Top PDF House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7951, 8 January 2018: Technical education reforms

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7951, 8 January 2018: Technical education reforms

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7951, 8 January 2018: Technical education reforms

We will establish new institutes of technology, backed by leading employers and linked to leading universities, in every major city in England. They will provide courses at degree level and above, specialising in technical disciplines, such as STEM, whilst also providing higher-level apprenticeships and bespoke courses for employers. They will enjoy the freedoms that make our universities great, including eligibility for public funding for productivity and skills research, and access to loans and grants for their students. They will be able to gain royal charter status and regius professorships in technical education. Above all, they will become anchor institutions for local, regional and national industry, providing sought-after skills to support the economy, and developing their own local identity to make sure they can meet the skills needs of local employers. 74
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7951, 21 December 2018 : T Levels : reforms to technical education

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7951, 21 December 2018 : T Levels : reforms to technical education

In addition to this economic rationale, the report outlined a social need for change: that individuals should have access to a national system of technical qualifications that is easy to understand, has credibility with employers and remains stable over time. The current system, it argued, failed on all three counts, comprising “a confusing and ever-changing multitude of qualifications”, many of which “hold little value in the eyes of individuals and are not understood or sought by employers.” The report added that learners, teachers and the public have “long regarded technical education qualifications as inferior to academic qualifications”, and higher level technical qualifications “have too often become
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7951, 21 June 2017: Reforms to Technical Education

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7951, 21 June 2017: Reforms to Technical Education

We will establish new institutes of technology, backed by leading employers and linked to leading universities, in every major city in England. They will provide courses at degree level and above, specialising in technical disciplines, such as STEM, whilst also providing higher-level apprenticeships and bespoke courses for employers. They will enjoy the freedoms that make our universities great, including eligibility for public funding for productivity and skills research, and access to loans and grants for their students. They will be able to gain royal charter status and regius professorships in technical education. Above all, they will become anchor institutions for local, regional and national industry, providing sought-after skills to support the economy,
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7951, 23 April 2019 : T levels : reforms to technical education

House of Commons Library briefing paper : number 7951, 23 April 2019 : T levels : reforms to technical education

Also in August 2018, the Department for Education published a research report concerning employer engagement and support for industry placements. The report stated that, overall, employers welcomed the idea of industry placements, and the length of placement was seen as providing enough time for the young person to begin to make a positive contribution to the business. The report stated that many employers indicated that they would be willing to offer industry placements if they received clarification on some key points – for example, the objectives of the placement. A small group of employers stated that they would be unwilling to offer placements, either because they could not see the benefits of T Levels over other qualifications (more typical for employers in industries with more established
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 7951, 21 August 2019: T Levels: Reforms to Technical Education

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 7951, 21 August 2019: T Levels: Reforms to Technical Education

In addition to this economic rationale, the report outlined a social need for change: that individuals should have access to a national system of technical qualifications that is easy to understand, has credibility with employers and remains stable over time. The current system, it argued, failed on all three counts, comprising “a confusing and ever-changing multitude of qualifications”, many of which “hold little value in the eyes of individuals and are not understood or sought by employers.” The report added that learners, teachers and the public have “long regarded technical education qualifications as inferior to academic qualifications”, and higher level technical qualifications “have too often become divorced from the actual occupations they should be preparing individuals for.” 14
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP08198, 10 January 2018: Advertising to children

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number CBP08198, 10 January 2018: Advertising to children

5.1 Children sexual imagery The CAP Code does not prevent marketers from using images of children but they should do so in a socially responsible manner. On 2 January 2018, rules 4.8 and 4.13 were added to the CAP and BCAP Codes respectively. These rules state that advertisements should not portray or represent anyone who is, or seems to be, under 18 years old in a sexual way. This does not apply to advertisements whose principal function is to promote the welfare of, or to prevent harm to, under 18s, provided any sexual portrayal or representation is not excessive.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6836, 8 June 2018: School Sport in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6836, 8 June 2018: School Sport in England

