Degradation of land due to removal of fertile top soils from the hilly tracts has become a serious threat for the sustainability of agriculture and ecology in NER. Heavy soil erosion often found to be suffocating for the drainage systems, leading to the problem of water stagnation in low-lying areas. In addition, it causes serious sedimentation in different bodies in the NER. On an average, a huge amount (83.8 tonnes/ha/annum) of soil sediments were found to be draining away from a barren fallow land having 65% slope, if no measures were taken to check the water run-off (Annual Reports of ICAR NEH, various years). The average losses of plant nutrient per ha per annum in the sloppy lands were also substantial. Annually, 1118 kg organic carbon, 14 kg potassium, 649 kg magnesium, 407 kg zinc and 17 kg copper drained away due to soil erosion induced by shifting cultivation. The studies further reveal that soil erosion from hilly slopes (60-70%) under first, second and abandoned shifting land could be as high as 147 tonnes, 170 tonnes and 30 tonnes per hectare per annum, respectively. In total, it is estimated that annually 181 million tonnes of soil were lost in NER (ICAR NEH, Soil Div, 2004). However, watersheds have been extremely beneficial in mitigating the problem of soil erosion. Available watershed evaluation reports indicate that the soil and water conservation measures like dug out sunken ponds, brush wood check dams, loose boulders’ dams, live check dams, etc., were constructed in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the watersheds. Upper reaches often experienced high erosion problem and needed some specific conservation measure to check the heavy loss of soils. Forest plantation, taken up under watersheds helped a lot in minimizing the erosion problem. Introduction of horticultural crops like jackfruit, litchi, guava, mango, citrus fruits, etc, on the lower portion of the hillock not only helped in reducing erosion but also provided sustainable source of income in the watersheds like Umlangiong. However, giving absolute quantitative values for the erosion control potentials of various conservation measures or watersheds is difficult because despite the indication that watersheds have contributed positively in minimizing the problem of soil erosion none of these reports come up with any quantified estimate about the extent of reduction in soil loss.
Management of a small catchment or watershed through participatory approach is recommended for sustainable use of natural resources to increase agricultural pro- ductivity and reduce rural poverty. Integrated watershed management is an approach integrating sustainable management of natural resources through collective action of resource users for improving livelihoods of people in harmony with nature rather than a mere hydrological unit. Interdependence of human beings and animals for their living through sustainable use of scientific land use planning on interconnected natural resources need codification up to national level and scientific criteria to pri- oritize development of watersheds in the country. Improved models of watersheddevelopment include some or all of the features such as community participation, collective action, consortium of soil and rainwater conservation structures, better farm- ing practices, involvement of women and landless people through income-generating activities, fusion of research and development, transparency, science-based productiv- ity enhancement, monitoring and evaluation measures, building capacity of the formal and informal rural institutions, building productive partnerships and alliances in a con- sortium model, and building resilience of the communities and the natural resources. The current IWM program in India has evolved over the past thirty years from top- down target oriented approach to conserve soil and water to community participatory integrated holistic livelihood approach to improve rural livelihoods through sustain- able management of natural resources. The holistic, participatory, and consortium approach integrates biophysical interventions with socioeconomic and institutional innovations to sustainably develop and manage natural and human resources for reducing poverty and provisioning ecosystem services. When implemented the IWM programs produced multiple benefits in terms of conserving soil, water, and biodiver- sity, increased productivity and family incomes, building social capital and resilience to cope with impacts of changes in future including those due to climate change and globalization. Integrated watershed management approach could become the growthengine for sustainable development of drylandareas in the tropics.
shows that higher open road densities reduce deer and elk habitat effectiveness (Thomas et al 1990). Roads open to motorized traffic allow people easy access to big game habitat. Motor vehicles and associated human activities can stress big game animals, causing them to avoid use of available habitat and unnecessarily expend energy. Habitat for elk and deer was probably better prior to settlement by Euro-Americans than today because there were more open stands with native grasses and healthy fires adapted shrubs for forage, plus a good distribution of cover for thermal regulation. More importantly, roads and associated human access were much more limited prior to settlement, and consequently elk and deer were not impacted by human disturbance to the extent that occurs under present conditions. Although, American Indians had some effect on the populations of these animals prior to Euro-American settlement, it is unknown what extent, or degree this effect occurred. Actual numbers of elk on the National Forest may have been lower than the present numbers. This is because elk probably used more of the lower elevation foothills and valleys on what are now, non-National Forest lands. Human development in these bottomlands has pushed more elk up onto National Forest lands. Open ponderosa pine forests dominated the warm/dry and hot/dry plant associations and provided high-quality grass and shrub forage. Thermal and hiding cover was probably located in the mixed conifer stands found in the moister sites in the warm/dry plant associations.
