Abstract: As result of the “Global Land Cover Mapping at Finer Resolution” project led
by National Geomatics Center of China (NGCC), one of the first global land cover datasets at 30-meters resolution (GlobeLand30) has been produced for the years 2000 and 2010. The firstcomprehensiveaccuracyassessment at a nationallevel of these data (excluding some comparisons in China) has been performed on the Italian area by means of a benchmarking with the more detailed land cover datasets available for some Italian regions. The accuracy evaluation was based on the cell-by-cell comparison between Italian maps and the GlobeLand30 in order to obtain the confusion matrix and its derived statistics (overall accuracy, allocation and quantity disagreements, user and producer accuracy), which help to understand the classification quality. This paper illustrates the adopted methodology and procedures for assessing GlobeLand30 and reports the obtained statistics. The analysis has been performed in eight regions across Italy and shows very good results: the comparison of the datasets according to the firstlevel of Corine Land Cover nomenclature highlights overall accuracy values generally higher than 80%.
Basic principles to be observed in sound land evaluation were first put forward in the 1970s. In 1976 FAO published A Framework for Land Evaluation (FAO, 1976a). The Framework defines land units in terms of their characteristics (measurable factors such as slope, soil texture, rainfall, etc.), and qualities (effects such as temperature regime, moisture availability, which result from a combination of characteristics), matches them with potential uses in terms of the requirements of such uses, and then rates the land in terms of suitability for the use. Also, a land use could not be rated as suitable unless it was sustainable. The Framework, and a number of subsequent publications, provide fairly exhaustive lists of land characteristics and land qualities (FAO, 1984b; FAO, 1985; FAO/IIASA, 1991). In a first main application, the methodology was applied to assessing the production capacity of lands in the developing world (FAO/IIASA/UNFPA, 1982). While this assessment was severely limited by the availability and quality of data and the rather poor capability, at that time, to compile and process spatial data sets by computer, the importance of such work for development was recognized by the 1983 FAO Conference. Consequently, the approach was further developed in a case study concerned with the development and implementation of a nationallevelmethodology for the determination of land use potentials in Kenya, as a tool for policy formulation and development planning (FAO/IIASA, 1991). The specific role of this policy tool can be defined as assisting in the planning of sectors and regions, bridging the gap between conventional macro-planning and specific project planning.
The geometric accuracy of the images acquired by the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra- Red Imager) instrument aboard the European geostationary satellites Meteosat-8 (formerly MSG-1) and Meteosat-9 (formerly MSG-2) has been investigated in this study. Level 1.5 image data of the High-Resolution Visible (HRV) band with 1-km Ground Sample Distance (GSD) and several multispectral (MS) bands with 3-km GSD at sub-satellite point have been provided by the Swiss GCOS Office at MeteoSwiss. A set of fully automated processing methods has been adopted, developed and implemented for the evaluation of relative and absolute accuracy of the HRV images and band-to-band registration (BBR) accuracy between the HRV and 6 MS channels. Details of the relative and absolute accuracy evaluation methods and the results have been published in Aksakal (2013) and Aksakal et al. (2013) and briefly given in this paper. The methodology for the assessment of BBR accuracy and the results are provided first time here. SEVIRI images acquired in 2008 have been analyzed and relative and absolute shifts of up to 10 pixels have been observed in the images which were acquired from Meteosat-8. The BBR errors are found within the specifications given by EUMETSAT.
The research activities initiated by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy a few years ago followed Goldschmidt & Hilbert ’s statements (2009). After the Advisory Council on the Assessment of De- velopments in the Health Care System named the sector of major significance not only in terms of costs but also of economic power (SVRKAiG, 1997) and after the health economy itself was defined (BioCon Valley, 2005), the first Health Satellite Account for Germany was compiled on behalf of the Ministry. It was published in 2010, under review being the years 2005 (Henke, Neumann & Schneider, 2010). Both the initial and updated version, which was published in 2014 (Ostwald, Henke & Kim, 2014) were based on ESA 1995 and NACE 2003. Underlying basic data, provided by the Federal Statistical Office, was received as an input-output table in a rectangular shape of 3,118 products and 120 sectors and a supply table con- sisting of 3,118 products and 221 sectors, both reflecting the overall economy, but divided into differing levels of aggregates. From this statistical segmentation of the whole economy into an overall number of 3.118 products, detailed information on 524 selected products with relevance to health were available to the authors. Remaining data on the non-health related parts of the economy was available on an aggre- gated level. While calculations conducted during the first research period concentrated on the year 2005 and two additional projections on future values in 2020 and 2030, the second project conducted in 2014 concentrated on annual data points for 2006 until 2008. Another accomplishment consisted of the introduc- tion of the so- called ‘Economic footprint’ of the sector, which considered indirect and induced effects of the health economy on the overall economy for the first time. At this point of research, the initial name of the project changed from ‘Health Satellite Account” (HSA) into ‘National Health Account’ (NHA). In order to conclude the dynamics up to the current period, the authors again projected key indicators by making use of a forecast model based on evaluated drivers of future dynamics.
