Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2016 only 2.5% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 9.5% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2016. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to seven points in 2016.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2018 only 2.7% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 10.0% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2015 onwards. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to more than seven points in 2016, 2017 and 2018.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

The responsibility for funding teaching in England has been shifted further away from the public sector towards the individual (graduate). The financial impact on the sector as a whole need not be negative if they can raise enough through additional tuition fees (backed by publicly subsidised loans). The impact on individual institutions is much more open to question and it depends on what fee levels they charge and changes in student numbers. These in turn depend on the types of courses they offer, the ‘value’ placed on a degree from that institution by potential students and the extent and type of student choice and competition introduced into the sector. Changes to higher education funding and student support from 2012/13 gives some background to the freeing up of places from 2012 and more recent detail is given in HE in England from 2012: Student numbers and Higher Education Student Numbers.
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House of Commons Library: Debate pack: Number CDP-0044, 26 February 2018: Funding higher education

House of Commons Library: Debate pack: Number CDP-0044, 26 February 2018: Funding higher education

To deliver more nurses and other health professionals for the NHS, a better funding system for healthcare students, and a sustainable model for universities, the funding system and financial support offered to most undergraduate nursing, midwifery and allied health professional students is being changed. From 1 August 2017, new undergraduate students will receive tuition fee loans and, for full-time courses, living costs support, administered by the Student Loans Company, rather than NHS bursaries. Entry to nursing, midwifery and allied health profession remains competitive, with a ratio of nearly two applicants per nurse training place. Health Education England commissioned 23,285 nursing and midwifery places for the 2016/17 academic year. The overall numbers of applicants to English providers from all domiciles is 44,160 as of the June 2017 UCAS deadline. Health Education England therefore remain confident that they will be able to fill the number of training places required to meet NHS workforce requirements and are working with the university sector to support student recruitment in 2017/18.
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7834, 13 December 2016 : The impact of leaving the EU on higher education

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7834, 13 December 2016 : The impact of leaving the EU on higher education

UK universities are home to both world-class teaching and life-changing research, and exiting the EU will not change this. The Government has already announced that EU students applying for a place at an English university or further education institution in 2017/2018 (or before) will continue to be eligible for student loans and grants for the duration of their course, even if the UK exits the EU during that period. To support research and innovation, we have also announced that HM Treasury will underwrite funding for approved Horizon 2020 projects applied for before the UK leaves the EU, including where specific projects continue beyond the UK’s departure.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

But the expansion of higher education relies on funding being put onto a sustainable footing. The government must therefore ask graduates to meet more of the cost of their degrees once they are earning. From the 2016-17 academic year, maintenance grants will be replaced with maintenance loans for new students from England, paid back only when their earnings exceed £21,000 a year, saving £2.5 billion by 2020-21. To ensure that the long term costs of the student loan book remain affordable and transparent, the government will consult on freezing the loan repayment threshold for five years and review the discount rate applied to student loans and other transactions to bring it into line with the government’s long-term cost of borrowing.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 7 November 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7019, 7 November 2018: 16-19 education funding in England since 2010

Similarly, in a letter on 15 October 2018, Robert Halfon, Chair of the Education Committee, asked the Chancellor to “look very carefully at the core level of funding for students in FE” as he prepared the 2018 Budget and the forthcoming Spending Review. The letter argued that “it cannot be right that a funding ‘dip’ exists for students between the ages of 16 and 18, only to rise again in higher education”, and that “successive governments have failed to give further education the recognition it deserves for the role it pays in our national productivity puzzle.” The letter also highlighted particular issues with regards to 16- 19 funding, including underspends, VAT, and the English and maths condition of funding rules (further information on these issues is below). 50
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

After consultation the Government decided to freeze the repayment threshold for all post-2012 borrowers. The discount rate used for the public accounting of loans was reduced from 2.2% to 0.7%. These changes were expected to result in savings to current spending when grants are ended, and a substantial cut in the subsidy element of loans. On 1 October 2017 the Prime Minister announced a number of changes to these policies: The fee cap would be frozen in 2018-19, the repayment threshold would rise to £25,000 and a there would be a review of the student finance system. The Department for
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

The Secretary of State writes to the funding councils around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent funding letters for the Office for Students and Research England were published in February and March 2018 respectively. Funding for teaching 2018-19, research was for 2018-19 and indicative totals for 2019-20. Earlier funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises this
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

The interest rate issue received more attention in 2017 when it was announced that the rate applied to student loans in 2017/18 would be 6.1% - this was a large increase from the 2016/17 level of 4.6%. A report by the Institute for Fiscal Studies, Higher Education funding in England: past, present and options for the future July 2017 stated that under the 2012 system students from the poorest 40% of families would accrue around £6,500 in interest during study. The report also said that the interest rate had virtually no impact on the repayments of the lowest earning graduates because very few would earn enough to repay the interest accrued. The interest rate would however have a significant impact on top earners.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

Between 1994/95 and 2002/03 the number of full-time academic staff at UK HEIs increased by 18% and the number of part time staff by almost 120%. The total headcount increased by 28% and there were above average increases in the number of academics working in research only (not teaching) and in the number of professors, and (non senior) researchers. However, full-timers and academics involved in teaching at least part of the time were still in the majority in 2002/03. More detail is given in Table 4 at the end of this note. The headcount number can obscure some trends in the balance between full- and part-time staff, but it was all that was published at the time. The increase in academic staff headcount over this period was slightly higher than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers, 29 but much of the growth in staff
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

