The institution studied in Nepal is the Nirdhan Utthan Bank Limited (NUBL) in Nepal. NUBL is what is known as a “Grameen replicator,” an institution that consciously replicates the main organizational features and modus operandi of the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh. Initiated as a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and later incorporated as a not-for-profit development bank, NUBL operates in seven districts in southern Nepal. NUBL staff members actively identify destitute households in their operational area and motivate women from such households to form small groups. All group members agree to abide by a standard code of conduct. After some basic training, the women take turns borrowing small amounts of money from NUBL. Credit is provided without collateral and under group liability. All borrowers follow a standard repayment plan.
This paper concerns the potential for microfinance to make a difference in achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It recognises that microfinance can contribute to several MDGs but that to do so in ways that make a real difference would involve a significant scaling-up of microfinance service provision. Herein lies the challenge. The expansion of developing country microfinanceservices is increasingly driven by commercial investors who do not usually assess Microfinance Institution (MFI) per- formance according to MDG criteria. At best, they will use some fairly loose ‘social’ criteria often bor- rowed from the corporate social responsibility literature; or they may refer, usually without precision, to a double bottom line of financial and social performance. These have little or nothing to do with achievement of the MDGs. As the empirical material presented makes clear, MFIs that do not deliber- ately and rigorously target poor households are unlikely to make any difference to MDG attainment. MFIs with a social mission focused on poverty reduction (MDG1) face a genuine difficulty. To expand coverage of poor households, they generally need to seek financial support, usually in the form of loans or equity. Their difficulty is that they face a serious risk of ‘mission drift’, concentrating on achieving an outstanding financial performance, which is necessary anyway and especially if they wish to access com- mercial funds, and neglecting their social mission. In other words, commercial funding may mean less attention to poor households in microfinance service delivery. The challenge for the industry is to man- age scaling-up without losing sight of its social purposes. The paper argues for client-level assessment by MFIs that can both ensure that poor households are targeted and that microfinance impact on their poverty status can be monitored. Developing a social performance monitoring system based on client assessment is the principal way in which MFI impact on the MDGs can be established and maintained.
By having a community that are inclusive of Islamic microfinance providers; current recipients; participating merchants; zakat (obligatory contribution) and waqf (endowment) institutions; also utilities provider, the recipients would be encouraged towards being financially stable to support themselves and their families. The community currency would come in as a method of payment that would only be used within the members of the community. Furthermore, with the development of community currency, capital assistance provided by Islamic microfinance providers can be a successful effort as recipients are able to get past the adequacy rate of the minimum basic needs (kifayah limit), where this success will subsequently take the recipients out of poverty and become a zakat payer in a future. Despite various efforts such as training, a variety of facilities and capital assistance has been channeled, but it has yet to show significant success to solve the problem of poverty among Islamic microfinance recipients (Md Ramli et al., 2011).This is hence suggested by Herani (2009) that every member in the Islamic microfinancecommunity should be able to deposit a small amount so that they are eligible to become shareholders of the microfinance institution. Also, with the interaction between members of the community, benefits of establishing this community would be expanded, rather than acting as capital provider alone. Types of services that could be extended for recipients include savings insurance, health care and also personal development (Dewey, 2008).
health outcomes, social gains for women, and even greater school enrolment for the children of borrowers (Narayan- Parker and Glinskaya, 2007). A growing body of evidence strongly suggests that when health and financial services for the poor are linked in a systematic and cohesive manner, key barriers to health can be reduced. MFIs can contribute to health improvement by increasing knowledge leading to behavior change, and by enhancing access to health services through addressing financial, geographic and other barriers. Studies indicate benefits in diverse areas such as maternal and child health, malaria, HIV, infectious diseases and gender based violence (Leatherman et al., 2012). Health education is the most common health service offered. Health education, often delivered during regularly scheduled group microfinance or SHG meetings, can lead to behavioral change in areas fundamental to achieving the Millennium Development Goals related to women and children and reduction of life- threatening illness (Leatherman et al., 2010). Considerable evidence exists of the positive impact of health education on health knowledge and practice (Hadi, 2001; Smith, 2002; Sherer et al., 2004; De La Cruz et al., 2009; Hadi, 2002; Ahmed et al., 2006) with notable findings such as; improvement of maternal and neonatal health outcomes in Nepal and India (Manandhar et al., 2004; Tripathy et al., 2010), reductions in rates of childhood diarrhea in Dominican Republic and Honduras (Dohn et al., 2004), reductions in the risk of physical or sexual abuse by intimate partners by more than half in South Africa (Pronyk et al., 2006) and a significant increase in contraceptive use with decline in fertility in Bangladesh (Amin et al., 2001).
