Top PDF House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number Number 7096, 5 September 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

researchers have made a number of attempts. Section 2 of Library Research Paper 13/1, Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill, 2013 , gives an overview of the debate. One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in-depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 39 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7096: 2 July 2019: Poverty in the UK: statistics

One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in- depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 38 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This suggests that even if someone is not counted as being in relative low income, their income may still be too low for them to have what is considered a minimum acceptable standard of living:
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 7096, 31 August 2018: Poverty in the UK: statistics

One such attempt is a major annual research project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which estimates Minimum Income Standards (MIS) for different household types in the UK. This involves in- depth consultation with members of the public, combined with expert knowledge, to identify the level of income required to meet a minimum acceptable standard of living: “having what you need in order to have the opportunities and choices necessary to participate in society.” The first findings were published in 2008 and are updated each year. 36 For most household types, the MIS is well above the relative low income threshold. This suggests that even if someone is not counted as being in relative low income, their income may still be too low for them to have what is considered a minimum acceptable standard of living:
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 0796, 2 May 2017: Poverty in the UK: statistics

The proportion of people in absolute low income, on the other hand, has greatly reduced over the past fifty years because over most of this period growth in incomes outstripped inflation. These overall trends mask important differences between groups. The proportion of pensioners in poverty is much lower now than during the 1960s, but poverty rates for children and working-age adults are higher than they were 50 years ago. Poverty rates for children, pensioners and working-age adults converged after the economic downturn in 2008 and are currently much closer than has historically been the case.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 10 September 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in the year to May-July 2019 it decreased by 86,000. The number of young people in employment decreased by 54,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 31,000.

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 1078, 11 September 2019: Education spending in the UK

This paper retains the distinction between the terms for two reasons. First the education and training series only goes back to the late 1980s, while the education series goes back much further, even with some breaks in the series the concept remains the same. Second the education and training series is more consistent over the period it is available for. The spending data are regularly revised. These revisions can change the total figure, or move items of expenditure from one sub-function to another. The detailed breakdown by sub-function is only revised back five years. This presents a problem with consistency when trying to compile long-term series based on sub-functions and the authors warn against simply splicing one set of data with another pre and post-revision. The education and training series in this paper is therefore consistent for its entire length, other than the break in 2011-12 detailed below. The education series is not and although revisions are generally quite small, readers should be careful when drawing conclusions from this data, especially those based on small differences.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 06045, 4 September 2019: English Baccalaureate

Westminster Academy. 3 Further details were set out in the schools white paper, The Importance of Teaching, published in November 2010: 4.21 In most European countries school students are expected to pursue a broad and rounded range of academic subjects until the age of 16. Even in those countries such as the Netherlands where students divide between academic and vocational routes all young people are expected, whatever their ultimate destiny, to study a wide range of traditional subjects. So we will introduce a new award – the English Baccalaureate – for any student who secures good GCSE or iGCSE passes in English, mathematics, the sciences, a modern or ancient foreign language and a humanity such as history or geography. This combination of GCSEs at grades A*-C will entitle the student to a certificate recording their
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8389, 5 April 2019: Returns to a degree

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 8389, 5 April 2019: Returns to a degree

Home region… North East North West Yorkshire & the Humber East Midlands West Midlands East of England London South East South West Scotland, Wales & N.I.. Residence… Living at ho[r]

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 1079, 6 February 2019: Student Loan Statistics

during the year. Interest rates were only lower in 1993/94 and 2002/03. 29 30 31 The all-items RPI was -0.4% in the year to March 2009. The (then) current regulations stated that if an interest rate is to apply to these loans then this will be the rate for the year from 1 September 2009. 32 In the past the then Government stated that it had ‘no plans to abandon the consistent use of RPI in calculating interest on student loans’. 33 It subsequently decided that no interest rate (0%) was to apply to income contingent student loans in 2009/10. The small numbers of remaining mortgage-style loans were solely linked to RPI and hence their interest rate was -0.4%. 34 Having no interest on student loans does not affect monthly repayments of those with outstanding income contingent loans. Repayments are based on income, not the interest rate. The cut to 0% would slightly reduce the loan period/total repayments for those who completely paid off their loans in year, but this applies to any cut in interest payments. The impact on other borrowers will depend on how interest rates on student loans and hence RPI vary in future years. If inflation jumps up to above the long-term trend then any advantage they might have gained would be lost. 35 This effect could be reduced by the continued operation of the low interest cap.
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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 5871, 13 August 2019 : Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; in April to June it was 87,000 less than a year before. The number of young people in employment decreased by 25,000 over the past year, while the number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 74,000.

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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 5871, 16 April 2019: Youth Unemployment Statistics

For context, it is worth noting that the total population aged 16-24 has been declining in recent years; it was 22,000 lower than the previous quarter and 89,000 less than a year before. The number of young people in employment increased by 42,000 over the past year. The number who are economically inactive (not in or looking for work) decreased by 101,000.

