at either institution during the early/mid-1990s. Rates at both increased to more than 50% in the late 1990s and early part of this century. This increase has generally been sustained in recent years and both institutions saw record highs in 2017; 60.5% at Cambridge and 56.1% at Oxford. The absolute number of state school entrants peaked in 2002 at Oxford and 2008 at Cambridge. Increases in the number of ‘overseas and other’ entrants meant highs in maintained school percentages between 2010 and 2012 were not matched by highs in absolute numbers. To put these figures in context Independent school leavers made up 9.7% of young (<20) accepted home applicants to higher education via the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in 2017. 23
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

After consultation the Government decided to freeze the repayment threshold for all post-2012 borrowers. The discount rate used for the public accounting of loans was reduced from 2.2% to 0.7%. These changes were expected to result in savings to current spending when grants are ended, and a substantial cut in the subsidy element of loans. On 1 October 2017 the Prime Minister announced a number of changes to these policies: The fee cap would be frozen in 2018-19, the repayment threshold would rise to £25,000 and a there would be a review of the student finance system. The Department for
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

The latest report on the financial health of the sector from the English funding council found that the overall financial position health of the sector is ‘reasonable’. There was, however, considerable variation between providers. Their forecasts are generally for a weakening of financial performance over the coming year, with some improvement in following years. This improvement is in part due to some ‘ambitious’ assumptions about growth in student numbers.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

Tuition fee loans are excluded from the chart above. In 2006/07 234,000 new students were awarded tuition fee loans with an average value of £2,740 and a total value of £639 million. A further 153,000 existing students were awarded tuition fee loans for regulated fees, these totalled £156 million at an average of £1,010. The number awarded and their total value has increased in subsequent years as each year brings a new cohort liable to pay them. The first year of new students under the post-2012 funding regime with its higher fees (and fee loans) caused the total value of Tuition Fee loans to exceed that of maintenance loans for the first time. This gap has since grown and the value of Fee loans was more than double maintenance loans for the first time in 2014/15. This gap continued to grow in 2015/16, but fell from 2016/17 due to the loss of grants for new students.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

The Secretary of State writes to the funding councils around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent funding letters for the Office for Students and Research England were published in February and March 2018 respectively. Funding for teaching 2018-19, research was for 2018-19 and indicative totals for 2019-20. Earlier funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises this
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

In October 2012, the Department for Education published a report on The Effects of the English Baccalaureate , carried out by Ipsos MORI; a revised edition of the findings was published in February 2013. The report found that there had been “no significant change” in the proportion of Year 9 pupils who had chosen to take either the EBacc combination of subjects, or each of the individual EBacc subjects, since 2011, and that few schools had made changes in response to the EBacc, with still fewer planning to do so. The report noted that “virtually all schools offer all EBacc subjects,” and that “most schools (89%) say that their option blocks allow pupils who want to study towards the EBacc to do so,” with low pupil attainment being cited as the reason that pupils typically might not be offered the EBacc
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