After reviewing comparable questioners in other coun- tries [10-14] and also available questionnaires in the web- site of WHO [15-17], the first draft of questionnaire was developed and shared with experts within the Ministry of Health. Based on feedback received, the pre-final ques- tionnaire was developed and piloted to check its validities and reliability. Finally, a meeting was held with the parti- cipation of the general director of malaria in Iran, the coordinator and the representative of Global Fund, main investigators, and a group of knowledgeable malaria experts from all three provinces. In this meeting, the con- tents of the questionnaire was reviewed item by item and modified if necessary. Then, the questionnaire and its completion instructions were finalized for the survey.
Consequently, it is suggested that a second work theme (Track 2) should be to develop an high-level, international dialogue between those countries whose coordination of biological risk management and mitigation efforts would have greatest global impact. The aim of this dialogue would be, initially, to obtain a common understanding of the biological risks to which society is exposed and agreement that a common approach to assessment of this risk would be worthwhile. Ultimately, the aim would be to achieve agreement on a common risk assessmentmethodology and to institute regular meetings of the group to share biological risk assessments and to coordination risk management and mitigation measures.
Similar to stock accuracy, the average percentage of facilities experiencing a stockout of a tracer product was higher for ARVs than for other program areas; 60 percent of ARV tracer products had a stockout rate higher than 20 percent (see Figure 31). Several potential reasons for these higher stockout rate levels may include the recent introduction into the stock of some facilities as well as the nature of the vertical supply chains. Unlike essential medicines, district pharmacies are more limited on secondary sources for some of these products such as ARVs, which can be procured only from the public sector at CAMEBU.
43 There is an urgent need for reform of state and territory legislation so that a legal change of sex becomes a simple administrative matter, and does not require medical intervention. The Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender could be used as a model for such legislation. However, even at the Commonwealth level, problems remain. The Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender are gradually being adopted by Commonwealth departments, but do not need to be implemented until 2016. This must be accelerated. Furthermore, the entire process of changing one’s legal sex must be simplified. Ideally, trans people should be able to make a single application with one authority. All other agencies should be notified on their behalf automatically.
b. CMS should bolster their existing, somewhat ad hoc, supplier performance management program expanding the KPIs and the reach of the program through active communication with suppliers regarding both positive performance and required corrective actions. A robust supplier performance management program can improve supplier relationships, as well as allow the procurement unit to make evidence-based decisions to ensure competitive pricing and service from suppliers. c. MoHSS should consider handling pharmaceutical procurement reform to increase supplier diversity within CMS in step-wise and gradual manner to minimize shocks on the existing system. As CMS had previously been running tenders for about 5 tender packages (item categories), restructuring can begin with one package that carries less risk and move on to the next item categories, applying lessons learned along the way. This will ensure that the balance between procurement executed via tenders and that done via buy-outs is at a level that does not burden the system or result in increased risk of stock outs.
warnings regarding the nature and distribu- tions of cyber-security incidents and national management of security incidents, they can- not be realized without the existence of a large amount of information related to differ- ent types of incidents. This type of data could be collected through a system like our EWS. Participating in the EWS should not be man- datory. The system must prove its efficiency, and based on its gained reputation, it should attract different types of organizations. Nev- ertheless, the system must start with a mini- mum number of organizations, and therefore, a good strategy could be the involvement of public institutions. The cooperation between public authorities should theoretically be eas- ier, and CERT-RO could work as the central point of such cooperation. Protocols with private companies have always been diffi- cult, not only in Romania but in other coun- tries as well, but they could eventually team up in a functioning system, given that its rep- utation is carefully safeguarded.
