The composition of milk varies according to the animal from which it cows, providing the correct rate of growth and development for the young of that species. This study is applied to show the main differences between human, cows, and sheep milk components. This study executed on 20 women aged (24 ± 4) years old selected randomly, and 14 cows with 14 sheeps. Milk glutathione GSH, total lipid, and vitamin E were investigated. GSH levels were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in humanmilk than in cow in sheep milk, and lower level of total lipid and vitamin E was significantly (p≤0.05) in humanmilk than that of cow and sheep milk.
The importance of the sn-2 bond is in the regulation of digestion and subsequent fat absorption. The first en- zyme that digests fats is gastric lipase, which is already well developed in newborns. Subsequently, pancreatic lipase continues fat digestion in the gut, but a certain immaturity of the exocrine function of the pancreas is observed in neonates. Bile-salt stimulated lipase from humanmilk has an important role in breastfed infants. Gastric lipase accounts for approximately 10 % and lipase stimulated by biliary salts accounts for 20–40 % of fat digestion . Pancreatic lipase separates fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, while the middle position is relatively resistant to lytic activity of this enzyme . When the activity of pancreatic lipase in the intestine is appropriate, the final result of digestion of fats is free fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerol, which subsequently creates micelles with biliary acids and is absorbed quickly. However, free saturated fatty acids with a long chain (e.g. palmitic acid), and a sufficient amount of cal- cium in the intestinal lumen, create non-soluble calcium soaps and so lower the overall availability of calcium for the child. If palmitic acid is bound in the sn-2 position to glycerol, it does not create compounds with calcium, but is absorbed [5, 10]. If infants are fed with fats contain- ing mainly palmitic acid located in the sn-1 and sn-3 position, the insufficient pancreatic lipase activity in- creases the risk of forming poorly absorbed calcium soaps. This is the reason why, according to the pattern of humanmilk, a high content of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position in milk formula leads to higher absorption and efficiency of palmitic acid in comparison with supple- mental milk formulas with triacylglycerols derived from vegetable oils that are predominantly in the sn-1 and sn- 3 position . Several studies have revealed that fat from humanmilk is better absorbed than fat from supple- mental milk formulas, while increasing the β-palmitate in formulas aims to achieve the level of fat absorption from formulas at that from humanmilk. The content of fatty acids bound in the β-position to glycerol is distinctly different in various supplemental milk formulas . Fur- thermore, when analysing various supplementary milk formulas, there were significant differences in the stereo- specific structure of fatty acids, as well as in the profile of particular fatty acids in comparison with humanmilk . Regarding palmitic acid, although differences were not that great in its content, there were differences in the pro- portion of its binding in the sn-2 position. Similarly, the content of fatty acids in humanmilk changes depending on the mother ’ s diet . The gradual identification of particular components of humanmilk, as well as deter- mination of their physiological importance, has led to
The comparative analyses of milk yield was based on A 4 method of offi cial dairy performance assess- ment, including the milk, fat and proteins yield (in kg) and their percentage content in milk. The diffe- rences between those components were also determi- ned (RTB – difference between concentration of fat and proteins, SBT – proportion of protein to fat con- tent). To compare the results of the research from two consecutive 305-days lactations, the standard yield of milk with 4% of fat content was counted (FCM – fat corrected milk).
Ongoing C&I is shifting UK dairy production away from small and medium sized farms towards larger farms that can be broadly categorised as grazing- or indoor- dominated sys- tems. C&I pathways influence animal diets, health, yields, grassland and manure management, with implications for environmental and economic efficiency at animal, farm and system level. Whilst the definition of sustainable intensification is contested and may have different mean- ing in different contexts , a broad definition is to raise productivity and social welfare while reducing environmental impacts per unit of output. The measures captured through the use of farm survey data only include a small subset of those in a recent meta-analysis . A more complete analysis would require socio-economic, biodiversity and soil health indicators. There is some evidence that environmental and economic indicators may be correlated but social indicators differ [50,57]. However, any regional or national analysis upscaling from farms requires being able to identify typologies of farms for which these indicators could be collected in a targeted manner. The indicators developed here can be linked to environmental performance, for example, feed strategies and land use that embody upstream land and envi- ronmental impact (e.g. land use, resource depletion, GHG emissions). Therefore, results of this research can be used to model scenarios including social aspects (e.g. labour intensity), economic components (e.g. profits per litres of milk), and environmental impacts (e.g. carbon, land and water footprints) of dairy farming. The clusters also provide a more accurate profile of trends in the sector than hitherto provided by analysis of “average” farms or aggregate data. There is also potential for application in terms of farm management as the developed KPIs could also be used to benchmark farms within cluster typologies, for example in terms of feed use efficiency, and to recommend priority practises to sustainably intensify that are targeted to the distinct cluster typologies.
