Top PDF Community Based Targeting for Social Safety Nets

Community Based Targeting for Social Safety Nets

Community Based Targeting for Social Safety Nets

In developing countries where income tax systems are often weak or non-existent, and where information asymmetries can be severe, tagging is an even more important device for targeting social spending. Not surprisingly then, a good part of the large and still fast-growing literature on targeted spending in developing countries has focused on topics such as the cost effectiveness and performance of different broad targeting methods and proxy indicators, on how program design features affect the incentives of potential recipient households and individuals to reveal information or supply labor effort, and on the political economy of support for targeted interventions. Recent surveys of the literature include Grosh (1994), Rashid and Townsend (1994), Besley and Kanbur (1993), van de Walle (1995). Comparatively little attention has been devoted however to analyzing the proper choice of intermediary agent to determine beneficiary eligibility and deliver benefits, or the incentives they should face. A few recent exceptions such as Boadway (1997), Bardhan and Mookherjee (1998) and Abraham and Platteau (2000) are discussed below.
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Community based targeting mechanisms for social safety nets

Community based targeting mechanisms for social safety nets

For example, a study of India's Integrated Rural Development Project found that Indian states which employed village councils to select beneficiaries had a much smaller proportion of no[r]

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Macroeconomic Implications of Social Safety Nets in the Context of Bangladesh

Macroeconomic Implications of Social Safety Nets in the Context of Bangladesh

HIES is especially designed to analyse the living standard related statistics at the household level. The survey also covers information on social safety net partially, considering the programmes that directly transfer money (or kind) to a household and considered as a source of income. As a result, the resource transferring programmes and other subsidy supports are not included in the survey. At present micro-credit and other resource transfer programmes are important parts of the social safety net structure in Bangladesh. Nonetheless, the data provided by HIES can be useful to understand the direct effect of social safety net on poverty reduction. Since benefits from SSNPs are accounted as a part of income of the household, using the conventional measures of poverty based on household consumption, such as Cost of Basic Needs (CBN) and Daily Calorie Intake (DCI), cannot be compared as a reflection of SSNPs. For this purpose, this study proposes a threshold of income poverty based on the consumption poverty line used in the HIES 2005 and adjusted for income. The exercise then aims to find how the recipient households find their positions along income poverty threshold in the absence of safety net.
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A Review of Social Safety Nets Programs for Women in Bangladesh: Issue and Challenges

A Review of Social Safety Nets Programs for Women in Bangladesh: Issue and Challenges

After the independence in 1971, the successive governments have taken various poverty and risk reduction strategies for the poor and vulnerable. In this regard, Bangladesh has made a significant improvement since 1990s. Traditionally, there were two types of public SSNs namely food rationing and post-disaster relief program in Bangladesh. The third type was informal SSNs programs at family and community levels to tackle the demographic and social shocks. The food rationings and post disaster relief stated after independence in 1971. After the famine of 1974, first change occurred in the program and Food For Work (FFW) came out. After that it becomes an independent and large level program focusing on seasonal poverty. At the same time Vulnerable Group Development (VGD) program started with targeting poor women in 1975.Over time, SSNs have become a mainstream social and development concern, especially for women. At the end of 1980s, the next turning
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Inadequacy of Nation-Based and VaR-Based Safety Nets in the European Union

Inadequacy of Nation-Based and VaR-Based Safety Nets in the European Union

Inadequacy of nation-based and VaR-based safety nets in the European Union Considered as a social contract, a financial safety net imposes duties and confers rights on different sectors of the economy. Within a nation, elements of incompleteness inherent in this contract generate principal-agent conflicts that are mitigated by formal agreements, norms, laws, and the principle of democratic accountability. Across nations, additional gaps emerge that are hard to bridge. This paper shows that nationalistic biases and leeway in principles used to measure value-at-risk and bank capital make it unlikely that the crisis-prevention and crisis-resolution schemes incorporated in Basel II and EU Directives could allocate losses imbedded in troubled institutions efficiently or fairly across member nations.
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Social Protection and Safety Nets in the Middle East and North Africa