4. In your view, how adequately prepared is your jurisdiction for the following steps related to recovery from potential natural disasters? (Mark one in each row. Note that the first six steps are done in preparation for a natural disaster—prior to a disaster occurring and the need for actual recovery efforts.)
Methodology, Results and Discussion C. Ganesh Kumar and P. Srinivasa Rao
Abstract There are many research and review articles published on sweet sor-
ghum. However, no single publication gives a detailed account of the morpho- biochemical traits of improved tropical sweet sorghum cultivars. This chapter gives detailed account of the materials used, methods followed for data collection and analysis to characterise sweet sorghum genotypes following the guidelines of Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act, 2001 (PPVFRA). The pooled analysis of variance for quantitative traits revealed that these cultivars had sig- nificant differences between them for the expression of all the quantitative char- acters under study for both the seasons. The results revealed that the productivity levels of tropical sweet sorghums during post-rainy season (October–March) are generally low due to photo-sensitivity and thermo-sensitivity of the genotypes vis- a-vis that of rainy season (June–October) and necessitates identifying new sources/ alleles contributing to both biomass and sugar yield.
For this property, the assessment is determined using the cost approach. It is the most appropriate method of valuation for this property in the City of Edmonton.
The Cost approach produces the most accurate assessment for properties that are not actively traded in the market place due to their features or use, or where there is insufficient income and expense data available to effectively apply an income approach, or where the property is under construction. The cost approach rational is that an informed purchaser will pay no more for a property than the cost of building a similar one. The cost approach determines the replacement cost new of improvements less depreciation plus land value. The replacement cost is determined using a cost manual that identify variables, factors and schedules for determining depreciation. The land value is determined using the sales comparison approach.
Some studies also investigate the cytotoxic activity of silver nanoparticles. The study, where methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulate was used, reported that silver nanoparticles were more effective against Gram-positive bacterial strains than the Gram-negative bacteria strains. Aside from that, silver nanoparticles were also examined against HCT15 cancer cell line to investigate its cytotoxic activity, on the other hand, viability of tumor cells were confirmed through MTT assay. Results show that the synthesized silver nanoparticles has a potential as an anticancer agent. Kumara Swamy M. et al . are the first ones to report the use of HCT15 cancer cell line and hence this study could be a stepping stone for other researchers to study further and to eventually strengthen the potential of silver nanoparticle against the said microorganism.  Sre P.R.et
2.6. Residue removal practices
The agricultural residue removal rate scenarios used in this study follow the schema developed by Muth and Bryden  . They included ﬁve standard residue removal methods for each crop rotation–tillage combination. Each of these residue removal meth- ods utilizes existing equipment and methods to remove residues from the ﬁeld. Table 4 lists and describes each of these ﬁve removal methods. These ﬁve residue removal equipment conﬁgurations represent the current state of technology for commercially avail- able residue removal equipment. There are two advantages to selecting existing harvest methods: (1) the models are provided with an accurate representation of residue quantity and orienta- tion after harvest and (2) the results of the assessment represent the current state of technology by implementing commercially available removal operations. The decision to use existing equip- ment conﬁgurations is an important distinction between the assumptions used in this assessment and those used in past regio- nal and national scale analyses. In the past only the quantity of material left on the soil was considered when investigating sus- tainable residue removal limits. The environmental process models need an accurate representation of the orientation of the material left on the ﬁeld. In many scenarios the orientation of the remaining material is as or more important than the quantity. For example, water erosion is best controlled with residue covering as much of the soil surface as possible, while wind erosion is best controlled by leaving taller standing stubble in the ﬁeld to reduce the kinetic energy of the wind prior to interaction with the soil surface. 2.7. Yield scenarios
The other prominent approach compiling distributional results in line with national accounts goes back to the OECD, Eurostat and national statistical institutes from various EU countries, which formed the Expert Group on Disparities in National Accounts (EG-DNA) in 2011. The EG-DNA has so far issued several reports on the progress of developing a standard methodology for building distributional measures for household income, consumption and saving that are consistent with national accounts (Fesseau & Mattonetti, 2013; Fesseau, Wolﬀ, & Mattonetti, 2013; Zwijnenburg, Bournot, & Giovannelli, 2017). The approach primarily works with survey data and aims to arrive at breakdowns of the household sector at a quite aggregated level (usually quintiles). It diﬀers from the DINA approach in that it focuses on households instead of individual adults as their unit of analysis and uses diﬀerent income concepts, which do not include parts of national income outside the household sector, such as retained earnings or collective consumption (see section 2). A variety of countries, such as Australia, have already published distributional results following the guidelines of the EG-DNA (Seneviratne, 2016). As of today, the expert group is planning to release its final report with methodical guidelines any time soon.