Data were screened and extracted independently by two investigators to identify and determine if a paper was included in the meta-analysis. Data extracted from each study (Table 1) included: authors, year of publication, the DMI (kg per day), MY (kg per day), milk fat (percentage and kg per day), milk protein (percentage and kg per day) and milk lactose (per- centage and kg per day). In addition, other informa- tion such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acid profile of the milk, number of animals per experimen- tal group, standard deviation or standard error of the mean for all variables were also extracted where avail- able. Given the heterogeneity found within these parameters across studies, a meta-regression was also performed to help determine cause. The meta-regres- sion included such causative factors as the: number of milking and feeding periods, basal diet and basal diet composition (e.g. total amount of fatty acids, C18:2 and neutral detergent fibre (NDF)).
reinfection of (partially) immune animals, while low levels of larvae excretion can occur . The suspected low BTM ELISA sensitivity in the field is thus attributable to the shortened seropositivity period of previously infected ani- mals. Indeed, longitudinal field studies on lungworm- positive dairy farms showed that the majority of individual as well as BTM ELISA samples were positive for one or two consecutive months only [8, 19]. These findings cor- roborate with the results of the presented field study, where a positive individual milk ELISA result (≥ 0.573 ODR; [8, 17]) in autumn was detected in only one of the seven cows which were excreting larvae in summer. This ELISA- positive animal was recently acquired by the farmer. Add- itionally, it showed the highest level of larvae excretion in summer (8 weeks before serological testing), but no larvae excretion in autumn. No reliable statement can be made whether this cow was primary infected after introduction into the herd, since ELISA was exclusively carried out in September. Regarding BTM ELISA, no farm was tested positive. These findings are in accordance with findings by Schunn et al. , who stated that a within-herd-prevalence of 20% is required to reliably exceed the cut-off value of 0.410 ODR in the BTM ELISA.
Snip samples were collected during the six days of the experimental period to determine nutritional composition. The day before each strip was grazed, in a one-hour window of time around noon, snip samples were manually cut at 5 cm above ground level following a W transect within the daily strip (9 points per strip). A pooled sample was produced for each treatment each day (~200 g fresh basis), placed in Ziploc bags, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and kept in a cooler with icepack until immediate transport to the lab. Samples were kept frozen at − 20 ◦ C until freeze-drying and grinding (particle size: 2 mm) and analysed for WSC , CP (Kjeldahl method, N × 6.25) , neutral detergent fibre (NDF) , and acid detergent fibre (ADF) . Representative subsamples of milk were analysed for fat, protein, lactose, and urea concentrations by infrared spectrophotometer (MilkoScan™ 4300; Foss Electric, Hillerod, Denmark).