Social Protection and Safety Nets in the Middle East and North Africa

1.14 million Syrians are now resident in Lebanon – amounting to one quarter of the total population – which is putting unprecedented pressure on local communities, the economy and social services. The MoSA recorded a 40 per cent increase in utilisation of its health and social programmes since the crisis started, and 35 per cent of learners in public schools are now Syrian. Because the government has not allowed refugee camps to be set up, displaced Syrians are living in host communities or in informal settlements. Although Lebanon and Syria have close ties on many levels and Lebanese people are generally sympathetic to the plight of Syrians, tensions are emerging due to perceptions – not necessarily accurate or fair – that unemployment and food prices are rising, while wages and the quality of public services are falling, because of the sudden influx of large numbers of Syrians. In December 2012 the government of Lebanon adopted a ‘Roadmap of Priority Interventions for Stabilisation from the Syrian Conflict’, which recognised the risks of the crisis to basic services, the economy and institutions in Lebanon. The Roadmap proposed a series of measures to address these challenges, including restoring livelihood opportunities to vulnerable populations, ensuring sustainable and equitable access to basic services, and restoring social cohesion (peace-building in areas hosting Syrian refugees, and scaling up social protection while targeting women and girls). The Roadmap is complemented by a series of ‘Regional Response Plans’ (six since March 2012) which are effectively appeals for humanitarian assistance in various forms – food assistance, non-food items, financial assistance, ‘quick impact projects’ in host communities that are struggling to cope.
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Income Distribution and Public Transfers as Social Safety Nets in Korea

Income Distribution and Public Transfers as Social Safety Nets in Korea

Based on theoretical considerations, one of the main concerns of this paper is the role of private and public transfers as social safety net devices during the financial crisis that is examined by investigating how much each decile group of per capita income received private or public transfers throughout the period. As Table 12 shows, the observed trend of public transfers is in contrast t o our expectation. High-income group received more public transfers, compared with low-income group. For instance, the public transfers of the richest 10 to 30 percent increased, on average, by 152 percent while that of the poorest 10 to 30 percent decreased, on average, by 34 percent in 1998. This suggests that the public transfers did not contribute in reducing the income inequality during the crisis. This is because of the fact that the public transfers are consisted predominantly of pension, and not of public assistance. This implies that the safety net programs were not yet in place during the initial period of the crisis.
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Social Safety Nets, Economic Freedom and Public Policy

Social Safety Nets, Economic Freedom and Public Policy

• The bottom 10 countries have economic freedom that is half of the EF as enjoyed by the top 10 countries (4.4 for bottom 10 as against 8.3 for the top 10). However, surprisingly, in respect to economic freedom related to the size of the government as measured by two of its sub components viz. government consumption expenditure and Transfers and Subsidies (T&S), they have higher EF (at 6.6 and 8.5 respectively in 2005) than the top 10 countries (EF at 5.5 and 7.2 respectively in 2005). This implies that the bottom 10 countries have a relatively greater economic freedom as measured by these two components of size of government. However, this result should be interpreted with caution, as it could be misleading. The smaller size is because these countries do not have large welfare programs or large transfer payments. This reduces the size of the government substantially. In countries such as Myanmar, Zimbabwe, Niger, Togo, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo and Republic of Congo public interventions are low. Based on the evidence of this paper, this has serious implications for provision of larger freedoms.
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Social safety nets in Bangladesh: an analysis of impact of old age allowance program

Social safety nets in Bangladesh: an analysis of impact of old age allowance program

At present the government of Bangladesh is operating about 45 safety net programs based on different criteria like income, occupation, physical ability, regional disparity etc. Still a large number of eligible populations are remaining outside the coverage of any social safety net program. The coverage of eligible individuals by SSNPs is low with only 24.57 per cent of households in Bangladesh benefiting from at least one safety net program (HIES 2010). According to HIES (2005) survey, only 22 per cent of households in the bottom quantiles are covered by targeted programs. Indeed 41 per cent of targeted program beneficiaries are non-poor (World Bank 2008).There is also overlapping regarding targeting. Some households participate in more than one program. At the same time the benefits provided by the social safety nets are small. Besides, in spite of regional disparity dimension, a number of backward areas such as certain chars hardly benefited from any social safety net (GoB 2008b). Geographical coverage of safety nets also does not tightly correlate with division-wise poverty rates. According to HIES (2010) Barisal division has the second highest poverty rate (39.4%) after Rangpur (42.3%), but the highest percentage of SSNP benefits in Khulna division (37.30%) followed by Barisal (34.43%) and Rangpur division (33.65%).
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Social Safety Nets in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States

