Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

Expenditure here is used as a proxy for the (financial) size of the sector. Total spending is clearly constrained by income. The increase in total expenditure for the whole period was greater than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers. In the mid- to late-1990s real spending increased at a slower rate, but this pattern was reversed over the following decade. The gap closed somewhat over the three years to 2011/12 as student numbers continued to grow, while spending was broadly flat. Since then expenditure has increased in real terms, but student numbers fell for three years and are still below 2010/11 levels. 17 18 The costs associated with students can vary greatly by level and subject. This note does not look at all these factors.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5440, 20 March 2017: Higher Education Finance Statistics

1. Background –the HE sector post financial crisis and Browne The higher education sector is braced for a future where income does not always grow year-on-year, student numbers do not always go up, the balance of income streams is less predictable and cuts may have to be made. In some cases this scenario has already arrived. Many of the sector’s income streams are not planned in advance and we do not know how they have changed at an aggregate level until almost around 10 months after the end of the academic year. Only funding body grants are known at an institutional level for the current and upcoming academic year. These made up just under 39% of total income in 2011/12, but as they set the parameters for funded home and EU student numbers and research activity they have a direct effect on variable fee income and other income streams.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

The reasoning behind this is that people in full-time education, including those with caring responsibilities, are already supported through the educational maintenance system, via its range of loans and grants. 55 The rule has however been criticised as a barrier to carers wishing to expand their skills with a view to entering or returning to the labour market. In 2008 the House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee said that carers faced a “stark choice between engaging in education and training without any financial support or living on benefits”, and recommended that the Government consider lifting the 21 hour rule and reducing education and training fees for Carer’s Allowance recipients. 56 In its response, the Labour Government said that rather than make piecemeal changes to Carer’s Allowance, it intended to look specifically at the support offered to carers through the benefits system as part of its wider plans to develop a single benefit for people of working age. 57 No detailed plans were set out before the 2010 General Election; and subsequent administrations have not
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 7393, 1 July 2019 : Higher education funding in England

Pre-2015 reforms The Government made estimates of the percentage RAB rate on new loans from 2012 when it published proposals for changes to funding. These are discussed in some detail in Changes to higher education funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment threshold uprating, lower assumed repayments from the extra students who start higher education because the numbers cap is lifted 30 and improvements to the Governments loan repayment model which is used to forecast repayments and hence calculate the resource costs of
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2019: Higher education student numbers

least disadvantaged groups still remained substantial in 2018 and the overall MEM gaps increased in absolute and relative terms in 2016 and 2017. UCAS breaks down some of its group entry rates by the ‘tariff’ level of different universities. There are three tariff groups; high, medium and low and these refer to average grades of students admitted. High tariff institutions where entrants have higher grades are generally considered more prestigious and harder to get into. This type of analysis therefore can shed light on a different aspect of widening participation. In 2018 only 2.7% of 18 year olds from England who were eligible for FSM at school got into one of these high tariff universities. The rate has increased over time from less than 1.5% in the period 2006 to 2010, but was still well below the 10.0% for the non-FSM group. The size of the relative gap has fallen over time; in 2006 the non-FSM group were almost six time as likely to go to a high tariff university and this fell to below four times as likely in 2015 onwards. However, the absolute gap has increased in recent years from six percentage points in 2012 to more than seven points in 2016, 2017 and 2018.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 8596: 19 June 2019: Devolution of the Adult Education Budget

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 8596: 19 June 2019: Devolution of the Adult Education Budget

The needs of learners who want to learn out of area was also touched on in an April 2019 article by Susan Pember of Holex on lessons from the devolution of the AEB: Devolution hasn’t considered student needs or travel patterns, and originally made no provision for those who wanted to learn out of area. In this group of learners, there are some of the most vulnerable young adults who need specialist support, and others who are trying to get away from the gang culture of their local area. Arrangements for managing boundaries need to be sorted before devolution is even granted. 26
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7393, 14 June 2017: Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7393, 14 June 2017: Higher education funding in England

least April 2021. An equality analysis was produced alongside the consultation response. 13 This looked at the impact on different types of ‘protected characteristics’ such as age, sex, disability and ethnicity. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015 made some headline announcements about funding paid through the funding council, the extension of maintenance loans to part-time students and new loans for Master’s degrees. It also announced that the discount rate applied to loans would be reduced to 0.7% and set the spending totals for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills which will eventually feedthrough to annual funding allocations for higher education.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

suggests that even if someone is not counted as being in relative low income, their income may still be too low for them to have what is considered a minimum acceptable standard of living: When income is measured BHC, the MIS is higher than the relative low income threshold (based on figures for 2017/18) for each of the four household types in the above table. Based on income AHC, the MIS is similar to the relative low income threshold for pensioner couples, but is considerably higher for the other three household types in the table. The 2015 MIS report suggests that “the more meaningful comparison is between net MIS budgets and income after housing costs” given the difficulty in quantifying the ‘minimum’ cost of housing.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 59 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2005. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 would be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 60 Further changes in the student finance system were introduced in 2006/07 when new students attending institutions in England and Northern Ireland could be charged variable fees of up to £3,000.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For those not in full-time education, the unemployment rate was 10.7%, up from 9.8% a year before. Unemployment by age 404,000 18-24 year olds were unemployed, while 1.68 million were economically inactive. 3.43 million were in work. The unemployment rate for people aged 18-24 was 10.5% in May-July 2019, up from 10.0% a year before.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in April to June it was 87,000 less than a year before. The number of young people in employment decreased by 25,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 74,000.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