The intervention was to commence with a preparatory phase of building SHGs with the objective of creating the necessary capacity for participation. It was expected that the community would utilize the space provided by the CBOs which were crafted to exercise their voice and participate in concrete terms by contributing resources.A central premise of participatory development is an understanding on the importance of the power of the group, with the notion that the individuals are far more effective when they work together to achieve a common objective than working on their own (Mansuri and Rao, 2013, p.88). Participation through the exercise of “voice” has both intrinsic and instrumental value (Hirschman, 1970). Voice refers to various mechanisms through which through which people express their views, opinions and preferences. It includes participation in decision making, product delivery or policy implementation, complaint, organized protest or lobbying (Goetz and Gaventa 2001). Voice is important for four reasons. First, voice has an intrinsic value as it is good for people to express their thoughts and preferences. Second, voice is an essential building block for accountability. Third, the exercise of voice enables communities to arrive at the values and norms of justice and morality under which the action of power holders/project implementers would be judged (Goetz and Jenkins, 2002, 2005) and finally enhanced voice is also supposed to reduce capture and corruption. However, various studies (Platteau and Abraham 2002; Conning and Keavane 2002; Platteau and Gaspart 2003; Ravallion 2003; Bastiaensen, et al. 2005; Galasa and Ravallion, 2005; Iversen, et.al, 2006, Fritizen, 2007, Pan & Christiaensen, 2012 Lund, etal. 2013) have demonstrated how aid resources are often captured by local elites. Elites are ‘individuals who can exert ISSN: 0976-3376 Asian Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 09, Issue, 04, pp.8021-8027, April, 2018
In addition to potential socioeconomic impacts, WSD projects have considerable potential for community health impact through influencing agriculture, water and livelihoods. From the Indian context, only three peer-reviewed journal articles describing the linkages between WSD and health were found, all conducted by Nerkar and colleagues. From a cross-sectional study, they found lower diarrhoea prevalence in watershed villages as compared to comparison villages . This quantitative paper was complemented by two qualitative studies. The first reported local people having perceived reduced water-borne diseases, reduction on workload on women due to water access, reduction in alcohol consumption, improved socioeconomic status (SES), support to education and women’s empowerment . The second qualitative study with local health and development workforce reported perceived reduction in water scarcity, better access to sanitation and improved local agriculture, resulting in positive impacts on SES, educational and health status in communities affected by the WSD project . A limitation of the studies by Nerkar and colleagues is that they were conducted in a hilly tribal area in Maharashtra, thus representing one specific geographical and socio-cultural context. WSD projects in other regions may include additional locally-relevant activities potentially leading to different types of impacts . In addition, other health impact pathways, for instance, on nutrition, vector breeding, water quality and also the distribution of impacts within the population were not adequately explored. In summary, considerable knowledge gaps exist on the interlinkages between WSD projects and associated health impacts in India.
Hydromorphological quality assessment requires a scoring system which consists of indicators and indices determined according to area-specific criteria and defined anthropogenic hydromorphological pressures and morphological alterations. The methodology for the analysis in this study follows a multi-phase protocol adapted to available data . Initially, relevant indicators are determined, the class system is described with respect to reference condition and finally the level of pressure and alteration is evaluated for each indicator by assigning a score to each class of change. Assignment of scores will be carried out using different tools. They are field survey, database, expert knowledge and technological tools. Recently, the most commonly used and useful technological tools for these types of assessments are Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing. Also, survey sites and reference sites will be detected using both GIS and RS. High resolution satellite images of the sites will be interpreted to support field surveys at both temporal and spatial scales.
studies have identified the main constraints for increased productivity in the tropics as low rainwater use efficiency for crop production (35-45%), inherent low soil fertility, inappropriate soil, water and nutrient management practices, low adoption of stress-tolerant cultivars of crops, insufficient pest management options and poverty (inability to invest for necessary inputs). Due to variations in seasonal rains during the crop growing period, crops may face drought and sometimes waterlogging due to torrential downpours causing runoff. In order to conserve rainwater, minimize land degradation, improve groundwater recharge, increase crop intensity and crop productivity a watershed management approach is adopted (Kerr et al. 2000; Samra 1997; Wani et al. 2002). The success of watershed management largely depends on the community’s participation. In a recent review (Joshi et al. 2000; Kerr et
Participants considered the most vulnerable group in the watershed to be people dependent on agriculture. Second is the group of tea growers and least vulnerable is the group of people depending on off-farm income. Each household is highly independent, with almost no communal use of natural resources. While this leads to low levels of conflict, it also makes households vulnerable to shocks to their livelihood strategies. As part of this baseline assessment the participants of the expert meeting also mapped the land use in the area. Figure 2 shows agricultural and tea production as well as restricted areas. For security reasons, farmers are only allowed to grow rice in the area 0.5 km out from the full border with Bangladesh because it is a low-height crop and does not hamper visibility. Another larger area in the middle of the watershed is also restricted to growing rice but it did not become clear why this is restricted.