In its first year of operation, the Fadama II project realized significant positive impacts on households’ access to markets, transportation services, and productive assets, and to household income and of asset acquisition. Using propensity score matching and double-difference methods to control for project placement and self-selection biases, we found that Fadama II reduced beneficiaries’ distance and travel time to the nearest town and reduced the waiting time and fares for transportation services, relative to nonbeneficiary households in Fadama II LGAs. Household access to productive assets increased dramatically, especially for the poorest households, largely because of the subsidy provided to help finance acquisition of such assets. Household incomes improved substantially more for Fadama II beneficiaries than for nonbeneficiaries, with an average increase in real income resulting from participation in Fadama II of about 60 percent, well above the target of at least 20 percent increase in income that Fadama II set to achieve in six years for 50 percent of the beneficiaries. About 42 percent of beneficiaries increased their incomes by at least 20 percent within one year of Fadama II implementation, indicating that the project nearly succeeded in achieving its income goal within its first year of
several data sources shed some light on the industry. The growth of microfinance is visible in many aspects. There are more than 2000 NGOs involved in the NABARD SHG-Bank linkage program. Out of these, approximately 800 NGOs are involved in some form of financial intermediation. Further, there are 350 new generation co-operatives providing thrift and credit services. According to our estimate, the present total outstanding, including Sa-Dhan members and bank linkages is approximately Rs.700 crores (Rs. 150 crores of Sa-Dhan members and another Rs. 550 crores from the Banking system). The total client base is estimated at 6-8 million as opposed to the Government of India (GOI) intention to reach 25 million clients. The growth of community institutions has taken place with the role to take social and financial intermediation. A numbers of community banks have come into existence at village and block levels call ' Federation of Self Help Groups'. The inadequacies of the formal financial system to cater to the needs of the poor and the realization of the fact that the key to success lies in the evolution and participation of community based organizations at the grassroots level led to the emergence of new generation of MFIs. One kind of MFI is an NGO engaged in promoting Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their federations at a cluster level and linking SHGs with Banks under the Scheme. Examples are Myrada in Karnataka, which has promoted Sanghmitra, a company of its village saving and credit sanghas, PRADAN which has established a large number of SHGs and federated them under Damodar in Bihar, Sakhi Samiti in Rajasthan. Another kind is NGO-MFI directly lending to the poor borrowers, who are either organized into SHGs or into Grameen Bank type of groups after borrowing bulk funds from SIDBI, RMK and FWWB. Examples in this category are Rashtriya Gramin Vikas Nidhi (RGVN) which runs credit and savings programme in Assam and Orissa on the lines of Grameen Bank, Bangladesh. Also we have SHARE in AP, ASA in Tamil Nadu under this category. There are MFIs which are specifically organized as cooperatives, such as over 500 Mutually Aided Cooperative Thrift and Credit Socities (MACTS) in AP, promoted among others by Cooperative Development Foundation (CDF) and the SEWA Bank in Gujarat which also runs federations of SHGs in nine districts. Then we have MFIs, which are organized as Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFC) such as BASIX, CFTS Mirzapur, SHARE Microfin. Ltd. and Sarvodaya Nanofinance Ltd. Growth of Microfinance in India
DFID is tackling undernutrition in Bangladesh through two main channels and with a focus on pregnant and breastfeeding women, adolescent girls and children under five years of age. First, DFID is working through the Government of Bangladesh’s health sector to incorporate nutrition specific interventions into all primary health care services, and establish 3,000 additional community clinics to aid delivery. A national nutrition service plan is in place with both a budget and management system. Second, DFID is looking at options to sharpen nutrition outcomes from existing programmes. Specifically we are committed to integrating direct nutrition interventions in to our extreme poverty programmes, to ensure that a better income is matched with a better diet and nutritional status. We also continue to raise nutrition considerations with partners in the major development forums, push more broadly on policy options for social protection and food security and provide support to the donor convenor for the ScalingUp Nutrition (SUN) movement in Bangladesh.