Social Safety Nets in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States

Humanitarian inter-agency politics and problems with inter-agency collaboration including discussions over where cash sits within the humanitarian system and agreement on basic principles and areas for action, have complicated efforts to use cash effectively and at scale (Smart, 2017, pp. 5-6). For example, the Cash Working Group (CWG), established in 2014 under the leadership of the UNHCR and Mercy Corps, developed a Survival Minimum Expenditure Basket to standardise transfer values for multipurpose cash assistance (unconditional and unrestricted transfers designed to address a range of needs) (Smart, 2017). However, it is not used by UNHCR (who calculate based on household size) and WFP (basket of food goods calculated by its Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping unit) (Smart, 2017, p. 12).
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Linking safety nets, social protection, and poverty reduction

Linking safety nets, social protection, and poverty reduction

Public works constitute an important type of safety net pro- gram for reaching the poor throughout Africa.They provide emergency relief as well as contribute to economic develop- ment.These kinds of programs transfer short-term wages or food, but if carefully designed they can also build needed assets such as schools, clinics, and water supply and irriga- tion networks; facilitate access to markets through the con- struction of roads and market stalls; and provide training and organizational capacity. In South Africa, for example, public works programs have included support for small contractors, certified training to increase opportunities for workers to enter the labor market, and capacity building for community- based organizations involved in project implementation. Labor-intensive infrastructure design can maximize job
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Strengthening public safety nets

Strengthening public safety nets

position to insure the rest of the community, but they will tend to make sure that they are getting value for their help. As an “insurance” scheme slips into becoming a process for systematic redistribution from richer to poorer, the scheme may become increasingly less appealing to richer households. It is common to see those richer households then pulling away from intensive community-based insurance obligations and either insuring on their own or forming new insurance groups just with richer households—to the detriment of the poorer households. Diverse patterns of resources and trajectories of income growth thus make it hard to achieve broad, community-based informal insurance arrangements. The problem poses a conundrum. On the one hand, more diversity of occupations and of probabilities of gains and losses is better for the health of insurance arrangements since it creates greater scope for diversification. But unfortunately, on the other hand, the
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Social safety nets in World Bank lending and analytical work : FY2002 - 2007

Social safety nets in World Bank lending and analytical work : FY2002 - 2007

with implicit or explicit safety net functions. Nutrition intervention programs, Public Assistance, free textbooks and school uniforms, and a school transport subsidy continued to be provided, as did producer and import subsidies intended to increase household incomes, including a fertilizer subsidy. In addition, programs with transfer elements, such as housing development, IRDP, and microfinance programs, as well as various schemes to create Recovery needs. Immediate recovery programs covering the next 3-12 months should focus on helping affected families recover from their losses by ensuring that those dependent on crop husbandry and livestock-raising are included in any cash grant assistance programs. In addition, the affected population should be provided with micro-credit facilities through community-based revolving fund mechanisms to restart their livelihoods. The rehabilitation of damaged structures and agriculture/livestock service facilities should begin immediately, not only to reduce the potential adverse environmental impacts, but also to provide immediate employment opportunities in affected villages. The Agriculture Department should carry out testing of salinity-affected agricultural fields and take measures to provide technical guidance for a speedy recovery of those fields. Effort should be made to also repair the agriculturerelated buildings and other public facilities damaged by the tsunami to enable a fast resumption of services to those who have been affected. The estimated recovery needs for agriculture and livestock sector is LKR 427 million ($4 million).
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Social Safety Nets Programs in Bangladesh: Preparing for Adaption to Demographic Change, Disaster, and Poverty Reduction

Social Safety Nets Programs in Bangladesh: Preparing for Adaption to Demographic Change, Disaster, and Poverty Reduction