The study of use and occupation in riparian areas have been very important to help in preparation of technical projects for implementation of reforestation. The main objective of this study was realize a prospect above the use and occupation of riparian areas of watershed Jaboticabal and localize and characterize the forests fragments with native vegetation. For this, the riparians areas were vectorized and the use and occupation was analyzed by remote sensing techniques. After the elaboration of the use and occupation map, the sites visits was realized to raise the species present in the fragments and check the state of degradation and propose areas for reforestation. The results obtained show that the entire riparian areas, within the boundaries of the watershed Jaboticabal, only 25.6% is composed with native species. For the species catalog was visited five fragments, that was selected by your the size and localization, in which were found 82 different species belonging to 33 families, and virtually all the fragments were found the same number of species.
There have been dramatic changes in the hydrology of many of the dry areas of South India in recent years as a result of increased groundwater-based irrigation, watersheddevelopment and land use change. Although intensive development of water resources has brought about huge benefits, its very success has thrown up new challenges. Demand and competition for water has increased to the extent that — in some areas — current levels of annual water use are so high that, in all but the wettest years, annual water use approximates towards annual replenishment of surface and ground water resources. In these areas, it is clear that the emphasis should switch from development to the management of water resources to ensure that water is allocated to activities with the highest economic and social value. Although current watersheddevelopment programmes bring a range of benefits, they may also change the temporal and spatial pattern of water availability and use. This can result in significant negative trade-offs such as more unreliable domestic water supplies in ‘downstream’ areas, particularly during low rainfall or drought years. As part of the Karnataka WatershedDevelopment Project (KAWAD), a water resource audit assessed the status of water resources in the project watersheds and identified resource management practices that should be promoted by the project. This paper summarises the audit’s findings and recommendations, the main lessons learned and progress to date in implementing recommendations. For comparison, findings and recommendations from a water audit in southern Andhra Pradesh are also summarised.
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the potential impact of existing and proposed natural and human activities on the behavior of existing watershed and suggests recommendations to effectively manage such activities to reduce the detrimental impacts on the watershed. The hydrologic behavior of the Piti-Asan watershed in Guam was analyzed through the field measurements of rainfall, stream level, stream flow, and river turbidity over the course of one year. Estimates of the erosion contribution by areas within the watershed and in particular, within 100-meter buffer zone around the major rivers were conducted based on the data collected via field instrumentation and using the geographic information system (GIS) based erosion model. Stage discharge curves were obtained for both watersheds from analyses of field hydrologic data. In addition, the areas contributing the most potential erosion and the major causes of soil erosion in the Piti-Asan watershed were identified. Finally, best management strategies of the watershed system to aid in maximizing the effectiveness and viability of future restoration efforts were suggested.
The bifurcation ratio (R b ) is an index of relief and dissections (Horton 1945) and lower values are characteristics of structurally less disturbed watersheds without any distortion in drainage pattern (Nag 1998). According to Strahler (1964), R b values of 3-5 indicated that the geological structures do not have a dominant control over the drainage pattern of the watershed. In the present study, the mean bifurcation ratio of 1.71 indicated the absence of strong structural control on the drainage pattern and that the watershed was structurally less disturbed. Similar finding has also been reported by Subba Rao (2009). Higher values of R b between the first and the second order streams (Table 2) indicated that the steeper slopes of the watershed is more prone to soil erosion. Kumar et al., (2012) observed that higher values of bifurcation ratios for the first and second order streams indicated more chances of erosion in the upper reaches of a mountainous watershed in Uttarakhand, India. In our study also, we observed higher bifurcation ratios for the first and second order (I/II =2.22 and II/III = 1.88) streams, which highlighted susceptibility of the upper reaches in the watershed to erosion.
Turning results into recommendations
A major hurdle with the results from a RASCAL assessment, especially for large watersheds, is to analyze the extensive data set and transform results into management recommendations. IDNR and IDALS - Division of Soil Conservation have partnered to develop a post-processing protocol for raw RASCAL data. After the data has been collected, individual analyses are conducted on select parameters. Using substrate as an example, the stream would be broken into segments that share a common classification, such as bedrock, cobble, gravel, sand or silt/mud. These would then be further generalized into a small number of segments that represent a dominant substrate. After this is done for each selected parameter, all parameters are then overlaid and the segments are grouped to illustrate common conditions in the stream and riparian corridor. Finally, threats to stream integrity are identified for each segment and treatments recommended. This process is outlined on a small scale for one section of Montgomery Creek within the SCW in the following figures (Figure 3.4-3.8).