The concept of co-production was initially studied in the context of industrial and service markets. It was also originally discussed in terms of the economic efficiency gained from collaborating with a customer in a business-to-business context, resulting in competitive advantage (Fitzsimmons, 1985). In the 1990s scholars began to discuss the use of the co-production concept in consumer markets. In these markets, the emergence of the ‘customising consumer’ was witnessed; someone who takes an active role in the production process (Firat and Shultz, 1997; Firat et al., 1995; Firat and Venkatesh, 1993, 1995; Firat, 1991). In recent times, the work of Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2004a, 2004b, 2002, 2000,) and Vargo and Lusch (2006, 2004) on value co-creation and the service-dominant logic of marketing, a new school of thought, has driven the idea of co-production. Until recently, the dominant thinking was that customer value creation accompanies the product (Goods Dominant logic, G-D). However, Vargo and Lush (2004) proposed Service Dominant (S-D) logic, in which service provision, rather than goods, is the basis of economic exchange. They argue that value does not exist solely in the finished good, but that value is defined and created in co-production with the consumer (Vargo and Lusch, 2006, p. 10). They propose that goods are part of distribution in service provision and that the customer is always a co- producer. Moreover, their S-D logic identifies how customer collaboration affects co- production and how it brings about benefits such as lower costs, customised service offerings and increased productivity.
transition rather than exit. Donor push and community pull factors need to be balanced to prevent “supply-driven, demand-drivendevelopment.” Overall, capacity is pivotal to successful CDD and its successful scaling-up over time. Capacity is more than simply resources, however; it also includes motivation and commitment, which, in turn, require appropriate incentives at all levels. Capacity development takes time and resources, but it is an essential upfront and ongoing investment, with the capacity and commitment of facilitators and local leaders being particularly important. A “learning by doing” culture—one that values adaptation, flexibility, and openness to change—needs to be fostered at all levels, with time horizons adjusted accordingly. The building of a library of well-documented, context-specific experiences through good monitoring, evaluation, and operational research will be useful in advocating for improvements in the contextual environment.
MFIs are considered very fundamental development stakeholders for poverty alleviation in Bangladesh. Micro- enterprise loan is one of the important services provided by them. It is expected to ensure self-employment in small scale businesses especially for the rural poor where employment opportunities are very low. MFIs play a crucial role in MEs development by providing consultancy and loan facility. MFIs normally provide micro-enterprise loans for starting up or scalingup the MEs to the entrepreneurs who are deprived from the formal financial sector due to their lack of collateral, connections and financial literacy. The demand of microenterprise loan is in increasing trend and the MFIs’ microenterprise loan disbursement and outstanding became more than the previous year. In 2015, the total micro- enterprise loan outstanding of MFIs was BDT 115.52 billion which is 41% more than microenterprise loan outstanding of previous year. The following table shows the increasing share of micro-enterprise loan to the total loan outstanding of the MFIs licensed under Microcredit Regulatory Authority (MRA).
up-scaling or scalability or scaling-up refers to the diffusion and dissemination of or scalability or scaling-up refers to the diffusion and dissemination of locally successful innovations to a wider stakeholder group (Gordijn, 2005) and according to sustainable agriculture and rural development (2007), leads to “more quality benefits to more people over a wider geographic area more quickly, more equitably and more lastingly”. With respect to the ffs, up-scaling requires mobilization of adequate human and material resources requires mobilization of adequate human and material resources mobilization of adequate human and material resources to replicate the model and also additional organization and finance to facilitate, channel and control the flow of information, goods and services efficiently and effectively (davis, 2006). davis, 2006).. campbell (2010) notes that ffs provides a scalable model for knowledge empowerment and can increase the potential scalability of sustainable technologies such as ra certification and any other program taught through ffs. akinnagbe and ajayi (2010) indicate that indicate that the farmer he farmer field school popularly known as “informal” or “school without walls” is a community-based, is a community-based, community-based, capacity building, learning by doing extension model or system that uses adult education extension model or system that uses adult education uses adult education principles in farmers’ groups. this group-based experiential learning, hartl (2009) and mwangi, this group-based experiential learning, hartl (2009) and mwangi, this group-based experiential learning, hartl (2009) and mwangi, , hartl (2009) and mwangi, mwangi, oloo and maina (2010) say, encourages farmers (normally in groups of 20-30) to learn improved encourages farmers (normally in groups of 20-30) to learn improved improved technologies and farming practices through observation. empowerment - an essential feature through observation. empowerment - an essential feature through observation. empowerment - an essential feature of the system according to dzeco, amilai and crist�v�o (2010) refers to the development of dzeco, amilai and crist�v�o (2010) refers to the development of skills so that individuals can make informed choices in their lives. the ffs system was first the ffs system was first was first introduced in indonesia in 1989 to counter overuse of insecticides in irrigated rice fields during the Green revolution (campbell, 2010, braun et al., 2006, Gallagher et al., 2006) and began in east africa in 1995 (davis et al., 2010).