Single and small academy trusts and sixth form colleges were able to bid for funding through the Condition Improvement Fund, with guidance published by the Education and Skills Funding Agency stating that the HPCF “is intended to improve children’s and young people’s physical and mental health by enhancing access to facilities for physical activity, healthy eating, mental health and wellbeing and medical conditions, such as kitchens, dining facilities, changing rooms, playgrounds and sports facilities.” 33 In March 2018 the Education and Skills Funding Agency published the list of schools who had successfully bid for funding from the Condition Improvement Fund. £38 million will be provided for specific projects supported by the HPCF in 2018-19. 34 Local authorities, large multi-academy trusts and other bodies are not eligible to bid for the Condition Improvement Fund and instead receive School Condition Allocations (SCA). They will receive a direct allocation from the HPCF in addition to their normal SCA for 2018-19. 35 School
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07250, 8 March 2017: University Technical Colleges

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07250, 8 March 2017: University Technical Colleges

In December 2015, the Government confirmed in a response to a Parliamentary Question that student applications for UTCs were being encouraged: Nick Boles: Like all academies, each university technical college (UTC) is responsible for publicising their school and encouraging applications. Officials from the Department for Education and the Baker Dearing Educational Trust provide UTCs with advice to support pupil recruitment, drawing on the best practice from UTCs and other new schools. Statutory guidance to schools on careers guidance is clear that they should allow UTCs to engage with their pupils on their premises. This guidance can be found at GOV.UK:https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/careers- guidance-provision-for-young-people-in-schools. This careers guidance should ensure pupils have information about their full range of education and training options. 22
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5108, 23 May 2018: Home education in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 5108, 23 May 2018: Home education in England

Local authorities have no statutory duties in relation to monitoring the quality of home education on a routine basis. However, they do have duties to make arrangements to identify children not receiving a suitable education, and to intervene if it appears that they are not. Intervention could, for example, take the form of issuing a school attendance order, although Government guidance on home education encourages authorities to address the issue informally before serving such a notice. As part of their safeguarding duties local authorities have powers to insist on seeing a child to enquire about their welfare where there are grounds for concern, but this does not extend to seeing and questioning children for the purpose of establishing whether they are receiving a suitable education.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 08117, 7 June 2018: Sexual harassment in education

The governing bodies of higher and further education institutions are public authorities for the purposes of the PSED. Universities and colleges must therefore have due regard to the need to eliminate discrimination and harassment and the need to foster good relationships between different groups when they formulate policies and practices in areas such as: sexual harassment, governance of student societies and sports teams, campus security, housing, bars and social spaces. The duty applies to decisions on individual cases, as well as to policy decisions.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 19 January 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7222, 19 January 2018: Teacher recruitment and retention in England

3.7 Returners Engagement Programme Pilot In November 2016, the NCTL launched a second pilot scheme to recruit returning teachers. Under the pilot, a package of support, including a bursary of £600 and a 2-4 week training course, was provided to returning teachers in maths, physics, and languages. Schools Direct lead schools, multi-academy trusts, and higher education institutions, among others, in the north-west and south-east were invited to become lead schools for the pilot. Lead schools were to be provided with grant funding and were responsible for coordinating the programme of support. They will receive a further payment upon employment of the returning teacher. The application round for the second cohort of the pilot closed on 20 February 2017.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 10 January 2018: Initial teacher training in England

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6710, 10 January 2018: Initial teacher training in England

launched from September 2018. All ITT courses include time spent teaching in at least two schools and lead to an award of qualified teacher status (QTS). All trainees, regardless of route, are required to meet a number of minimum standards. They must, for example, hold GCSEs in English and Maths (and science for enrolment on primary ITT) at grade C / grade 4 or higher. In addition, since September 2013 trainees have had to sit and pass professional skills tests in literacy and numeracy before beginning their course. Prior to 2013, the passing of the tests was an exit requirement of training.
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House of Commons Library : Briefing Paper: Number 5108, 18 January 2017: Home education in England

House of Commons Library : Briefing Paper: Number 5108, 18 January 2017: Home education in England

As regards children with statements of SEN which name schools as the appropriate placement for a child but parents decide to educate such a child at home, it remains the local authority’s duty to ensure that the child’s needs are met through the provision made by the parents. The local authority can support parents financially in these circumstances under section 319 or section 19 of the Education Act 1996 (this would fall under either paragraph 18 or paragraph 20 of Schedule 2 to the School and Early Years Finance (England) Regulations 2012). In deciding how much support is needed, the local authority should be aware that, unlike schools, parents do not receive base funding from the public purse in support of SEN, and should not therefore be expected to pay £10,000 before they receive any support.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper:  Number 07819, 8 March 2018: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07819, 8 March 2018: Constituency casework: schools in Scotland