Watersheds around the World are facing serious threats to their water quality and aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, watershed management, which includes water resource utilization control, water pollution control, and economic growth policies, is an effective means of dealing with these issues at the watershed scale (Heathcote 1998). Owing to the complexity of watersheds, uncertainty is one of the key factors influencing watershed management programs. Such uncertainty is manifested by a farmers’ reluctance to par- ticipate in the watershed management programs. Works of literature reveal that Ethiopian highlands are seriously eroded and becoming unsuitable for cultivation. Watershed management in the Ethiopian highlands therefore urgently needs improvement and conservation of their natural re- source for sustainable development and improving food se- curity. Because agriculture is the main sector of the Ethiopian economy and contributes approximately 42% to the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs over 80% of the population (MoFED 2010; Diao 2010; ATA (Ethiop- ian Agricultural Transformation Agency) 2013). Despite its role, agricultural production is constrained by high climate variability where rainfall distribution is extremely uneven both spatially and temporally, and this has negative implica- tions for the livelihoods of people (Georgis et al. 2010). Drought frequently results in crop failure, while high rain- fall intensities result in low infiltration and high runoff causing enhanced soil erosion and land degradation. Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and declining land fertility is a serious challenge to agricultural productivity and economic growth (Lemenih 2004). Studies indicate that the Ethiopian highlands have experienced high rates of soil erosion and deforestation, resulting in sediment accumula- tion in downstream reservoirs and rivers (Haregeweyn et al. 2005; Tamene 2005). High population and livestock density, along with rugged topography and erratic rainfall, exacer- bate land degradation. Excess water is also responsible for the soil erosion in the highlands. Recent studies also show that the sediment yields in different rivers range between 180 and 900 t/year per km 2 (Rodeco 2002). It is estimated that the trans-boundary Rivers alone carry about 1.3 billion tonnes of sediment each year to neighboring countries (MoWR 1993). Poor watershed management and farming practices have contributed to these rates.
Sustainable Development can be envisioned as utopianism; a perfect society in which justice prevails, the people are perfectly content, the people live and flourish in harmony with nature and life moves along smoothly, without abuses and shortages (Jabareen, 2006). However, operationally feasible dimensions have been identified in various studies on sustainability. Catton (1986) cited by Ciegiset.al., (2009) defines the sustainable development as “the improvement in the population’s quality of life while taking into consideration the ecosystem’s regenerating capacity that can be described as the maximal continuous load on the environment”. A wider concept of sustainability provided by Radermacher (1997) include a) globalization, b) a long period of time, c) external effects, d) environmental policy and e) the approach “from cradle to grave”. Human being is at the center-stage of this concept. “Sustainability literally means the ability to sustain, or a state that can be maintained at a certain level. The term has been used to express the state in which levels of harvest in agriculture, fishery and forestry are maintained within the capacity of the ecosystem, which is therefore recoverable. In that sense, sustainability means environmental sustainability; in other words, sustainability of the eco-system’s function to provide us with food, fish and other products and services.” (Kajikawa, 2008). A specific definition for agriculture sector is available from the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). While conceptualizing sustainable agriculture a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) treated sustainability as a dynamic concept and defined, “Sustainable Agriculture should involve the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources”
This article aimed to analyze the precipitations and flows of the Manacapuru Hydrographic Basin and possible hydrological impacts caused by the el Niňo and La Niňa climatic phenomena on it, with the objective of providing subsidies for the formulation of public policies for the management of water resources and policies that favor the development of the sustainable economic activities of the municipality. To compose this article, collections were collected from the database of the Hydroweb Platform of the National Water Resources Information System (SNIRH) of the National Water Agency (ANA) and daily and monthly flow averages were calculated and precipitation from the period 2010 to 2013, applying the Arithmetic Method.
Crop Livestock integration is anothe U�cet harnessed for poverty reduction. T he Lucheba watershed, Guizhou province of southern China has transformed its economy through modest injection of capital-allied contributions of labour and finance, to create basic infrastructures like access to roads and drinking water supply. With technical support from the consortium, the farming system was intensified from rice and rape seed to tending livestock (pig raising) and growing horticultural crops (fruit trees like ZiziphiJS; vegetables like beans, peas and sweetpotato) and groundnuts. In forage production, wild buckwheat was specifically important as an alley crop as it was a good forage grass for pigs. This cropping technology was also effective in controlling erosion and increasing farm income in sloping lands. This holds true in many watersheds of India where the improvement in fodder production has intensified livestock activities like breed improvement (artificial insemination and natural means) and livestock centre/health camp establishment (Wani et a/., 2006b). In Tad Fa and Wang Chai watersheds in T hailand, there was a 45% .increase in farm income within three years. Farmers earned an average net income of US$ 1195 per cropping season. A complete turnaround in livelihood system of farm households was inevitable in ICRISAT-Ied watersheds (Wani et al. 2008b).