The development of SMEs is largely determined by the existence of MFIs that offer financing models are diverse. It can be said that MFIs become a partner of SMEs in this regard as a financial services provider, through diverse financing models. But on the other hand the diversity of financing models offered by MFIs have not been fully able to be utilized. This study used exploratory research, descriptive, experimental and applied research conducted in stages for the development of a comprehensive model of microfinance accommodative Informants determined based on the information needs. Using a descriptive and qualitative analysis of the MFI deliberately selected examples illustrate the following: (A) The existence of MFIs is recognized community has a strategic role as an intermediary in economic activity that has not affordable public services of banking institutions / conventional banks; (B) service MFIs have demonstrated success, but success can still be in business economics. Skim MFI lending to businesses has not received the priority, it is characterized by a relatively small ceiling (budget allocation) to support farming, which is less than 10% of the total ceiling of MFIs; (C) A critical factor in the development of the agricultural sector MFI lies in the institutional legality, capability management, seed capital support, the economic viability of farming, farm characteristics and technical assistance clients / service users MFIs; (D) To initiate the growth and development of agricultural MFIs needed guidance enhanced capabilities for HR candidates MFI managers, support the strengthening of capital and technical assistance to customers of credit users.
Scaling-up SHG Bank Linkage requires attention to the quality and sustainability of groups, their promoters and lenders (banks). A strong focus on the quality of SHGs by their NGO promoters was a key factor in the success of this model in its pilot phase. But in recent years, growing concerns have emerged about group quality as well as the ability of partner banks to properly assess, monitor and manage risk on their SHG portfolios. Going forward, if SHG Bank Linkage is to be scaled-up, NABARD and its partners face several challenges, 24 key among which include ensuring that high quality groups are created and maintained, and that concerns over numeric targets of group creation and linkage do not override attention to group quality and resilience. In particular, the success and sustainability of SHG Bank Linkage depends crucially upon greater clarity about who is to play the key role of maintaining quality, and how the costs of doing so are to be met. A clear strategy is required on how new groups will be promoted, and who will fund this. If NGOs remain involved as promoters and ‘minders’ of the groups, they will need to be paid to do so, yet in the long run, with their social-development perspective, NGOs are not ideal candidates for this role, and nor is it clear who are to be their long-term paymasters. But the banks themselves, whose business is financial services, are unlikely to want to do more than ensure that their loans are safe, and will not take on the time-consuming task of helping groups manage the bookkeeping of their internal savings and loan accounts. Left to themselves, without outside assistance, most groups will have great difficulty maintaining quality, and the poorer they are the truer this will be. 25 Equally, efforts need to focus on ensuring that banks price their loans to SHGs at rates that would cover their costs and ensure financial sustainability of SHG banking. Banks also need to focus more on monitoring and managing SHG lending risk.
Furthermore, it led to the increase in self-efficacy through allowing acquisition of resources, changing roles, increased confidence, improved communication between couples, building a sense of community, transforming gender relations and increased ability to solve marital problems. Results substantiate a need to formalize and harmonize the existing VICOBA models so that people can discover their potentials and use them effectively to overcome different social problem. The findings of the study relate with theory of the functionalist theory which argues that every piece of society is interdependent and contributes to the functioning of society as a whole unit (Crossman, 2016). If the functionalist theory is correct and everyone understands how each segment functions within the unit of society, then it breeds stability, prosperity, order and productivity. According to the findings, in Kishapu District VICOBA members have fulfilled their roles and responsibilities at family where they fulfill family necessities.