Research funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and conducted by the Institute for Fiscal Studies found that low-income households experienced a higher average annual rate of inflation than richer households over the period 2002/03 to 2013/14. The research estimates that the proportion of people in absolute low income would have been 0.5% points higher in 2013/14 if the threshold was uprated based on inflation rates that vary with household income. 2 More recent data from the Office for National Statistics indicates that higher-income

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For those not in full-time education, the unemployment rate was 10.3%, down from 10.6% a year before. Unemployment by age 404,000 18-24 year olds were unemployed, while 1.62 million were economically inactive. 3.53 million were in work. The unemployment rate for people aged 18-24 was 10.3% in December 2018 to February 2019, up slightly from 10.2% a year before.

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House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

The Apprenticeship Grant for Employers of 16 to 24 year olds (AGE 16- 24) was introduced in February 2012, and provided £1,500 to small businesses hiring young apprentices. In 2013/14 advanced learner loans were introduced, and individuals aged 24 and over were required to take these loans to pay half of the cost of advanced level apprenticeships. This was the first time that apprentices were expected to contribute to the costs of their learning, and led to an 88% fall in the number of people aged 25+ starting an advanced or higher apprenticeship. In February 2014 the Skills Funding
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number CBP 7976, 12 March 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number CBP 7976, 12 March 2019 : International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs

There has been a general drop in entrants from the major EU countries since 2011/12; Ireland down by 41%, Germany 18%, Greece 16% and France 11%. Italy was the exception with numbers up by more than half. In recent years, the UK has been the second most popular global destination for international students after the USA. In 2016 the US took 28% of higher education students from all countries who were studying overseas at universities in the OECD, the UK was in second place with 132. But market share has been slipping and other English speaking countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada are now seeing significant increases in overseas students as are European countries which are increasingly offering courses in English.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 1079, 18 June 2018: Student Loan Statistics

The Government gradually introduced new arrangements for students starting in autumn 1998 (academic year 1998/99). In the first year new entrants received support through loans and grants. The maximum maintenance grant available was £1,000 less than that for existing students. This was compensated for by a matching increase in loan entitlement. Most new entrants were also expected make an income-assessed contribution of up to £1,000 a year to the cost of their tuition. From 1999 new entrants and those who started in 1998 received all maintenance support as loans which were partly income-assessed. A different repayment system operates for loans for new students from 1998. These are income contingent repayments where graduates repay 9% of gross income annual above £10,000. 6 This threshold was raised to £15,000 in April 2000. The last Government planned to receive this level in 2010, but did not alter its level. The Coalition Government announced that the repayment thresholds for students with income contingent loans who started higher education before 2012/13 will be increased in line with inflation until 2016. 7
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House of Commons Library : briefing paper : number 07972, 28 June 2019 : Independent schools (England)

House of Commons Library : briefing paper : number 07972, 28 June 2019 : Independent schools (England)

Department for Education advice on the Registration of independent schools provides more information. In particular, on the registration process, it states: The Secretary of State must decide whether the independent school standards are likely to be met before a school can be registered. Once an application for registration has been received, the Secretary of State must notify Ofsted of it and Ofsted must then inspect the institution and make a report to the Secretary of State on the extent to which the school is likely to meet the independent school standards upon registration. […] The Secretary of State will consider the report from Ofsted and any other evidence relating to the independent school standards which is available in coming to a decision. If the Secretary of State decides that the standards are likely to be met once the institution becomes registered as an independent school then it must be registered as such. 2
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07819: 27 June 2019: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

Education authorities also have a general duty to ensure all their services constitute best value under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 2003 . The Schools (Consultation) (Scotland) Act 2010: Updated Information Guide provides information on how changes to the school estate, including the potential closure of a school, should be considered. There are additional requirements in place where the school being considered for closure has been designated as a rural school, which are included in this guidance. It is also possible to refer school closure decisions to Ministers for review where it is believed that a local authority has failed to follow the process properly or has failed to take account of an important issue in reaching its decision.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07059: 18 June 2019: FAQs: Academies and free schools

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 07059: 18 June 2019: FAQs: Academies and free schools

• CBP 8419, School funding in England: FAQs • CBP 8106, Implementation of the national funding formula for schools in England. In July 2017, Education Secretary Justine Greening announced £1.3 billion additional funding for schools and high needs, across 2018-19 and 2019-20. This, she said, would allow per-pupil funding to be maintained in real terms for the final two years of the Spending Review period. The money, she said, would come from making efficiency savings in the existing DfE budget, including from the free schools programme:

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