The findings of this study have also highlighted challenges for the future of PE and sport in primary schools. To sustain the impact of the premium, schools have used it to invest in training for existing staff. However, a question remains over how to maintain this investment in CPD for new teachers entering the profession, once premium funding ends. Schools also raised issues related to sourcing good quality provision in their local area, and may need further support to robustly assess the quality of the provision available. The survey also found that monitoring and evaluation of the premium was not consistent and schools may require further advice and guidance to support them to first assess impacts and then put in place strategies for continuing quality improvement. 27
Single and small academy trusts and sixth form colleges were able to bid for funding through the Condition Improvement Fund, with guidance published by the Education and Skills Funding Agency stating that the HPCF “is intended to improve children’s and young people’s physical and mental health by enhancing access to facilities for physical activity, healthy eating, mental health and wellbeing and medical conditions, such as kitchens, dining facilities, changing rooms, playgrounds and sports facilities.” 33 In March 2018 the Education and Skills Funding Agency published the list of schools who had successfully bid for funding from the Condition Improvement Fund. £38 million will be provided for specific projects supported by the HPCF in 2018-19. 34 Local authorities, large multi-academy trusts and other bodies are not eligible to bid for the Condition Improvement Fund and instead receive School Condition Allocations (SCA). They will receive a direct allocation from the HPCF in addition to their normal SCA for 2018-19. 35 School
The findings of this study have also highlighted challenges for the future of PE and sport in primary schools. To sustain the impact of the premium, schools have used it to invest in training for existing staff. However, a question remains over how to maintain this investment in CPD for new teachers entering the profession, once premium funding ends. Schools also raised issues related to sourcing good quality provision in their local area, and may need further support to robustly assess the quality of the provision available. The survey also found that monitoring and evaluation of the premium was not consistent and schools may require further advice and guidance to support them to first assess impacts and then put in place strategies for continuing quality improvement. 19
While local authorities play the lead role, Government guidance stresses that effective safeguarding requires collaboration between local
agencies, and that everyone who comes into contact with children has a role to play in “identifying concerns, sharing information and taking prompt action.” 4 In line with this, a range of local agencies, including the police and health services, have a duty under section 11 of the Children Act 2004, to ensure that they consider the need to safeguard and promote the welfare of children when carrying out their functions. 5 This briefing sets out the role of schools within this wider safeguarding system, which is described in more detail the statutory guidance, Working together to safeguard children. It provides information on the safeguarding responsibilities of governing bodies, head teachers and individual staff; the inspection of safeguarding arrangements in schools;
Introductory information about exclusion and the appeal process is provided on the gov.uk School discipline and exclusions website.
Under the Education Act 2011 new arrangements for school exclusion came into force in September 2012. These apply to any pupil excluded on or after 1 September 2012 from a maintained school, academy/free school, alternative provision academy/free school or pupil referral unit in England. Independent appeal panels were replaced by independent review panels, which do not have the power to order reinstatement of a pupil. The independent review panels are able to impose financial penalties on schools that exclude pupils unreasonably.
Recent years, however, have seen concerns being raised that children are leaving school rolls in rising numbers, in particular as they approach GCSE level, because of pressures within the school system.
It has been suggested that increased ‘off-rolling’ is taking place because of the impact of pupils who are likely to perform relatively poorly in their examinations on school performance measures, and because schools may be struggling to support children who need high levels of support, for example pupils with special educational needs. Off-rolling of this kind might involve children being excluded for reasons that are not legitimate, or parents being encouraged to home educate a child where they would not otherwise have chosen to do so.
Many institutions also offer extra-curricular schemes to help students to develop the ‘soft skills’ which are valued by employers – some of these schemes lead to awards which students can include in their CVs.
Since autumn 2012 universities have had to supply information on destinations and salaries of their recent graduates as part of their Key Information Set – this information allows prospective students to compare institutions by employability rates of graduates. Also the annual survey of Destination of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) collects data on employment of graduates and university league tables use employability rates in their rankings. The availability of data on employability and graduate destinations makes the provision of good careers advice beneficial for both students and universities.
5.1 Marketing communications addressed to, targeted directly at or featuring children must contain nothing that is likely to result in their physical, mental or moral harm:
• 5.1.1 Children must not be encouraged to enter strange places or talk to strangers
• 5.1.2 Children must not be shown in hazardous situations or behaving dangerously except to promote safety. Children must not be shown unattended in street scenes unless they are old enough to take responsibility for their own safety. Pedestrians and cyclists must be seen to observe the Highway Code
8.3 Of the remaining responses there were 516 on whether the changes to the SMSC [spiritual, moral, social and cultural]
standard are required to ensure the active promotion of fundamental British values and respect for other people. A significant number of respondents indicated that they disagreed with the proposed changes, but analysis of the related comments revealed that this was because of misunderstanding the effect or raising issues that were not part of the consultation. For example, some responses questioned the definition of the fundamental British values and requested that this be opened up for further debate; others maintained that the changes extend the equality agenda and will result in the marginalisation of Christianity; and others considered that the changes are not necessary, that the standards were only amended in January 2013, and that many schools are already doing this.
may receive from their family” – the statutory guidance does not define what “significant disadvantage” means. 45
While the corporate parenting principles apply to local authorities, the DfE acknowledges that, in terms of the additional support for care leavers as they make the transition to adulthood, “we do not expect local authorities to do it all on their own”, and that it wants “government departments and their agencies, relevant partners, charities and private sector organisations to play their part as part of a wider corporate parenting family”. To this end, the DfE said that it was “introducing a ‘care leaver covenant’ that will enable organisations to make commitments to care leavers within the spirit of the corporate parenting principles in a way that is most appropriate to them”. 46 As noted in Section 1, the Covenant was launched by the DfE on 26 October2018.