The evaluation of a remedial education program by Banerjee and others (2003) is an example of this approach. The program has been run by Pratham, an Indian NGO, which implemented it in 1994. Pratham now reaches more than 161,000 children in 20 cities. The remedial education program hires a young woman from the children’s community to provide remedial education in govern- ment schools to children who have reached grades 2, 3, or 4 without having mas- tered the basic grade 1 competencies. Children who are identified as lagging behind are pulled out of their regular classroom for two hours a day to receive this instruc- tion. Pratham wanted to evaluate the impact of this program, one of their flagship interventions, at the same time as they were looking to expand. The expansion into a new city, Vadodara, provided an opportunity to conduct a randomized evaluation. In the first year (1999–2000), the program was expanded to 49 randomly selected schools out of the 123 Vadodara government schools. In 2000–01, the program was expanded to all the schools, but half the schools got a remedial teacher for grade 3 and half got one for grade 4. Grade 3 students in schools that got the program in grade 4 served as the comparison group for grade 3 students in schools who got the program in grade 3. At the same time, a similar intervention was conducted in a dis- trict of Mumbai, where half the schools got the remedial teachers in grade 2 and half got them in grade 3. The program was continued for one more year, with the schools switching groups. Thus the program was conducted in several grades, in two cities, and with no school feeling that it had been deprived of resources relative to the others, because all schools benefited from the program.
The study was carried out in Onitsha Agricultural Zone, Anambra state, Nigeria. Thestate is divided into four agricultural zones, including Onitsha Zone. These zones are further divided into extension blocks and circles. The study area is suitable for marketing and Agriculture. The study employed the use of stratified sampling technique in the selection of respondents. From sample frame of eleven microfinance banks in the zone, three were randomly selected and used for the study. Stratified sampling method was adopted because all the microfinance banks have similar features.
As a rule, context definition and adaptation are developed on the execution level. This solution can be applied to very strict domains where developers know context source, message format, and in cases where change in input context performs as a switch-case statement. Nevertheless, context is dynamic and context-aware applications have to adapt themselves for each context change. Problems of capture, interpretation, representation and reasoning are current in context-aware applications. There exist many researches into context-aware software development. The majority are about how to capture and provide context information and others about context adaptation. In most cases, contextual logic and business logic are joined into the same application artifact and context-aware activities are limited to context data request. Due to this, context identification, representation, reasoning and reuse are arduous works. Most context-aware applications are based on legacy or ad hoc architectures and are no-standard based applications.
including technology adoption, agricultural productivity and efficiency, food security, nutrition, health and overall household welfare (obike et al ., 2007). Akiram et al., (2008) revealed problems with farmers’ decision in accessing microfinance to include high interest rate, collateral requirement, time lag in the disbursement of loans, long distance to banks, difficult procedural and bureaucratic lending processing and high transaction cost. Adeyemi (2008) however, documents that despite decades of public provision of microcredit, policy reorientation and the entry of new players, the supply of microfinance in Nigeria is still inadequate in relation to demand. These suggest that there may be some inefficiency in microfinance operations in Nigeria due to some institutional inadequacies such as under capitalization, inefficient management and regulatory and supervisory loopholes. Okpara(2009) empirically identified four major critical is not factors inhibiting the accessibility of finance house in Nigeria as induces interferences from board members, political crises, under- capitalization and fraudulent practices. Microfinance bank is not an exception to the victim of these factors.
‘neoliberalism with a human face” in development circles (Cornwall, Gideon and Wilson, 2008, 1). Yet, despite this homage to the development approach, studies indicate that the goal of poverty alleviation is not being reached. With respect to reduction in poverty, loans taken out by the very poor seem less effective than those taken out by the poor (Mosley and Hulme, 2009, 70). Mosley and Hulme attribute the lack of success of this "penny capitalism" to the poor being more risk-adverse and taking out "small, subsistence-protecting loans . . . (which) are seldom invested in new technology, fixed capital or even the hiring of labour but rather in working capital or, in the majority of cases, in protecting consumption standards" (2009, 71). In longer term studies, "rural women are unable to be completely self-reliant even if they are involved in microcredit programs for a long period of time (i.e., 10-15 years)(brackets in original)" (Afrin, Islam, and Ahmed, 2010, 11). Banerjee and Duflo echo this refrain, noting that while "some microcredit clients have created visionary businesses, the vast majority are caught in subsistence activities . . .(as they have) no specialized skills and so must compete with all the other self- employed poor at entry level activities" (2007). Lacking skills and devoting energies to