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House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

House of Commons Library: briefing paper : Number 06113, 11 February 2019: Apprenticeship Statistics: England

The Apprenticeship Grant for Employers of 16 to 24 year olds (AGE 16- 24) was introduced in February 2012, and provided £1,500 to small businesses hiring young apprentices. In 2013/14 advanced learner loans were introduced, and individuals aged 24 and over were required to take these loans to pay half of the cost of advanced level apprenticeships. This was the first time that apprentices were expected to contribute to the costs of their learning, and led to an 88% fall in the number of people aged 25+ starting an advanced or higher apprenticeship. In February 2014 the Skills Funding
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7484: 20 May 2019: Income inequality in the UK

Additionally, the surveys underestimate the total amount of benefit income received by households compared to administrative data for government expenditure on benefits. Analysis by the Resolution Foundation, a think tank, indicates that there was an unexplained gap of £37 billion between benefit income reported in the Family Resources Survey in 2016/17 and what the government actually spent. This represented around 4% of total disposable household income as recorded in the survey. The gap has also increased over time, from around 2% of total income at the start of the 2000s. 8 The box in section 2.1 looks at how this under-reporting might affect estimates of income inequality levels in the UK.
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 7756: 12 June 2019: Carers

The reasoning behind this is that people in full-time education, including those with caring responsibilities, are already supported through the educational maintenance system, via its range of loans and grants. 55 The rule has however been criticised as a barrier to carers wishing to expand their skills with a view to entering or returning to the labour market. In 2008 the House of Commons Work and Pensions Committee said that carers faced a “stark choice between engaging in education and training without any financial support or living on benefits”, and recommended that the Government consider lifting the 21 hour rule and reducing education and training fees for Carer’s Allowance recipients. 56 In its response, the Labour Government said that rather than make piecemeal changes to Carer’s Allowance, it intended to look specifically at the support offered to carers through the benefits system as part of its wider plans to develop a single benefit for people of working age. 57 No detailed plans were set out before the 2010 General Election; and subsequent administrations have not
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper Number 5440: 12 June 2019: Higher Education Finance Statistics

3.1 Staff numbers Academic staff Between 1994/95 and 2002/03 the number of full-time academic staff at UK HEIs increased by 18% and the number of part time staff by almost 120%. The total headcount increased by 28% and there were above average increases in the number of academics working in research only (not teaching) and in the number of professors, and (non senior) researchers. However, full-timers and academics involved in teaching at least part of the time were still in the majority in 2002/03. More detail is given in Table 4 at the end of this note. The headcount number can obscure some trends in the balance between full- and part-time staff, but it was all that was published at the time. The increase in academic staff headcount over this period was slightly higher than the increase in full-time equivalent student numbers, 29 but much of the growth in staff numbers was in part-timers.
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8655, 12 September 2019: Funding for healthcare students in England

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8655, 12 September 2019: Funding for healthcare students in England

Disclaimer This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.

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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 07388, 18 September 2019: Language teaching in schools (England)

The response set out the following reasons a child might not be entered for the EBacc: The decision not to enter a pupil for the EBacc combination of subjects will need to be considered on a case by case basis by each school, and schools will need to take into account a range of factors particular to each pupil. These will include, for example, complex SEN; having spent significant amounts of time out of education; recently arriving in the country; and only being able to take a limited number of key stage 4 qualifications as significant additional time is needed in the curriculum for English and mathematics. We believe that no single factor should automatically exclude a pupil from entering the EBacc. 34
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House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07148, 5 April 2019: The School Day and Year (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing Paper: Number 07148, 5 April 2019: The School Day and Year (England)

Disclaimer - This information is provided to Members of Parliament in support of their parliamentary duties. It is a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice. The House of Commons or the author(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.

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House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 07091, 5 August 2019 : School inspections in England : Ofsted

House of Commons Library briefing paper : Number 07091, 5 August 2019 : School inspections in England : Ofsted

September 2018 Accountability Commission report. 13 The Education Policy Institute (EPI) think tank praised many aspects of the new framework, including its focus on off-rolling and schools’ use of exclusion. EPI also commended “improvements to the framework which are welcome because they have the potential to promote judgements that are sharper with respect to the inclusion of vulnerable learners and fairer to schools with more of these pupils.” However, it criticised Ofsted’s decision to stop recommending that some schools review their use of the Pupil Premium, and for the framework’s approach to speaking and listening skills in the early years and in the teaching of early reading. 14
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House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8732, 4 November 2019: Level 4 and 5 education

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper: Number 8732, 4 November 2019: Level 4 and 5 education

qualifications. It added that once the new kitemarked Level 4 and 5 qualifications are fully rolled out, the Government “should consider the status and support for non-kitemarked qualifications.” 69 The report also made a number of recommendations concerning the further education sector more broadly. As well as stating that investment in the FE workforce should be a priority, it argued that the FE capital budget is too small and recommended that the Government should provide FE colleges with a “dedicated capital investment of at least £1 billion over the next Spending Review period.” It added that the Government should use this to “augment existing FE colleges to create a strong network of high quality provision of technical and professional education, including growing capacity for higher technical provision in specific FE colleges.” 70
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