• More general information on how the TRA regulates teacher misconduct: Teacher misconduct:
regulating the teaching profession.
It is a legal requirement for employers to make a referral to DBS where they think the individual has engaged in conduct that harmed or is likely to harm a child, or where they think the person otherwise poses a risk to children. DBS will consider whether to bar the person. 62 Schools must also have procedures to make a referral to DBS if a person in regulated activity has been dismissed or removed due to safeguarding concerns or if they would have been had they not resigned. Failure to make a referral to DBS when the criteria is met is a criminal offence. 63 In substantiated cases, the designated officer should also review the circumstances with the case manager to determine if improvements to the school’s procedures could be made in order to prevent a similar event occurring again and to see if any lessons can be learned. 64
The consultation document indicated that the Government was
considering legislation to exclude independent schools not meeting the relevant criteria from charitable status:
14. We propose to set new benchmarks that independent schools are expected to meet, in line with their size and capacity. We think it is essential that independent schools deliver these new benchmarks. If they do not, we will consider legislation to ensure that those independent schools that do not observe these new benchmarks cannot enjoy the benefits associated with charitable status, and to result in the Charity Commission revising its formal guidance to independent schools on how to meet the public benefit test, putting the new benchmarks on to a statutory footing. (page 16)
achieved solely by increasing the PAN in line with the School Admissions Code. 14
In the case of community, foundation and voluntary schools, local authorities can also propose that a school’s premises be enlarged by following a streamlined statutory process set out in regulations. 15 Academies wishing to enlarge their premises need to seek approval from the Secretary of State, through the Education Funding Agency (EFA). They are not required to submit a formal business case to the EFA unless the expansion is very large scale or increases pupil numbers to 2,000 or more. Further information is contained in advice published by the Department for Education in March 2016, Making significant changes to an open academy. 16
Local authorities have no statutory duties in relation to monitoring the quality of home education on a routine basis. However, they do have duties to make arrangements to identify children not receiving a suitable education, and to intervene if it appears that they are not. Intervention could, for example, take the form of issuing a school attendance order, although Government guidance on home education encourages authorities to address the issue informally before serving such a notice. As part of their safeguarding duties local authorities have powers to insist on seeing a child to enquire about their welfare where there are grounds for concern, but this does not extend to seeing and questioning children for the purpose of establishing whether they are receiving a suitable education.
We will establish new institutes of technology, backed by leading employers and linked to leading universities, in every major city in England. They will provide courses at degree level and above, specialising in technical disciplines, such as STEM, whilst also providing higher-level apprenticeships and bespoke courses for employers. They will enjoy the freedoms that make our universities great, including eligibility for public funding for productivity and skills research, and access to loans and grants for their students. They will be able to gain royal charter status and regius professorships in technical education. Above all, they will become anchor institutions for local, regional and national industry, providing sought-after skills to support the economy, and developing their own local identity to make sure they can meet the skills needs of local employers. 74
The governing bodies of higher and further education institutions are public authorities for the purposes of the PSED. Universities and colleges must therefore have due regard to the need to eliminate discrimination and harassment and the need to foster good relationships between different groups when they formulate policies and practices in areas such as: sexual harassment, governance of student societies and sports teams, campus security, housing, bars and social spaces. The duty applies to decisions on individual cases, as well as to policy decisions.
For 2019-20 the bursary scheme will be extended to graduates with 2:2 degrees who train to be religious education, history, design technology and music teachers. 44
There are also a number of specialist competitive scholarships available to recruits in certain shortage subjects. Scholarships are jointly awarded by the Government and professional bodies, and selection is through an additional application and assessment process. Each scholarship also comes with a package of non-financial benefits, such as early career support and membership of the appropriate professional body. 45 A table on the Get Into Teaching Website provides an overview of bursary and scholarship levels for the 2019-20 academic year. The level of bursary ranges from £26,000 to £6,000 depending on the subject.
classrooms, including whether the money could be more effectively spent in other ways, such as on retention measures.” 45 This call for more evidence on the effectiveness of bursaries was echoed by the Institute for Fiscal Studies in its 2016 report on the costs and benefits of ITT routes. 46
More recently, in its April 2017 report, Whither Teacher Education and Training?, the Higher Education Policy Institute questioned the use of bursaries as an effective way of boosting recruitment and noted a suspicion that some trainees may be attracted by the bursary but do not intend to teach or stay in the profession for more than a couple of years. The report recommended the replacement of bursaries with a system of ‘forgivable fees’. Such a policy would, it said, “reward teaching and retention in the profession, not training” and would mean that teachers could be free of tuition fee debt by the age of 30. 47
2.5 The government wants to ensure that families get the best value for school uniforms. A 2015 Department for Education survey found that nearly one-fifth of parents and carers reported that they had suffered financial hardship as a result of purchasing their child’s school uniform. The survey found that parents and carers are significantly less likely to report that they have experienced hardship if schools allow them to purchase uniforms from a variety of suppliers. The government wants to ensure that effective competition is used to drive better value for money and will therefore put existing best practice guidance for school uniform supply in England on a statutory footing. This will ensure that schools deliver the best value for parents by avoiding exclusivity arrangements unless regular competitions for suppliers are run. (pg 11)
The Scottish Government guide to Choosing a School states that:
If you have a child who is due to start primary school or who will be transferring to secondary school soon, your council will probably suggest that you should use the local school designated by them. Of course most people are happy to do so, but the council must also tell you of your right to choose a different school. It can give you a contact address where you can get information to help in making up your mind. If you write to a council and request a place in a particular school, this is known as a placing request. The council has a duty to grant such a request wherever possible. However, the size of the school, the current roll and number of children who already live in the catchment area and other factors will affect the council's ability to grant a placing request. 9