After the famine of 1974, first program was Food For Work (FFW) for vulnerable women. This program provides in kind transfers to improve the economic and social condition of destitute rural women. But in 1988, a complementary package consisting of health and nutritional education, literacy training, savings are introduced. The main objectives of this program are to create food wage employment and to provide income to the rural poor in the slack season when unemployment rate increases in the rural area. Under this program about 3.13 million people were benefited in To provide facilities for the poorest rural women and their family to overcome food insecurity and their low economic and social condition, Vulnerable Group Development (VGD) program started in 1975. The VGD selection committee selects women for two years cycle from the destitute and very poor who are physically and mentally o be selected for the program, a household should meet at least four of the following criteria: sever food insecurity, no land or less than 0.15 acres of land, very poor housing conditions, extremely low and irregular daily and headed by a woman and has no mature male income earner. In 1988, a complementary development package was included consisting health and nutrition, literacy training, saving, and training on income generating activities. In 2011 about 0.75 million rural women were benefited from this program. Employment Generation Program was introduced in 2008 by the Caretaker Government. The main objective of this program was to provide benefits to the hard core poor people who are unemployed. Under this program, sele person are employed for a 100 day cycle based on DBT100 per day. Then in 2009 ruling government has modified the program with provision for 60 days employment in the winter slack period and 40 days employment in the et al., 2010). With this change, the program has been renamed with Employment Guarantee Program for the Poorest. From the beginning, this program is implemented with the help of World Bank. In 2011 the wage rate was increased to BDT 120 and total allocation was about $125million.
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Nogat Mani: Social Safety Nets for Tufi Migrants of ATS Settlement, Moresby, Papua New Guinea

Nogat Mani: Social Safety Nets for Tufi Migrants of ATS Settlement, Moresby, Papua New Guinea

This thesis is about a group of people who are generally identified as coming from the Tufi coastline of PNG’s Oro or Northern Province (Figure 1.1) and who now reside in the ATS settlement in the country’s capital city, Moresby (Figure 1.2). This thesis argues that their cultural identity is just as important as money when it comes to survival in the city. I start my thesis with these three quotes from Tufi men living in the ATS settlement in Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG), because their words epitomise the essence of the argument of this thesis - dilemmas over money, paradoxes of cultural identity that people turn to as they try to overcome money issues, and struggles of being squatter settlers in PNG’s largest and fastest growing city. These dilemmas involve mediating social relationships on the one hand, and surviving as squatters in a city where money is a basic necessity on the other hand. Jacob’s logic about sharing his Tufi cultural dance dress for free reflects the importance people place on both the sharing of scarce resources and cultural identity. It also emphasises Tufi values of sharing and social relations. A key contribution of this thesis is that it contrasts the ethos of sharing and the inclusiveness of common identity that require exchanges based on collective values, with narratives of being squatters and being without money - Nogat mani (no money). Nogat mani is the reason why many ATS residents moved into the settlement and why they continue to struggle to meet their basic needs.
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Safety of insecticide treated mosquito nets for infants and their mothers: randomized controlled community trial in Burkina Faso

Safety of insecticide treated mosquito nets for infants and their mothers: randomized controlled community trial in Burkina Faso

less likely. With regard to potential limitations it should be considered that the data on potential side effects are mainly based on self-reports in a rather limited sample size. While significant differences may well have occurred by chance, more rare differences in the occurrence of side effects may have been missed due to lack of power. More- over it is possible that it may not be culturally acceptable to honestly report adverse effects of a product which has been free of charge which may underestimate potential side effects of the insecticide [37]. Finally, the follow up period was only 18 weeks which makes the detection of long-term effects impossible.
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Total poverty gaps, social justice, and possibilities of social safety-nets in low-income countries: some thoughts and calculations

Total poverty gaps, social justice, and possibilities of social safety-nets in low-income countries: some thoughts and calculations