In the present study, multiparous cows entered the parlour earlier than the primiparous, equally during morning and evening milkings. Also other studies showed that the primiparous cows, kept in the group of multiparous cows, entered the milking parlour as the last (Hopster et al., 1998). Although entry order may be affected by social dominance (Albright and Arave, 1997; Hillerton et al., 2002) or novelty feed in the parlour (Ceballos and Weary, 2002), it may be also determined by stress from entering the milking parlour (Wilkes et al., 2008). Older cows were more experienced in coping with the unknown space. The adapta- tion to the parlour was unexpectedly fast. This testifies to the increasing relevance of correlation tests. One of the reasons highlighted by Herskin et al. (2004), Grasso et al. (2007), and Mačuhová et al. (2008) could be a good relationship between the milkers and the cows. A problem may consist in negative past experiences, some cows entered the milking parlour reluctantly. However, little is Table 4. Relationships between order at milking and
cows in their first lactation (Table 16). This might be related to growth changes in the younger cows. Whether or not the BVB influenced the deposition of protein in first lactation cows could not be discerned from this study. Similar to the alterations in milk protein %, a rela- tionship between milk yield and the alteration in yield that occurred when the BVB was supplied could not be established (P = 0.79 for all cows), suggesting that a re- sponse can be anticipated at all levels of milk production. As with milk protein %, the increase in milk protein yield was not influenced by milk yield. DIM was not a factor that could be related to the increase in milk protein yield obtained in this study with first lactation cows, but the difference between control and test declined as lacta- tion progressed in mature cows either as a single inde- pendent variable (Table 17), or when included with pro- tein yield (Table 18). Modeling protein yield response to the added BVB need to consider lactation number, based on these analyses.
To Shannon Davidson I owe an exponential amount of gratitude due to her constant assistance, support, guidance, and bubbliness throughout the past two years. I thank Elizabeth English to whom I could not have ever left each morning to go to school without, because I would not have been able to find my keys, coffee, books, etc. Also for her friendship, help with 2am milk sampling, and for creating the best excuses ever no matter the occasion.
The casein is the principle protein and it constitutes 80 % of the total proteins present in milk. The other 20 % will be made up of Serum proteins, Lactalbumin and Lactoglobulin present in the Whey. Whey is the liquid portion of milk left over after the removal of casein. The lacto-globulin is composed of two immunoglobulins – euglobulin and pseudoglobulin, which account for the remaining 13 % of the total serum proteins. Besides the above proteins, Cow’s milk contains proteose – peptone fraction of about 308.7 mg/100 ml. Milk proteins contain all the essential amino acids in marked quantity and rich in Lysine, Valine, Isoleucine and Leucine. Milk proteins contain all the essential amino acids 21 .
Our data show that cola and honey are highly caries promoting and erosive, and their use in nurs- ing bottles should be actively discouraged. Humanmilk clearly has some potential to promote caries development, and the need to implement oral hy- giene after tooth eruption at least should be empha- sized. Prevention of early childhood caries is essen- tial to help to ensure a healthy permanent dentition.
The aim of this study is to determine the microbiological quality of raw cows’ milk of Oujda city. Raw milk samples are collected randomly between June 2014 and May 2015 from 20 Mahlaba (dairies) for microbiological evaluation. The samples are analyzed to determine total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliform, fecal coliform, staphylococcus aureus, fecal streptococci, proteolytic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. The results of bacterial count showed that there is a variation between all the milk samples and a period effect is also observed. The mean counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria from all sale points are between 1.76×10 6
the study pathways of bioactive peptides formation from milk casein, and modeling of enzymatic casein coagulation during milk nutrition. The homogene- ous PAGE anodic system for casein analysis is also recommended by Committee on Nomenclature and Classification of milk proteins . The result of the electrophoresis of total milk casein in this system is shown in Fig. 1.
Hormones also play an important role in the physiology of reproduction. Serum IGF- І concentrations are influenced by variations in protein synthesis or energy intake (Breukink and Wensing, 1998; Zulu et al., 2002), and IGF-1 is also an indicator of energy balance (Spicer et al., 1990). As mentioned above, severe NEB inhibits reproductive function through reduced LH pulse frequency, dominant follicle growth rate and diameter, concentrations of IGF-1, glucose and insulin and increased GH concentrations. All these changes would result in greater BCS loss and increased percentage of anoestrous cows (Roche et al., 2000). As is well known, cows with prolonged anovulatory anoestrous periods have lower submission and conception rates, and higher culling rate for failure to conceive (Macmillan, 1997). An early study showed that cows that displayed oestrus more than once before the first insemination had higher fertility compared to those inseminated at the first oestrus (Macmillan and Clayton, 1980). Therefore, the reduced milk protein synthesis which is caused by NEB could influence the anovulatory anoestrous periods through the mediating effect of IGF- І concentrations.