Education authorities also have a general duty to ensure all their services constitute best value under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 2003 . The Schools (Consultation) (Scotland) Act 2010: Updated Information Guide provides information on how changes to the school estate, including the potential closure of a school, should be considered. There are additional requirements in place where the school being considered for closure has been designated as a rural school, which are included in this guidance. It is also possible to refer school closure decisions to Ministers for review where it is believed that a local authority has failed to follow the process properly or has failed to take account of an important issue in reaching its decision.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 7857, 7 February 2018: Higher education student numbers

The fall in full-time undergraduate entrants between 2010/11 and 2012/13 was concentrated in courses other than first degrees. Entrants to these courses fell by 35%. Just over half of the fall was due to changes in nursing qualifications, which shifted from diplomas to degrees. Among other courses taught at higher education institutions the largest absolute fall was almost 8,000 in foundation degrees. 6 These trends have continued and in 2014 they said that “Higher education institutions appear to be existing the market for study below degree level and focussing their undergraduate provision around degree courses.” There has been an increase to these courses at further
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6836, 10 October 2018: Physical education and sport in schools

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 6836, 10 October 2018: Physical education and sport in schools

It would neither be practical or desirable to artificially curb the sale of school playing fields, when such disposals may represent the most effective use of public assets. Often changes are made to education provision, such as school closures or mergers, which mean it is no longer necessary to retain playing fields for school use. In such cases it is only right that local communities are able to benefit from space that otherwise would not be used. Converting surplus or unwanted assets to invest in school grounds has benefits that extend far beyond the school gates. No operating school has disposed of its entire playing field.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8089, 19 January 2018: Student loan interest rates FAQs

12 From lowest lifetime income to highest 13 The data are from the latest public version of the Government’s Student loan repayment model. This was published in before the Summer Budget 2015 changes to student finance were announced. The model has been adapted where possible to reflect these changes and the higher repayment thresholds from 2018-19, but its underlying assumptions about earnings and employment have not been changed and it takes no account of variations in loan amount by income caused by the ending of grants.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07236, 9 January 2018: Careers guidance in schools, colleges and universities

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 07236, 9 January 2018: Careers guidance in schools, colleges and universities

Many institutions also offer extra-curricular schemes to help students to develop the ‘soft skills’ which are valued by employers – some of these schemes lead to awards which students can include in their CVs. Since autumn 2012 universities have had to supply information on destinations and salaries of their recent graduates as part of their Key Information Set – this information allows prospective students to compare institutions by employability rates of graduates. Also the annual survey of Destination of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) collects data on employment of graduates and university league tables use employability rates in their rankings. The availability of data on employability and graduate destinations makes the provision of good careers advice beneficial for both students and universities.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 7393, 4 January 2019 : Higher education funding in England

funding and student support in England from 2012/13. The estimated RAB rate on new loans was put at ‘around 30%’, but subsequently increased to ‘around 35%’ 25 then to 35%-40% 26 , revised upwards again to ‘around 40%’ 27 and later to ‘around 45%’. 28 These increases were largely due to changes in economic forecasts, particularly on earnings. 29 These less optimistic forecast reduce the expected cash value of repayments and or delay when they will be made. Other factors behind the increase in the RAB rate include the higher than expected level of average tuition fee loans, a change to the timing of repayment threshold uprating, lower assumed repayments from the extra students who start higher education because the numbers cap is lifted 30 and improvements to the Governments loan repayment model which is used to forecast repayments and hence calculate the resource costs of
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8389, 19 September 2018: Returns to a degree

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 8389, 19 September 2018: Returns to a degree

consistent across the OECD. These gaps in outcomes generally increase with every additional stage of education studied. It is important to realise that these associations are not necessarily causal. For instance, better levels of reported health are not necessarily due to going to higher education, even in part. There could be other factors which are linked separately to both indicators. This is particularly the case with such social outcomes which will always have multiple contributory factors. If there are causal associations then these could potentially be linked to ‘cultural’ benefits attending university as well as improved employment/ earnings. The direction of cause and effect could also work in the other direction with, for instance, lower levels of higher education participation among those with pre-existing health problems
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