But the expansion of higher education relies on funding being put onto a sustainable footing. The government must therefore ask graduates to meet more of the cost of their degrees once they are earning. From the 2016-17 academic year, maintenance grants will be replaced with maintenance loans for new students from England, paid back only when their earnings exceed £21,000 a year, saving £2.5 billion by 2020-21. To ensure that the long term costs of the student loan book remain affordable and transparent, the government will consult on freezing the loan repayment threshold for five years and review the discount rate applied to student loans and other transactions to bring it into line with the government’s long-term cost of borrowing.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7393, 14 June 2017: Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7393, 14 June 2017: Higher education funding in England

The Secretary of State writes to HEFCE around the turn of each year to set out funding, priorities, student numbers and related matters for the following financial year. Occasionally these letters cover more than one year and sometimes revised versions are published. The most recent full funding letter was published at the end of February 2017. It covered funding in 2017-18 and gave indicative allocations for the following year. All these funding letters from the mid-1990s onwards can be found at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/funding/annallocns/Archive/ The following table summarises HEFCE funding
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7976, 21 February 2018: International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP 7976, 21 February 2018: International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

As set out in a previous statement dated June 2016, EU nationals or their family members, currently in higher or further education, and who are eligible to receive loans and/or grants from SFE will continue to remain eligible for these loans and grants until they finish their course. This applies to all student finance provided to eligible EU students by SFE. This includes loans to cover tuition fees (for those resident in the EEA for at least three years), loans and grants for maintenance (for those resident in the UK for at least three years if they started a course before 1st August 2016, and at least five years if they started or will start a course after 1st August 2016, or who are EEA migrant workers), and some other grants and allowances. These students are also entitled to home fee status. This also applies to students who have not yet started their course, but who will do so before the end of the 16/17 Academic Year.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

It should be of concern to everyone working and studying in higher education that cases occur of unwanted physical contact, unwanted advances, initiation ceremonies, sexual innuendo and threats. We have made, and providers have implemented, recommendations about improving support and strengthening processes to help students, and also staff, involved in such cases. The OIA’s role is not to judge the behaviour but to look at how the providers dealt with complaints or disciplinary cases. One case concluded in 2014 confirmed that a provider’s decision to expel a student following complaints about indecent exposure was reasonable, but only after it was required to re-run the disciplinary process having mishandled the case first time around.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8151, 19 February 2018: Higher education tuition fees in England

Costs would clearly be lower if a cap was reintroduced at a level below current numbers. Equally costs would be higher if there was no cap and student numbers increased in response to lower/no fees. It could also be argues that the £-for-£ compensation for universities may not have to apply. Universities that charge fees of over £6,000 have to have a set of actions agreed to improve access from disadvantaged groups (financial support, outreach etc.). It might be argued that scrapping fees, or reducing them below a certain level, means they need to spend less on access and hence do not need to be compensated in full for the loss of fee income. The fee levels at which this might apply and any possible cut in access spending are very much open to question.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7049, 27 February 2018: Postgraduate loans in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7049, 27 February 2018: Postgraduate loans in England

2. To counteract this risk, respondents suggested that some form of tuition fee cap be imposed and/or that institutional fee changes should be subject to greater scrutiny or be made more transparent to mitigate this risk. Recognising the Government does not intend to introduce new or additional regulation, there could be a monitoring role for Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and/or the Office for Fair Access (OFFA). 35

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

overestimation of poverty in workless families and underestimation of poverty in working families by scaling the HMRC figures so they sum to national estimates from HBAI. However, clearly this is a crude fix. The End Child Poverty figures are also adjusted for more recent changes in the number of working and workless households at the national level, using data from the Office for National Statistics’ Labour Force Survey (up to July-September 2017). Figures are presented based on income both BHC and AHC, although the AHC figures are obtained by applying a fixed scaling factor to the BHC figures rather than incorporating any additional information about variations in housing costs. 33
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07070, 15 May 2018: Grammar schools in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07070, 15 May 2018: Grammar schools in England

leadership, governance, administration arrangements and admissions policies across the school. The school intends to bring all year sevens together for at least half a day a week, and that will extend to all five-year groups as the extended site fills up. There will be a range of cross-site curricular activities, including in personal, social, health and economic education, languages and music, reflecting the integrated split-site school. In addition, the school will continue to operate a house system that will apply to students regardless of their site location, and this will further secure regular, cross-site learning. New staff contracts will make it clear that staff are expected to work on both sites.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06103, 1 August 2018: Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 06103, 1 August 2018: Relationships and Sex Education in Schools (England)

The report’s recommendation that PSHE be made part of the curriculum was part of the Children, Schools and Families Bill, Session 2009-10. The Library research paper 09/95 on the Bill sets out the proposals of the then Labour Government. The PSHE provisions and sex education generally were discussed during the Public Bill Committee – pp 13 and 14 of the Library research paper 10/12 give an account of the debates. However, many of the key provisions of the Bill were removed during the consideration of Lords Amendments on 8 April 2010 immediately before the dissolution of Parliament for the general election. The provisions removed included the introduction of compulsory PSHE, and the provision that all children receive at least one year of sex and relationship education. Incidentally, the provisions in the Bill that did survive are now contained in the Children, Schools and Families Act 2010 .
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