Of course actual transfers on this scale of cash to poor households would not necessarily be the best way of relieving their poverty and on administrative grounds they would until recently have been taken not to be a serious proposition, but recent experience in Latin America and South Asia with social safety-nets suggest that this judgement may need to be revised. Also, if there were better additional ways of relieving extreme poverty in low-income countries at similar cost, then it would seem prima-facie unjust of high-income donors not to use these methods of assistance even if the new figures were say to double the cost of filling the one-dollar total poverty gaps that are being used as comparators.. But, to continue assuming for the sake of argument the validity of the figures on which the calculations in Tables 1 and 2 were based, we could proceed as follows: If the proportion of 'one-dollar poor' in each of these five countries was the same in 2005 as at the date of the relevant survey of household income used here, the total number of people in that category in the eight countries in 2005, and hypothetically taken just out of it by the sum indicated, would be 575 million. If the total number of one-dollar poor in the world was 1.4 billion, which seems to be about the upper limit to the estimated number after the price revision is taken into account, this 575 million would amount to about 40% of that number. So, on these figures, if taking people out of extreme poverty was just a matter of paying each household an appropriate stipend in foreign-exchange dollars that could be changed into domestic purchasing-power at a free- market rate, then, apart from administrative costs (which, if we can imagine this exercise actually happening, would admittedly be considerable), this comparatively small sum from the rich countries ($21 billion a year) could rescue about two-fifths of the extremely poor of the world from that condition, and perhaps something not much above $50 billion a year could deliver them all.
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Rethinking School Feeding. Social Safety Nets, Child Development, and the Education Sector. Human Development

Rethinking School Feeding. Social Safety Nets, Child Development, and the Education Sector. Human Development

In low-income countries there are often major challenges associated with the implementation of school feeding programs. Central concerns are the potential costs of the program and how to implement the program with- out burdening the already fragile education system. Many countries, espe- cially countries affected by crises, have traditionally addressed these concerns by relying on external support for resources and often the implementation of their programs. A majority of such programs rely on community participation for daily implementation activities, while the overall management of the supply chain is often undertaken by an exter- nal partner. Such programs are often peripheral to the education sector management processes and the national budget, and are particularly vul- nerable to external factors and may not persist beyond external support. Addressing this vulnerability by building in a plan from the outset that allows for transition to a nationally owned and implemented program is key to long-term sustainability. Evidence from the detailed case study of El Salvador (see appendix 1) suggests that the plan should include an agreement between the government and implementing partners about the duration of external assistance, and clear time frames and milestones for the transition process.
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Mainstreaming Safety Nets in the Social Protection Policy Agenda: A New Vision or the Same Old Perspective?

Mainstreaming Safety Nets in the Social Protection Policy Agenda: A New Vision or the Same Old Perspective?

That said, three notes of caution are needed. Firstly, available analytical definitions are not unanimous in defining what social protection should achieve and what set of policies and programmes it should include. This is reflected in different analytical frameworks, unresolved caveats and possible implicit biases. Questions also arise on whether there is an- ongoing tendency of repackaging old-fashion interventions with new trendy labels. Secondly, the general tendency of moving away from a narrow focus on social safety nets to a more holistic approach to social protection doesn’t entail that safety nets should be overlooked. They still play a fundamental role, especially for the poorest groups. Following Haddad and Frankenberger (2003, p.2), “…safety net transfers are not just residual to the growth process - they should be an integral part of a growth strategy”. Thirdly, there seems to be a tendency of considering risk as the only causal driver in explaining vulnerability and poverty dynamics. While risk plays an important role in shaping our understanding of poverty, it is important to recognize the limits of a mere risk-based analysis, especially in chronically poor areas.
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Multilateral Safety Nets for Financial Crises

Multilateral Safety Nets for Financial Crises

c) While ILLR is critical for providing countries with a larger financial envelope to shape crisis policies, MDBs are called upon in times of difficulty to participate in the actual reassignment of public sector activities within the available envelope. MDBs contribute through project and policy-based loans (including the reformulation of the loan portfolio). They support the development integrity of key aspects of the overall public expenditure framework which may collapse under fiscal adjustment pressure, help design and protect social programs to contain the effects of recessions on the poor and future generations, and safeguard investment projects and policy reforms that may be victims of disorderly adjustment. Given the high volatility of economic activity in developing countries, which contributes to poor economic performance, all of these responsibilities are crucial for economic development but could not be addressed by an ILLR only concerned with macroeconomic balances. MDB participation would economize on ILLR adjustment conditionality.
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