Some explanation of CEGEPs (Collèges d’Enseignement Général et Professionnel) is needed, as they are unique to the province of Québec. CEGEPS provide a step between secondary high school and university. The vast majority of Quebec students start CEGEP at age 17. Depending on their educational objectives, some will then continue on to university, while others will enter the workforce with strong practical skills and knowledge following 3 years of technical studies. Students in CEGEPs can cover what in other parts of Canada would be the first year of university-type education. In the rest of Canada, students leaving high school and entering post-secondary education go either to a four-year university or a two- to three-year college or straight into the workforce. Although in the main cities there are larger CEGEPs, the majority of CEGEPs are small to medium sized (70% have fewer than 4000 students). Some CEGEPs have responsibility for very large but sparsely populated areas.
Muth and Bryden  developed an integrated modeling ap-
proach that addressed a number of the challenges from previous
studies. A model and data integration framework  was used
to build an integrated model that enables the investigation of the full range of soil characteristics, climate conditions, crop rotations, and land management practices. This approach enabled large num- bers of scenarios to be investigated computationally, thus enabling analyses across a full range of spatial scales from ﬁeld scale to a na- tional assessment. Integrating NRCS models and data to calculate soil erosion from wind and water, and the impact of residue re- moval decisions on soil organic carbon, this study evaluated poten- tial residue removal scenarios across the state of Iowa. The study was performed with SSURGO soil map units as the base spatial units and included representative crop rotations, tillage manage- ment practices, and crop yields at the county level for the state of Iowa. Five commercially available residue removal conﬁgura- tions were modeled to provide a range of potential removal rates. Over ﬁve million scenarios were calculated in the study to repre- sent residue removal in the state of Iowa. The conclusion was that for yield and management practices at that time, the state could sustainably provide nearly 26.5 million metric tons of residues annually.
for different reasons: the European Parliament, which is co -legislator on the spending side of the budget but only consulted on the revenue side, considers the present state of democratic accountability insufficient; some national parliaments, despite the fact that they ultimately hold the key on revenue since the ORD must be ratified by all Member States (on top of requiring unanimity in Council), encounter increasing difficulties during the annual budget procedures with the automatic providing of revenue for the EU budget (which generally appears as an expenditure in national budgets and therefore an item to be reduced). Budgetary discipline is currently ensured by several fundamental features of the EU financing system: the OR ceiling (which is the absolute limit), the fact that the EU budget must be in balance (no debt), and the existence of a multiannual financial framework which defines maximum expenditure in the mid-term. As with democratic accountability, budgetary discipline stems from the EU's overall institutional architecture and the provisions of the Treaty. Legitimacy of genuine own resources is also criticised by those who underline the fact that the EU has no power to levy taxation. However, this argument is a misleading shortcut: while the EU has indeed no direct taxation competences, the Member States have decided to endow its budget with own resources. In other words, they have agreed to provide the EU budget with a part of the product of taxation. This has allowed the EU budget to operate for decades and to provide EU public goods to EU citizens and countries. It is as such part of the ‘acquis communautaire’ and binds Member States together.
It can be concluded that proper management in terms of reasonable charges and availability of tickets with ease play important role in satisfying tourists. Most of the tourists visit the spot with the intension to reduce their tension and to get change from their routine work. If they don’t get it, they may return dissatisfied. So management should do their best to increase satisfaction level by providing them better hospitality, best security, easy availability of accommodation and proper hygienic condition. This study shows that tourist rate the spot good or bad in terms of service charges and ticket availability procedure. Though, satisfaction is self generated feeling but reasonable service charges and easy availability of ticket is the medium through which it can be achieved.